Earth's Systems and How they Work

Earth's Systems and How they Work

Notes for Mr. Dove's APES Class. This is an introduction to the Earth's major systems and how they work.

Big Idea 3: Earth's Systems Interact

Observe the events that show how Earth works as a set of interconnected systems.

How the Earth works (as seen from space) - All parts

How the Earth works
Earth System 0. Earth from Space (Intro)
Earth System 1. Hurricanes
Earth System 2. Vapour in the Atmosphere
Earth System 3. Antarctica: the Polar Jet & the Antarctic Brine
Earth System 4. The Molten Rock
Earth System 5. Phytoplankton: the Sahara & the Amazon
Earth System 6. Wild Fires
Earth System 7. The power of the Sun
Earth System 8. The Human Race

Satellites enable us to provide consistent, long-term observations, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Monitoring the Earth from space helps us understand how the Earth works and affects much of our daily lives. Monitoring conditions in space and solar flares from the sun help us understand how conditions in space affect the Earth.


Video put together for the MSc in Environmental Technology at Imperial College London

Four Spheres Part 1 (Geo and Bio): Crash Course Kids #6.1

In this episode of Crash Course Kids, Sabrina talks about two of the four spheres that make up our planet; The Geosphere and the Biosphere. What's in these spheres? How do they affect us? How do they fit into the puzzle that is Earth? All is contained within!

This first series is based on 5th grade science. We're super excited and hope you enjoy Crash Course Kids!

///Standards Used in This Video///
5-ESS2-1. Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact. [Clarification Statement: Examples could include the influence of the ocean on ecosystems, landform shape, and climate; the influence of the atmosphere on landforms and ecosystems through weather and climate; and the influence of mountain ranges on winds and clouds in the atmosphere. The geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere are each a system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to the interactions of two systems at a time.]

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Credits...

Executive Producers: John & Hank Green
Producer & Editor: Nicholas Jenkins
Cinematographer & Director: Michael Aranda
Host: Sabrina Cruz
Script Supervisor: Mickie Halpern
Writer: Ben Kessler
Consultant: Shelby Alinsky
Script Editor: Blake de Pastino

Thought Cafe Team:
Stephanie Bailis
Cody Brown
Suzanna Brusikiewicz
Jonathan Corbiere
Nick Counter
Kelsey Heinrichs
Jack Kenedy
Corey MacDonald
Tyler Sammy
Nikkie Stinchcombe
James Tuer
Adam Winnik

Earth Systems Science

Follow along with the course eBook:
For full courses see:
A brief overview to the area of Earth Systems Science where we will be looking at the different spheres that make up Earth as a complex adaptive system.
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Transcription:
Earth systems science is the interdisciplinary study of earth as a complex system, composed of multiple physical and biological process that interact within cycles or spheres to give rise to the overall state of the earth as an entire systems.

Of cause people have been studying earth for a long time, geologies study the formation of rocks, metrologies are interested in the atmosphere and so on,
With all of these different domains supported by the deep understanding of our physical environment that physics has built up over the past few centuries.

But it is only more recently that satellites have started to allow us to see earth as an entirety and human activity has begun to have a significant enough effect to alter earth systems making it increasingly important for us to be able to model and manage them.

From space we can view the net results of earths complex interactions and with high-tech sensors on land and in the ocean, we are getting an clear idea of its overall make up, from this researchers in different domains are discovering how their pieces of the puzzle are related to each other.

Earth systems science then tries to develop models that gives an integrated picture of how all these parts fit together, the first of these models is of earth as a systems in space with inputs and outputs of energy or radiation from the sun, with this energy being the primary factor in driving the dynamics process within the system.


As opposed to focusing on the static properties of earths individual components
Earth systems science instead takes a more dynamic view of the world, studying the ways energy and materials cycle through the different subsystems or what are called -spheres

Earths different sphere are largely defined by the different phases of mater they are composed of thus the atmosphere is composed of gasses, the hydrosphere of liquid water and the lithosphere solid minerals added to this is the biosphere
The sum of all biological material and processes.

