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Introduction to Earth Science

This HD dramatic video choreographed to powerful music introduces the viewer/student to the wonder of Earth Science. It is designed as a motivational trailer to be shown in classrooms by Earth Science and Physical Science teachers in middle, high school and college as a visual Introduction to the beauty and complexity of the planet Earth.

Music is Imperatrix Mundi by Jo Blankenburg

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Why Earth Has Two Levels

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Earth’s outer shell is made of two materials whose different densities and thicknesses give rise to two distinct “levels” on the planet’s surface.

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To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Hypsometric Curve: Basically, a chart that shows the proportions of surface area at every elevation on a planet.
Crust: Earth's outermost layer, made out of two distinct materials – oceanic crust (which is denser) and continental crust (which is less dense).
Lithosphere: The rigid outer layer of Earth, including the crust and the hard, un-bending part of the upper mantle.
Subduction: The process of an ocean plate crashing into another plate and getting forced to dive down into Earth's mantle.
Isostasy: Describes the way earth's crust sort of floats in the underlying mantle. Continental crust is less dense and thicker, and floats higher than the oceanic crust, which is denser and thinner. Geologists talk about things like isostatic rebound, which is what happens after an ice age, when the ice melts off a continent and the continent lifts up, like a floating raft in a pool after someone gets off (though continents rise more slowly).
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Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert)
Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar)
Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert)
Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder:


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References:

Albarede, F. (2009) Volatile accretion history of the terrestrial planets and dynamic implications. Nature, Vol 461.

Calogero, Meredith. Personal Communication, 2018.

Eakins, B.W. and G.F. Sharman. Hypsographic Curve of Earth's Surface from ETOPO1, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO, 2012
from:

Hawkesworth, C. J. & Kemp, A. I. S. (2006) Evolution of the continental crust. Nature, Vol 443.

Rosenblatt, P.C , & Thouvenot, P.E. (1994). Comparative hypsometric analysis of Earth and Venus. Geophysics Research Letters, Vol 21, pp 465-468.

Stern, R.J., Gerya, T, & Tackley, P.J. (2018) Stagnant lid tectonics: Perspectives from silicate planets, dwarf planets, large moons, and large asteroids. Geoscience Frontiers, 9.
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Naked Science - Birth of the Earth

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Every other Wednesday we present a new video, so join us to see the truth laid bare...

How did the Earth evolve to support life.

Our planet now supports a huge diversity of living creatures requiring very special conditions, but what was the series of events that brought this unique set of conditions together? What did it take to make a world that would support human life? Naked Science takes an imaginary ‘human’ time traveller on a journey back to the moment of formation of our solar system. We meet the scientists who are carrying out their own detective work, uncovering the clues around the world today into what our planet was like 4 and a half billion years ago.

Our journey begins with the astonishing story of how a giant cloud of interstellar dust and gas collapsed to form the sun and planets. We discover that the intense heat of the early Earth created a molten iron core. This generated a magnetic shield around our planet that protects us, to this day, from the sun’s deadliest particles.

Many of the features we take for granted on our living planet were forged in the most violent event in our planet’s history. Early in its life, the Earth collided with another planet. Planetary Scientist Robin Canup has modelled the impact using supercomputers. She reveals that the resulting fireball was so energetic it melted the Earth and created the moon. This dramatic impact gave us our tides and seasons.

We wouldn’t have life today without water. But where our water came from is a mystery that has long puzzled scientists. At a NASA research laboratory, Michael Zolensky studies a recently discovered meteorite that supports the view that water came from space.

For the first half of its history the Earth had an atmosphere of methane and carbon dioxide we would find impossible to breathe. One clue as to how the earth acquired its oxygen can be found in Australia. Shark Bay in Western Australia is home to strange bacterial mounds called stromatolites. The bacteria in these objects are pumping out oxygen. A few hundred miles away geologist Martin Van Kranendonk shows us a fossil stromatolite, the world’s oldest fossil. The evidence suggests that these strange objects are responsible for creating the air we breathe.

