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The Integumentary System, Part 1 - Skin Deep: Crash Course A&P #6

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The Integumentary System, Part 1 - Skin Deep: Crash Course A&P #6

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Anatomy & Physiology continues with a look at your biggest organ - your skin.

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Table of Contents:

All About Skin 0:22
Epidermis, Dermis, & Hypodermis 1:30
Melanin And Keratin Cells 2:15
Ensure You Get A Good Tattoo 8:01

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The Integumentary System, Part 2 - Skin Deeper: Crash Course A&P #7

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Today Hank wraps up this look at your integumentary system and all the hard work it does protecting you from and helping you interact with the world around you.

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Table of Contents:

Protects Your Body 1:25
Senses the Outside World 1:42
Helps Excrete Waste 2:17
Stores Blood 2:43
Regulates Temperature 2:59
Makes Vitamin D 5:18
Indicates Signs of Poor Health 3:55
How Your Hair & Nails Grow 5:57
The Difference Between Eccrine and Apocrine Sweat Glands 7:07
Sebaceous (Oil) Glands 8:17

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Integumentary System

In this video Paul Andersen details the important structures and functions of the integumentary system. The integumentary system includes the skin, hair and nails in humans.

Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos:


Music Attribution
Title: String Theory
Artist: Herman Jolly


All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:
Accountalive. English: Nail Anatomy (e.g. Fingernail). Labels in German., October 14, 2011. Own work.
Basquetteur. English: Dumb Version without Legend for Reuse in Other Languages If Desired, January 30, 2009. Own work by uploader derived from fingernail label.jpg in English wikipedia.
Benutzer:Goodbye. Deutsch: Gruebchenbildung, April 4, 2006. Self-photographed.
Bezrukov, Victor. Reflected Sadness, May 3, 2008. reflected sadness.
BruceBlaus. English: Dermal Circulation. See a Related Animation of This Medical Topic., January 29, 2014. Own work.
———. English: Epidermis. See a Full Animation of This Medical Topic., January 29, 2014. Own work.
———. English: Lamellated Corpuscle. See a Full Animation of This Medical Topic., January 29, 2014. Own work.
College, OpenStax. English: Illustration from Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web Site. Jun 19, 2013., April 2, 2013. Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web site. Jun 19, 2013.
en.wikipedia, Original uploader was D. Wu at. English: This Is Step VII Cut out from :Image:Gray2.png. The Original Copyright Is Duplicated Below., July 20, 2005. Transferred from en.wikipedia.
File:Blackhair10.jpg. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 28, 2014.
File:Blausen 0438 HairFollicleAnatomy 02.png. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 2, 2014.
File:Human Nail Anatomy.jpg. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 2, 2014.
information, This file is lacking author. Fingernails2, December 8, 2007. Own work.
r.granit. Animal and Plant Cell Cytokiness Diagram, April 3, 2007. Own work.
User:Gruzd. Lizard Skin of Lacerta Agilis, June 22, 2007. Own work (own picture).
Vignoni, David. From GNOME Version of Nuvola. Not Included in the KDE PNG Version., December 6, 2005.

Anatomy & Physiology Integumentary Skin System Overview

Free Quiz on Skin Anatomy:

This video discusses the integumentary system of the body, also know as the skin system for your Anatomy & Physiology class. I discuss quiz/exam questions and important information to remember for your test. In addition, I go over the 2 layers of the skin (epidermis & dermis), appendages (hair, hair follicles, nails, gland), and the nerve ending (meissner's corpuscle and pacinian corpuscle). Helps prepare you for the HESI Anatomy and physiology section on the HESI A2 exam.
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The Skin Anatomy, Physiology and Microbiology



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The Nervous System, Part 1: Crash Course A&P #8

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Today Hank kicks off our look around MISSION CONTROL: your nervous system.