Within each sphere a process called a cycles take place, for example in the lithosphere we have the rock cycle driven by the thermal energy within earth's interior that releases minerals through ocean ridges and volcanoes that are weathered as they cycle through earths crust and are eventual subducted returning to their origin



The hydro cycle driven by the thermal energy of the sun, cycles water between the earths surface and atmosphere through the process of evaporation, condensation and precipitation, this process helps to distribute moisture to support ecosystems at a variety of locations

The atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet that is held in place by gravity, it is the primary vehicle of temperature and climate regulation through the Cycle of carbon in and out of the atmosphere where it functions, through the green house effect to trap the suns heart.

The biosphere is the relatively thin layer of Earth's surface that supports all biological activity on earth. The biosphere is a system also characterized by the continuous cycling of matter and energy in the form of the flow of solar energy and nutrient mineral cycles.

Solar energy flows through the biosphere along a unidirectional path, as the suns energy is inputted through plant photosynthesis and process up through what are called trophic levels form primary producers to herbivores and on to predators and apex predators.

Along side the flow of energy through food webs it the cycling of mineral nutrients the core substances required for the construction of biological materials and processes, carbon, water, oxygen, nitrogen have been continuously cycled through the biosphere from one generation to the next for billions of years

These different spheres interact to create a unique state or ecosystem, an ecosystems is the combination of a community of biological organism and a particular physical environment with which they interact...

Real World: Earth Systems

On our NASA site at:
Earth is a dynamic system. In this video, middle school students will learn how the diverse subsystems of the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere interact in complex ways. Students will learn how the global Earth system is changing, and how mathematical modeling is used by scientists to improve prediction of climate, weather and natural hazards.

Earth Systems in 2 Minutes

The earth is a system of complex interactions.

Want to see more videos like this one? Generally we release a new video every friday, but be sure to keep your eye out for some extras. Go ahead and subscribe if you would like to be informed of new videos.

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Four Spheres Part 2 (Hydro and Atmo): Crash Course Kids #6.2

The second part of our two part tale of the puzzle that is Earth. In this episode, Sabrina talks about the Hydrosphere and the Atmosphere and what is contained in each one. Let's dive in!!!

This first series is based on 5th grade science. We're super excited and hope you enjoy Crash Course Kids!

///Standards Used in This Video///
5-ESS2-1. Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact. [Clarification Statement: Examples could include the influence of the ocean on ecosystems, landform shape, and climate; the influence of the atmosphere on landforms and ecosystems through weather and climate; and the influence of mountain ranges on winds and clouds in the atmosphere. The geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere are each a system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to the interactions of two systems at a time.]

Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet?
Crash Course Main Channel:
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Credits...

Executive Producers: John & Hank Green
Producer & Editor: Nicholas Jenkins
Cinematographer & Director: Michael Aranda
Host: Sabrina Cruz
Script Supervisor: Mickie Halpern
Writer: Ben Kessler
Consultant: Shelby Alinsky
Script Editor: Blake de Pastino

Thought Cafe Team:
Stephanie Bailis
Cody Brown
Suzanna Brusikiewicz
Jonathan Corbiere
Nick Counter
Kelsey Heinrichs
Jack Kenedy
Corey MacDonald
Tyler Sammy
Nikkie Stinchcombe
James Tuer
Adam Winnik

Learn About Planet Earth - Earth's Atmosphere

Without the atmosphere, we will not be able to live on earth. The gases in the atmosphere protect us by blocking out dangerous rays from sun and making earth a perfect habitat for plants and animals. Let's find out what are those gases which supports life on earth.

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What is EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE? What does EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE mean? EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE meaning

What is EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE? What does EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE mean? EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE meaning - EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE definition - EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE explanation.

Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under license.

Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences. In particular, it considers interactions between the Earth's spheres—atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, pedosphere, biosphere, and, even, the magnetosphere—as well as the impact of human societies on these components. At its broadest scale, Earth system science brings together researchers across both the natural and social sciences, from fields including ecology, economics, geology, glaciology, meteorology, oceanography, paleontology, sociology, and space science. Like the broader subject of systems science, Earth system science assumes a holistic view of the dynamic interaction between the Earth's spheres and their many constituent subsystems, the resulting organization and time evolution of these systems, and their stability or instability. Subsets of Earth system science include systems geology and systems ecology, and many aspects of Earth system science are fundamental to the subjects of physical geography and climate science.

The Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, offers the following description: Earth system science embraces chemistry, physics, biology, mathematics and applied sciences in transcending disciplinary boundaries to treat the Earth as an integrated system. It seeks a deeper understanding of the physical, chemical, biological and human interactions that determine the past, current and future states of the Earth. Earth system science provides a physical basis for understanding the world in which we live and upon which humankind seeks to achieve sustainability.

For millennia, humans have speculated how the physical and living elements on the surface of the Earth combine, with gods and goddesses frequently posited to embody specific elements. The notion that the Earth, itself, is alive was a regular theme of Greek philosophy and religion. Early scientific interpretations of the Earth system began in the field of geology, initially in the Middle East and China, and largely focused on aspects such as the age of the Earth and the large-scale processes involved in mountain and ocean formation. As geology developed as a science, understanding of the interplay of different facets of the Earth system increased, leading to the inclusion of factors such as the Earth's interior, planetary geology and living systems.

In many respects, the foundational concepts of Earth system science can be seen in the holistic interpretations of nature promoted by the 19th century geographer Alexander von Humboldt. In the 20th century, Vladimir Vernadsky (1863-1945) saw the functioning of the biosphere as a geological force generating a dynamic disequilibrium, which in turn promoted the diversity of life. In the mid-1960s, James Lovelock first postulated a regulatory role for the biosphere in feedback mechanisms within the Earth system. Initially named the Earth Feedback hypothesis, Lovelock later renamed it the Gaia hypothesis, and subsequently further developed the theory with American evolutionary theorist Lynn Margulis during the 1970s. In parallel, the field of systems science was developing across numerous other scientific fields, driven in part by the increasing availability and power of computers, and leading to the development of climate models that began to allow the detailed and interacting simulations of the Earth's weather and climate. Subsequent extension of these models has led to the development of Earth system models (ESMs) that include facets such as the cryosphere and the biosphere.

As an integrative field, Earth system science assumes the histories of a vast range of scientific disciplines, but as a discrete study it evolved in the 1980s, particularly at NASA, where a committee called the Earth System Science Committee was formed in 1983. The earliest reports of NASA's ESSC, Earth System Science: Overview (1986), and the book-length Earth System Science: A Closer View (1988), constitute a major landmark in the formal development of Earth system science. Early works discussing Earth system science, like these NASA reports, generally emphasized the increasing human impacts on the Earth system as a primary driver for the need of greater integration among the life and geo-sciences, making the origins of Earth system science parallel to the beginnings of global change studies and programs.

The Earth System

This video describes the four main components of the Earth system (atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere), how matter is exchanged between the components, and how a change in some aspect of one part of the system will result in changes in other system components. We describe the Earth system in terms of reservoirs and flux between them and discuss how the movement of carbon occurs between system components.

The Earth's System

--Vote now!! Bringing fun stop motion animation to education! Created by Sophia Cho. Submission for the Project Ed scholarship contest. All original work. The Spheres Song composed by Sophia Cho. Created with the Stop Motion Studio App for iPhone. Took about 1800+ frames. Thank you for your consideration!

Earth's Rotation & Revolution: Crash Course Kids 8.1

So, have you ever wondered why we have seasons? Or maybe where the sun goes when it's night time? *Hint: It doesn't actually go anywhere* In this episode of Crash Course Kids, Sabrina talks about the Earth's rotation and revolution and how these things contribute to night and day and how Earth's tilt gives us seasons.

This first series is based on 5th grade science. We're super excited and hope you enjoy Crash Course Kids!

///Standards Used in This Video///
5-ESS1-2. Represent data in graphical displays to reveal patterns of daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky. [Clarification Statement: Examples of patterns could include the position and motion of Earth with respect to the sun and selected stars that are visible only in particular months.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include causes of seasons.]

Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet?
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Credits...

Executive Producers: John & Hank Green
Producer & Editor: Nicholas Jenkins
Cinematographer & Director: Michael Aranda
Host: Sabrina Cruz
Script Supervisor: Mickie Halpern
Writer: Kay Boatner
Consultant: Shelby Alinsky
Script Editor: Blake de Pastino

Thought Cafe Team:
Stephanie Bailis
Cody Brown
Suzanna Brusikiewicz
Jonathan Corbiere
Nick Counter
Kelsey Heinrichs
Jack Kenedy
Corey MacDonald
Tyler Sammy
Nikkie Stinchcombe
James Tuer
Adam Winnik

ESS3C - Human Impacts on Earth Systems

In this video Paul Andersen explains how humans are impacting the Earth through farming, mining, pollution and climate change. According to the NGSS wise management can reduce impacts on the planet. This will become more important as developing countries start consuming more resources. A K-12 teaching progression is also included.

Intro Music Atribution
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The Formation of the Solar System in 4K (Ultra HD)

In beautiful 4K resolution, the story of how our Earth was formed four and a half billion years ago told from the perspective of an asteroid called Bennu (which has survived until now). NASA has sent a satellite to study Bennu and help us learn more about the beginning of our solar system.

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This video is courtesy of NASA:

Earth intro:

How Earth Moves

It’s here! Science stuff, mind-blowing stuff, Vsauce stuff, oh my!! THE CURIOSITY BOX:

Jake’s video about The Curiosity Box:

Minute Physics on why December days are the longest:

StandUpMaths on calendars and leap days:

Tom Scott on the Equation of Time:

My video on what would happen if the Earth stopped spinning:

GREAT visuals showing how Earth moves around the sun:



George Washington’s birthday:

real-time sub solar point location:

Lahaina noon images from the Oahu Astrophotography club:

analemma:

great solargraph and analemma images:

interactive seasons and ecliptic simulator:

Nasa video of seasonal movement of Earth:

Tropical year:

Earth rotation specifics:

How Earth moves through the universe:






minute physics on cab:

PBS spacetime on the cosmic microwave background:





CMB rest frame:




Wikipedia:










wikicommons images:





To explore space, I highly recommend these:




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Awesome 3D graphics by Eric Langlay:
Lame 2D stuff by me.

Earth's Four Spheres

Learn about Earth's four spheres, geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere, in this video lesson.

Everything You Need to Know About Planet Earth

Planet Earth is this solid thing you are standing on right now. In your everyday life you don't really waste a thought about how amazing this is. A giant, ancient, hot rock. How did it come into existence and how big is it really? You will be surprised. The ground you are standing on is just a very, very small part of the big picture.

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Everything You Need to Know About Planet Earth

Help us caption & translate this video!

Earth System 4. The Molten Rock

How the Earth works
Earth System 0. Earth from Space (Intro)
Earth System 1. Hurricanes
Earth System 2. Vapour in the Atmosphere
Earth System 3. Antarctica: the Polar Jet & the Antarctic Brine
Earth System 4. The Molten Rock
Earth System 5. Phytoplankton: the Sahara & the Amazon
Earth System 6. Wild Fires
Earth System 7. The power of the Sun
Earth System 8. The Human Race

Satellites enable us to provide consistent, long-term observations, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Monitoring the Earth from space helps us understand how the Earth works and affects much of our daily lives. Monitoring conditions in space and solar flares from the sun help us understand how conditions in space affect the Earth.


Video put together for the MSc in Environmental Technology at Imperial College London

A guide to the energy of the Earth - Joshua M. Sneideman

View full lesson:

Energy is neither created nor destroyed — and yet the global demand for it continues to increase. But where does energy come from, and where does it go? Joshua M. Sneideman examines the many ways in which energy cycles through our planet, from the sun to our food chain to electricity and beyond.

Lesson by Joshua M. Sneideman, animation by Marc Christoforidis.

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