समुद्र कितना गहरा है | How deep is Ocean in hindi
Discovery :Most scientists agree that the atmosphere and the oceans accumulated gradually over millions and millions of years with the continual 'degassing' of the Earth's interior.
According to this theory, the ocean formed from the escape of water vapor and other gases from the molten rocks of the Earth to the atmosphere surrounding the cooling planet.
After the Earth's surface had cooled to a temperature below the boiling point of water, rain began to fall—and continued to fall for centuries. As the water drained into the great hollows in the Earth's surface, the primeval ocean came into existence. The forces of gravity prevented the water from leaving the planet.
The history of Earth concerns the development of the planet Earth from its formation to the present day. Nearly all branches of natural science have contributed to the understanding of the main events of the Earth's past. The age of Earth is approximately one-third of the age of the universe. An immense amount of geological change has occurred in that timespan, accompanied by the emergence of life and its subsequent evolution.
Earth formed around 4.54 billion years ago by accretion from the solar nebula. Volcanic outgassing probably created the primordial atmosphere and then the ocean; but the atmosphere contained almost no oxygen and so would have been toxic to most modern life including humans. Much of the Earth was molten because of frequent collisions with other bodies which led to extreme volcanism. It was quite hot the time of formation. As the planet started to cool, clouds formed. Rain formed the oceans. The thunderstorms and torrential rain may have started as early as 4.4 Ga.
And the rain lasted for many years.
The Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the deepest known point in Earth's oceans. In 2010 the United States Center for Coastal & Ocean Mapping measured the depth of the Challenger Deep at 10,994 meters (36,070 feet) below sea level with an estimated vertical accuracy of ± 40 meters. If Mount Everest, the highest mountain on Earth, were placed at this location it would be covered by over one mile of water.
The first depth measurements in the Mariana Trench were made by the British survey ship HMS Challenger, which was used by the Royal Navy in 1875 to conduct research in the trench. The greatest depth that they recorded at that time was 8,184 meters (26,850 feet).
Marine pollution occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms. Most sources of marine pollution are land based. The pollution often comes from nonpoint sources such as agricultural runoff, wind-blown debris and dust. Nutrient pollution, a form of water pollution, refers to contamination by excessive inputs of nutrients. It is a primary cause of eutrophication of surface waters, in which excess nutrients, usually nitrogen or phosphorus, stimulate algae growth.
Many potentially toxic chemicals adhere to tiny particles which are then taken up by plankton and benthos animals, most of which are either deposit or filter feeders. In this way, the toxins are concentrated upward within ocean food chains.
When pesticides are incorporated into the marine ecosystem, they quickly become absorbed into marine food webs. Once in the food webs, these pesticides can cause mutations, as well as diseases, which can be harmful to humans as well as the entire food web.
Toxic metals can also be introduced into marine food webs. These can cause a change to tissue matter, biochemistry, behaviour, reproduction, and suppress growth in marine life. Also, many animal feeds have a high fish meal or fish hydrolysate content. In this way, marine toxins can be transferred to land animals, and appear later in meat and dairy products.
In this video we capture :
-Formation of Earth
-First Rain on Earth
-Formation of Ocean
-Mariana trench depth
Source of info :
Music Credit :
Long Road Ahead by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (
Drums of the Deep by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (
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What is Dark Matter and Dark Energy?
What is dark energy? What is dark matter? Well, if we knew exactly we would have a nobel prize – we know that they exist though. So what do we know about those strange things?
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The illusion of time : past, present and future all exist together
This video is from the documentary The Fabric of The Cosmos - for nonprofit educational purposes.
Please don't be misled by some comments below. This video does not say we can see future. It says Einstein's mathematical theory -which we later tested by clock experiment- also tells us that future and past always exist like the present! However, this does not necessitate pre-destination. Now is not deterministic as we know from Quantum Mechanics, so neither future nor past! Click to understand Quantum Mechanics. Wave functions evolve as time goes by. However, time does not collapse wave functions; observation collapses wave functions. Your wave function (which represents you) corresponding to your future has not collapsed yet. It will collapse in the future. As things in your life are probabilistic right now, they are probabilistic in the future too. Your past wave function has collapsed though. But your future one exists as a probability cloud in a sense. Here is a discussion I had with Avicenna10 about the topic (copy paste address below):
Accuracy of atomic clocks:
A comment from my exchange with axypolyas on why illusion of time does not require predestination:
+axypolyas Not sure why you are bothered by all these; perhaps it is because of your choices in life. Let me tell you something which will bother you more. You might know already, however, anyone who is reading this exchange will highly likely not.
The scientific description of you, me and everything is energy. We don't know what energy is. We can quantify it, however, in essence what is it? we have no idea. And energy takes different forms, like elementary particles, which in turn become atoms, molecules and part of the end result is us. We know energy is governed by laws and constants which naturally takes us to the inevitable conclusion: we are governed by those constants and laws. Before discovery of quantum physics, this would mean we are completely deterministic objects. Quantum physics showed us that we are not 100% deterministic. We are limited by laws but still we are unpredictable (we can calculate probabilities of what we might do next, but we don't know what we will do next until we do it). What do all these mean for us? Who are we? or what are we? Why do atoms and molecules pile up and make us? to live longer? All the atoms in our bodies are almost 15 billions of years old. What we call life is just another state in which they continue existing; nothing more; nothing special about it. How can we make sense of all these? Can we make sense of all these? If we are only, and only, condensed energy, there is no such a thing as making sense of things. There is only energy going through one state to another state mindlessly. Pretty scary and dark explanation of our existence, is the pure scientific one.
Science is only a tool; only a methodology we use to make sense of the universe. It does not tell us why things are the way they are. It tells us how we can construct theories and how we can use methods to test them, so that, we can do all these in an objective way. Science is an extremely limited way of looking into existence. Are my feelings objective? No. Are they scientific? No. Or, should I greet my neighbour every morning? Should I have an extra spoon of ice cream today? Or why do we do science? Do we have to do science? Say for our survival? Our survival has no meaning given particles making up our physical bodies existed for billions of years and they will continue to exist, perhaps longer.
I will jump to my personal understanding, rather than destroying ourselves using science. To me, existence of The Creator makes more sense than anything else, including my own existence. The Creator, who logically must (and interestingly described as such in Islam which I have chosen as a path to follow) be All-Knowing, All-Powerful, capable of creating a free agent (my soul for example) with life, creating a universe in which those free agents can grow up, examine, study, learn, make sense of it... freely... is the only logical answer I can think of. We don't see the Creator, or souls, or anything which would force us to believe and accept. Creator made us free and as part of making that choice freely, we will always be bothered by our existence, but we will never find an answer. That will remain as a matter of choice and it has always been like that.
The knowledge of truth as such is wonderful, but it is so little capable of acting as a guide that it cannot prove even the justification and the value of the aspiration toward that very knowledge of truth. Here we face, therefore, the limits of the purely rational conception of our existence. -- Albert Einstein