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Table of Contents:

Sensory Input, Integration and Motor Output 1:36
Organization of Central and Peripheral Systems 2:16
Glial Cells 3:54
Role, Anatomy and Function of Neuron Types 5:23
Structure and Function of Neurons 6:20

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ANATOMY; THE INTEGUMENT; Part 1 by Professor Fink

This is Part 1 of Professor Fink's Video Lecture on the Integument (Skin). Professor Fink describes the major functions of the Skin, the Histology of the Skin, the Hair Follicle, and the Glands of the Skin. Reference is made to Epidermis, Dermis, cutaneous, calciferol (calcitriol), keratinocytes, melanocytes, stratum germinativum, stratum corneum, fibroblasts, stratified squamous epithelium, irregularly arranged dense fibrous connective tissue, papillary folds, friction ridges, arrector pili, , colostrum, milk, and the followings glands: sebaceous, sudoriferous (sweat), scent, ceruminous (wax) & mammary glands.

Check-out professor fink's web-site for additional resources in Biology, Anatomy, Physiology & Pharmacology:

Down-loadable e-Books of the Lecture Outlines by Professor Fink can be purchased from the WLAC Bookstore at:

“Hard Copy” Lecture Outlines can be purchased from the WLAC Bookstore at:

Structure Of The Skin - Layers Of Skin - Types Of Skin - Types Of Skin Cells - Integumentary System

In this video we discuss the structure of the skin, we look at the 2 different layers of skin, the epidermis and the dermis, the structure of each of these layers, and the 2 different types of skin, thick skin and thin skin.


Transcript/notes

Structure of skin

Human skin, which is also called the integument or the cutaneous membrane, is made up of 2 layers, the epidermis and the dermis, which are labeled on this model of skin. The subcutaneous layer at the bottom has also been labeled, however, it is not actually a part of the structure of skin, but it is connected to the dermis of the skin.

Let’s start by looking at the epidermis. The epidermis consists of 4 to 5 layers depending on the type of skin. Thick skin has 5 layers, and it is found in the palms of the hands, and on the soles of the feet. Thin skin has 4 layers and is what covers most of the body. The skin model we are looking at has all 5 layers.

The bottom or deep layer is called the stratum basale. It is made up of a single layer of cells attached to a basement membrane. There are 3 types of cells in the stratum basale; keratinocytes, melanocytes and tactile cells.

Keratinocytes are the most common cell in this layer, and they go through cell division to replace cells that are shed from the surface of the skin. These cells can produce a tough structural protein called keratin which strengthens the skin and makes it almost waterproof.

Melanocytes are scattered among the keratinocytes and they produce the pigment melanin in reaction to exposure to ultraviolet light. Melanin gets transferred to keratinocytes and surrounds the nucleus to protect DNA from mutating from ultraviolet radiation.
Tactile cells are also scattered among the keratinocytes, and they serve as light touch receptors.

The next layer, moving upwards in the epidermis is the stratum spinosum. This layer is made up of daughter keratinocytes made from dividing cells in the stratum basale layer below, and epidermal dendritic cells. The daughter keratinocytes connect to neighboring cells desmosomes, which are one of the ways cells connect to one another, giving them a prickly appearance. The dendritic cells are immune cells that help fight infections in the skin.

Moving upwards, the next layer is the stratum granulosum. This layer is comprised of 3 to 5 layers of keratinocytes. The process of keratinaztion begins in this layer of the epidermis. Keratinization is where the keratinocytes fill with the keratin protein metioned earlier. This process continues as the cells move upwards in the epidermis, and as it continues, the cell’s nucleus and organelles are eliminated and the cell dies.

The next layer up is the stratum lucidum. This layer is only found in the thick skin in the palms and soles of the feet. The keratinocytes in this layer are clear, flat, closely packed and have no nucleus or organelles. They are also filled with a protein called eleidin, which is eventually transformed into keratin.

The last or top layer is called the stratum corneum. This layer is comprised of dead keratinized cells. It takes about 2 weeks for a new keratinocyte to reach the stratum corneum, and it remains in this layer for about another 2 weeks before it is shed.

Now let’s look at the dermis. The dermis is comprised of connective tissue proper with collagen being the most plentiful type of fiber found throughout the dermis. The dermis also houses other structures such as blood vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, which secrete a lubricating oil, sensory nerve endings, nail roots and arrector pili muscles which affect hair follicles.

The dermis has 2 layers; a papillary layer, and a reticular layer.