The History of Earth - How Our Planet Formed - Full Documentary HD

In the very beginning of earth's history, this planet was a giant, red hot, roiling, boiling sea of molten rock - a magma ocean. The heat had been generated by the repeated high speed collisions of much smaller bodies of space rocks that continually clumped together as they collided to form this planet. As the collisions tapered off the earth began to cool, forming a thin crust on its surface. As the cooling continued, water vapor began to escape and condense in the earth's early atmosphere. Clouds formed and storms raged, raining more and more water down on the primitive earth, cooling the surface further until it was flooded with water, forming the seas.

It is theorized that the true age of the earth is about 4.6 billion years old, formed at about the same time as the rest of our solar system. The oldest rocks geologists have been able to find are 3.9 billion years old. Using radiometric dating methods to determine the age of rocks means scientists have to rely on when the rock was initially formed (as in - when its internal minerals first cooled). In the infancy of our home planet the entire earth was molten rock - a magma ocean.

Since we can only measure as far back in time as we had solid rock on this planet, we are limited in how we can measure the real age of the earth. Due to the forces of plate tectonics, our planet is also a very dynamic one; new mountains forming, old ones wearing down, volcanoes melting and reshaping new crust. The continual changing and reshaping of the earth's surface that involves the melting down and reconstructing of old rock has pretty much eliminated most of the original rocks that came with earth when it was newly formed. So the age is a theoretical age.

When Did Life on Earth Begin?

Scientists are still trying to unravel one of the greatest mysteries of earth: When did life first appear and how did it happen? It is estimated that the first life forms on earth were primitive, one-celled creatures that appeared about 3 billion years ago. That's pretty much all there was for about the next two billion years. Then suddenly those single celled organisms began to evolve into multicellular organisms. Then an unprecedented profusion of life in incredibly complex forms began to fill the oceans. Some crawled from the seas and took residence on land, perhaps to escape predators in the ocean. A cascading chain of new and increasingly differentiated forms of life appeared all over the planet, only to be virtually annihilated by an unexplained mass extinction. It would be the first of several mass extinctions in Earth's history.

Scientists have been looking increasingly to space to explain these mass extinctions that have been happening almost like clockwork since the beginning of living time. Perhaps we've been getting periodically belted by more space rocks (ie. asteroids), or the collision of neutron stars happening too close for comfort? Each time a mass extinction occurred, life found a way to come back from the brink. Life has tenaciously clung to this small blue planet for the last three billion years. Scientists are finding new cues as to how life first began on earth in some really interesting places - the deep ocean.
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10 Things You Never Knew About The Earth

The third rock from the sun, our home, planet Earth is full of mysteries.

From the secret ocean flowing beneath the Earth's crust, to the science of how life on Earth began, AllTime10s brings you, the 10 things you didn't know about Earth.

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Music = Earth Signals by Igor Dvorkin / Tim Garland

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10 Places Science Can't Explain

Some of our planet's most mysterious places seem to defy the laws of science. Here are some of such.




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The devil's kettle waterfall is believed by some to be a gateway to another universe or even to hell itself. The two streamed waterfall has baffled geologists for decades as no one can work out where the water flowing into the kettle leads. It's as if it simply disappears. But that's not the only mysterious water structure. In the amazon river is now known to be a boiling river hot enough to kill any creature to fall into it. It was thought nothing more than a myth until it's recent discovery and no one knows why the water is hot enough to boil.

In India stands a small village known for having a high twin rate. It's obvious why the settlement is now known as twin town but less obvious why so many twins are born here. Suggested answers include the claim that government experiments secretly changed the genetics of locals decades ago.

Perhaps the most mysterious location is the zone of silence in Mexico, a place known for magnetic phenomena and as a dead zone for radio. You will receive no radio signal while in the zone and don't expect your compass to be reliable. Also watch out for mutated animals or strange alien like figures - those are never a good sign.
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Meet Zealandia: The Earth's '8th Continent' (and Real-Life Atlantis)

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The story of Atlantis, a mythological continent that vanished into the sea after its inhabitants displeased the gods, has fascinated people for thousands of years. However, the idea of a whole continent sinking into the ocean may be more rooted in reality than you think.

Thumbnail image credit: Reto Stöckli

Hosted by: Michael Aranda

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Earth Sciences

2018-ல் பூமிக்கு வரும் பேரழிவு 1500 விஞ்சானிகள் எச்சரிக்கை | Earth Science | Tamil Mithran

2018-ல் பூமிக்கு வரும் பேரழிவு 1500 விஞ்சானிகள் எச்சரிக்கை | Earth Science | Tamil Mithran
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only object in the Universe known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over 4 billion years ago.[24][25][26] Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth revolves around the Sun in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth year. During this time, Earth rotates about its axis about 366.26 times.[n 5]

Earth's axis of rotation is tilted, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface.[27] The gravitational interaction between the Earth and Moon causes ocean tides, stabilizes the Earth's orientation on its axis, and gradually slows its rotation.[28] Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest of the four terrestrial planets.

Earth's lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earth's surface is covered with water, mostly by oceans.[29] The remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes, rivers and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere. The majority of Earth's polar regions are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet and the sea ice of the Arctic ice pack. Earth's interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earth's magnetic field, and a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics.

Within the first billion years of Earth's history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earth's atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some geological evidence indicates that life may have arisen as much as 4.1 billion years ago. Since then, the combination of Earth's distance from the Sun, physical properties, and geological history have allowed life to evolve and thrive.[30][31] In the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion, occasionally punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all species[32] that ever lived on Earth are extinct.[33][34] Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely;[35][36][37] most species have not been described.[38] Over 7.4 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and natural resources for their survival. Humans have developed diverse societies and cultures; politically, the world has about 200 sovereign states.

Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for fair use for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.

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BSc Earth Science Stellenbosch University

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Everything You Need to Know About Planet Earth

Planet Earth is this solid thing you are standing on right now. In your everyday life you don't really waste a thought about how amazing this is. A giant, ancient, hot rock. How did it come into existence and how big is it really? You will be surprised. The ground you are standing on is just a very, very small part of the big picture.

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Everything You Need to Know About Planet Earth

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Secrets Of Earth : Hindi Documentary

Secrets Of Earth : Hindi Documentary

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only object in the Universe known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over 4 billion years ago.[24][25][26] Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth revolves around the Sun in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth year. During this time, Earth rotates about its axis about 366.26 times.[n 5]

Earth's axis of rotation is tilted, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface.[27] The gravitational interaction between the Earth and Moon causes ocean tides, stabilizes the Earth's orientation on its axis, and gradually slows its rotation.[28] Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest of the four terrestrial planets.

Earth's lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earth's surface is covered with water, mostly by oceans.[29] The remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes, rivers and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere. The majority of Earth's polar regions are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet and the sea ice of the Arctic ice pack. Earth's interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earth's magnetic field, and a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics.

Within the first billion years of Earth's history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earth's atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some geological evidence indicates that life may have arisen as much as 4.1 billion years ago. Since then, the combination of Earth's distance from the Sun, physical properties, and geological history have allowed life to evolve and thrive.[30][31] In the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion, occasionally punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all species[32] that ever lived on Earth are extinct.[33][34] Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely;[35][36][37] most species have not been described.[38] Over 7.4 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and natural resources for their survival. Humans have developed diverse societies and cultures; politically, the world has about 200 sovereign states.


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Rocks and Minerals

An Overview of Rocks and Minerals. Visit my website at MikeSammartano.com to check out recent blog entries, videos, and more, including worksheets to go along with my science videos.

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HELL Found At Bottom Of Deepest Hole On Earth?!

The Kola Borehole is the deepest point on Earth that is also man-made. Recently scientists have discovered a few breakthroughs that lie within it.

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What Happens When a Meteorite Strikes Earth? -- Extreme Science #1

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EARTH BORN STORY | Tamil | Science and Tech Tamil

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Earth Science: Density (Prologue)

How Do We Know How Old the Earth Is?

Head to to find out more about National Chemistry Week!

This week Reactions wonders how do we know how old the earth is? What's its age? Chemistry and science is how we know.

Since there’s no “established in” plaque stuck in a cliff somewhere, geologists deduced the age of the Earth thanks to a handful of radioactive elements. With radiometric dating, scientists can put an age on really old rocks — and even good old Mother Earth. For the 30th anniversary of National Chemistry Week, this edition of Reactions describes how scientists date rocks.

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