The papillary layer is the top superficial layer of the dermis, it is composed of loose connective tissue and forms bumps or projections called dermal papillae that fit with the epidermal ridges of the epidermis. The form of the dermal papillae and epidermal ridges increases the surface area of contact between the 2 layers. The dermal papillae contain capillaries that supply nutrients to the cells of the epidermis, and they contain sensory nerve endings that help monitor touch on the surface of the skin.

The reticular layer is composed of dense connective tissue and it extends from the papillary layer to the deeper subcutaneous layer. It is composed of a dense connective tissue with some elastic fibers and many bundles of collagen fibers.

The subcutaneous layer, which again is not part of the skin, is located below or deep to the dermal layer of the skin. This layer is often referred to as the hypodermis and it consists of loose connective tissue and adipose connective tissue or fat tissue. Many times it is referred to as subcutaneous fat. This layer helps to bind skin to underlying structures, acts as a cushion, protects the body, provides insulation and provides for energy storage.

Anatomy and Physiology Help: Chapter 5 Integumentary System

Integumentary System

The Integumentary System, Part 1 Skin Deep Crash Course A&P #6 1

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Anatomy and Physiology of Integumentary System Skin

Anatomy and Physiology of Integumentary System Skin













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What is skin? (Epidermis) | Integumentary system physiology | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Created by Raja Narayan.


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NCLEX-RN on Khan Academy: A collection of questions from content covered on the NCLEX-RN. These questions are available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License (available at

About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content.

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Tissues, Part 1: Crash Course A&P #2

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In this episode of Crash Course Anatomy & Physiology, Hank gives you a brief history of histology and introduces you to the different types and functions of your body's tissues.

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Table of Contents:

Nervous, Muscle, Epithelial & Connective Tissues 1:23
History of Histology 2:07
Nervous Tissue Forms the Nervous System 5:17
Muscle Tissue Facilitates All Your Movements 7:00
Identifying Samples 9:03

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Meet the skin! (Overview) | Integumentary system physiology | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Created by Raja Narayan.

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NCLEX-RN on Khan Academy: A collection of questions from content covered on the NCLEX-RN. These questions are available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License (available at

About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content.

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Chapter 5 Anatomy and Physiology: Integumentary System Lecture

This is the Integumentary System lecture for Human Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 5.

Please leave questions in the comments below or email directly at fmajoo@gmail.com

Text: Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Human Anatomy and Physiology 10th edition. Pearson Education Inc 2016. The Human Body: An Orientation.

Topics covered:
Skin
Epidermis
Dermis
Hypodermis
superficial fascia
subcutaneous layer
Keratinocytes
keratin
Melanocytes
Melanin
Dendritic Cells (Langerhans cells)
Tactile Cells (Merkel cells)
Thick skin
Thin skin
Four or 5 Distinct Strata of Epidermis
Stratum Basale
Stratum Spinosium
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Corneum
Stratum Germinativum
Prickly later
prickle cells
granular layer
Keratohyaline Granules
Lamellar Granules
Clear Layer
Horny Layer
Apoptosis
Dermis
Layers of Dermis
Papillary Layer
Reticular Layer
Dermal Papillae
Tactile Corpuscles
Meissner's Corpuscles
Epidermal Ridges
Friction Ridges
Dermal Ridges
Cleavage lines
Tension Lines
Flexure Lines
Striae
stretch marks
blisters
melanin
skin pigments
skin color
Carotene
Hemoglobin
Skin photosensitivity
Cyanosis
Erythema
Pallor
Jaundice
Bronzing
Bruises
Hair
Pili
Cortex
Medulla
Cuticle
Hair Regions
Hair Structure
Hair Life Cycle
Hair Color
Pheomelanin
Hair bulb
Hair follicle receptor / Root hair plexus
Peripheral Connective Tissue Sheath
Fibrous Sheath
Epithelial Root Sheath
Hair Matrix
Arrector Pili
Hair Papila
Vellus HAir
Terminal Hair
Hirsutism
Alopecia
Baldness
Male Pattern Baldness
DHT (Dihydrotestosterone)
Causes of Hair loss
Nails
Nail Matrix
Nail bed
Free edge
Nail plate
Root
Nail folds
Eponychium (cuticle)
Hyponychium
Lunule
Sweat glands ( Sudoriferous glands )
Eccrine sweat glands
Merocrine sweat glands
Apocrine sweat glands
Ceruminus glands
cerumen
ear wax
Mammary glands
oil glands
Sebaceous Glands
Sebum
whiteheads
blackheads
acne
pustules
cradle cap
seborrhea
Skin functions
protection
body temperature regulation
Cutaneous sensation
Metabolic function
blood reservoir
excretion of wastes
chemical barrier
physical barrier
biological barrier
Acid Mantle
defensins
Insensible perspiration
Sensible Perspiration
Cutaneous Sensory Receptors
Skin cancer
Burns
Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)
Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)
Melanoma
Rule of Nines
Burns Classification
First-degree burn
Second-degree burn (partial-thickness burn)
Third-degree burn
Debridement
Lanugo Coat
Vernix caseosa
Aging skin
Skin health
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Immune System, part 1: Crash Course A&P #45

Our final episodes of Anatomy & Physiology explore the way your body keeps all that complex, intricate stuff alive and healthy -- your immune system. The immune system’s responses begin with physical barriers like skin and mucous membranes, and when they’re not enough, there are phagocytes -- the neutrophils and macrophages. It also features the awesomely named natural killer cells and the inflammatory response, and we'll explain how all of these elements work together to save the day if you happen to slip on a banana peel.

Crash Course A&P poster:

Table of Contents
Physical Barriers Like Skin and Mucous Membranes 2:01
Phagocytes: Neutrophils and Macrophages 3:17
Natural Killer Cells 4:29
Inflammatory Response 5:29

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Reformat Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License


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Integumentary System part 1

Anatomy/histology of the epidermis and description of the cells of the epidermis. See Integumentary part 2 for the structures of Dermis/hypodermis

Muscles, part 1 - Muscle Cells: Crash Course A&P #21

We're kicking off our exploration of muscles with a look at the complex and important relationship between actin and myosin. Your smooth, cardiac, and skeletal muscles create movement by contracting and releasing in a process called the sliding filament model. Your skeletal muscles are constructed like a rope made of bundles of protein fibers, and that the smallest strands are your actin and myosin myofilaments. Its their use of calcium and ATP that causes the binding and unbinding that makes sarcomeres contract and relax.

Table of Contents
Smooth, Cardiac, and Skeletal Muscles Create Movement 1:18
Sliding Filament Model 4:52
Skeletal Muscles Are Made of Bundles of Protein Fibers 2:40
Actin and Myosin Myofilaments 3:54
Calcium and ATP Cause the Binding and Unbinding 5:05

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Urinary System, part 2: Crash Course A&P #39

As we promised last week, we're not quite done talking about your pee yet. Today Hank explains how the urinary system regulates the production of urine, by maintaining a study glomerular flow rate. He'll also cover the anatomy of storing and excreting urine -- from the ureters to the urethra -- and the nervous system’s role in controlling the act of urination.

Table of Contents
Urinary System Regulates the Production of Urine 2:20
Mantains a Steady Glomerular Flow Rate 2:40
The Anatomy of Storing and Excreting Urine 5:02
Ureters to the Urethra 6:28
The Nervous System's Role in Controlling Urination 7:47

Anatomy & Physiology posters:

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The Skeletal System: Crash Course A&P #19

Today Hank explains the skeletal system and why astronauts Scott Kelly and Mikhail Kornienko are out in space studying it. He talks about the anatomy of the skeletal system, including the flat, short, and irregular bones, and their individual arrangements of compact and spongy bone. He'll also cover the microanatomy of bones, particularly the osteons and their inner lamella. And finally he will introduce the process of bone remodeling, which is carried out by crews of osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts.

Table of Contents
Anatomy of the Skeletal System 2:33
Flat, Short, and Irregular Bones 3:11
Arrangements of Compact and Spongy Bone 4:22
Osteons and Their Inner Lamella 5:05
Bone Remodeling 7:28
Osteocytes, Osteoblasts, and Osteoclasts 6:03

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