#SGT #FirstTimeInIndia #Course In Mathematics by Prof. C.K. Raju
Calculus: Ganita or Math? - A Talk by Prof. C. K. Raju
Calculus: Ganita or Math?
A talk by Prof. C. K. Raju
Indian Institute of Science, 7th December 2015
Abstract:
Mathematics is considered as universal based on a naive assumption of universality of logic. Mathematics is generally translated as GaNita. However, there is a need to distinguish between formal mathematics based on axioms and focused on deductive proofs and empirical focused GaNita. Analysis of formal mathematics and its history provides insights that negate the claims of universality. While, the rigor of formal mathematics is based on religious metaphysics, it is irrelevant to the practical value of calculus. To send a rocket to Mars we still solve differential equations numerically, as Aryabhata, the initiator of calculus, did. The question why 2+2=4? has a very abstract, complicated answer in formal mathematics because of theological reasons, distortions created by appropriating mindset, and colonization of GaNita. This talk explains how reverting to GaNita from formal mathematics will remove hindrance to the progress of science.
Mathematician C.K. Raju at IPCEM, Lima, Perú May, 2015 (in English-Spanish)
El matemático C.K.Raju presenta una visión alternativa de la ciencia y del origen del cálculo reconociendo muchos descubrimientos científicos en la India, lo cual fue mal entendido en el occidente por Newton y otros científicos debido a premisas metafísicas y teológicas distintas. Raju critica la colonización eurocéntrica del conocimiento que pasó a la irrelevancia a muchos descubrimientos matemáticos y físicos indios tales como una manera práctica de hallar la longitud antes que los europeos. En otros trabajos Raju corrige ciertas premisas newtonianas sobre el tiempo y ofrece una teoría original sobre la gravedad que cuenta con el efecto de la velocidad de cuerpos en movimiento, algo que reemplazaría la necesidad de postular una “materia oscura”. En otros trabajos Raju corrige la idea que el movimiento pendular siempre describe tiempos iguales en áreas iguales. Estos breves segmentos son de una presentación que Raju realizó en el IPCEM en Lima. Perú, pero los artículos científicos más detallados de Raju se hallan en línea, por ejemplo en y en libros como “Time: Towards a Consistent Theory y The Eleven Pictures of Time. El traductor es el Ingeniero Javier Carbajal del IPCEM.
Mathematician C.K. Raju presents a cogent alternative view of science and the origin of calculus recognizing many scientific discoveries in India, something misunderstood in the West by Newton and other Western scientists due to different metaphysical and theological assumptions. Raju is a critic of the eurocentric colonization of knowledge which dismissed original Indian mathematics and discoveries such as a way to find longitude positioning before Europe. In some other works he corrects a Newtonian assumption that time lows steadily (correcting the idea of equal areas in equal time for simple cyclic penduli) and has an original theory on gravity and the effect of the velocity of moving bodies replacing the need to postulate dark matter. The video shows segments of a brief presentation at IPCEM in Lima, Perú but Raju’s detailed scientific articles are available online and in books like Time: Towards a Consistent Theory and The Eleven Pictures of Time. The translator is Engineer Javier Carbajal from IPCEM.
Calculus: The Real Story - Prof. C. K. Raju
A TALK BY PROFESSOR C. K. RAJU
It is by now well known that the calculus and its infinite series originated in India across a thousand year period, starting from the 5th century Aryabhata. It was needed for agriculture and overseas trade, the two key sources of Indian wealth. Indian monsoon-driven agriculture requires a good calendar, which requires good astronomy (hence precise trigonometric values) needed also for navigation
Europeans then were backward in navigation and hence European governments offered large prizes for a solution to the navigational problem from the 16th to the 18th c. In the 16th c., Jesuits had turned their Cochin college into a centre for mass translation of Indian texts (on the 12th c. Toledo model of mass translation of Arabic texts). The content of these Indian texts started appearing in Europe in the later 16th c. and early 17th c. and was used to solve the latitude problem (Gregorian reform) and the problem of loxodromes (Mercator's chart). There is other circumstantial evidence, as in the works of Tycho Brahe (“Tychonic model”, identical to Nilakantha's), Christoph Clavius (trigonometric values, interpolated version of Indian values), “Julian” day numbers (ahargana), Kepler (Parameswaran's observations), Cavalieri, Fermat and Pascal (challenge problem, including probability), and finally Leibniz (“Leibniz” series) and Newton (sine series).
However, like Indian arithmetic earlier, Europeans did not understand Indian methods of summing infinite series using “non-Archimedean” arithmetic, and a different philosophy, now called zeroism. They tried to fit it into their religious beliefs about mathematics as “perfect” and error-free.
Newton thought, as in his theory of fluxions, that this could be done by making time metaphysical (“mathematical time which flows equably”). The error about time was the reason why his physics failed. This history has contemporary value. Correcting Newton's mistake in understanding calculus leads to a reformulation of physics, and, in particular, the theory of gravitation. This also corrects various problems of infinity that arise from the inadequacy of university calculus, or the Schwartz derivative for quantum field theory, general relativity, and electrodynamics as also the Lebesgue integral for probability, especially in quantum mechanics.
The other contemporary value is pedagogical. Calculus with add-on metaphysics makes math very difficult and was globalised during colonialism. Eliminating that redundant metaphysics in math makes math easy to teach.
Navgathi 10th Foundation Day - CK Raju Session 1
Navgathi celebrated its tenth foundation day along with ADITYA's first year anniversary of successful operation. ADITYA is India's first solar ferry and designed by NavAlt.
This video is the first part part of CK Raju's key note session.
Goodbye Euclid Part 2
Part 2 of a talk given at Universiti Sains Malaysia, on 22 July 2011, chaired by the then Malaysian Deputy Education Minister, where the Euclid prize of RM 10000 was reiterated. The prize is offered for serious evidence about Euclid. See, also, the blog at and the published article Goodbye Euclid!, archived at and, of course, the book Euclid and Jesus. Part 1 is at
Goodbye Euclid Part 1
A talk given at Universiti Sains Malaysia, on 22 July 2011, chaired by the then Malaysian Deputy Education Minister, where the Euclid prize of RM 10000 was reiterated. The prize is offered for serious evidence about Euclid. See, also, the blog at and the published article Goodbye Euclid!, archived at and, of course, the book Euclid and Jesus
Gaṇita Śāstra & Western Mathematics - S Mukhopadhayay
Śāstras are an integral part of Indian knowledge systems and provide systematic procedures to accomplish specific objectives in diverse fields like mathematics, philosophy, architecture, politics, economy and others. Noted Sanskrit scholar Sheldon Pollock however views śāstras as a problem, and sees a dichotomy between śāstra (theory) and prayoga (practical activity) in Sanskritic culture. He considers śāstras to be backward looking and merely a regressive reformulation of the contents of the Vedas. This is, in his opinion, the opposite of Western knowledge tradition which is always forward looking and based on logic and experimentation. This paper is meant to be a refutation of some of Pollock’s core assumptions, by taking gaṇita śāstra and western mathematics as a case study.
We demonstrate that from the earliest to premodern times, gaṇita in India has relentlessly focused on real-life problems, developing logical and efficient algorithms for problem solving, even among Jain and Buddhist scholars, who do not regard Vedas as a pramāṇa. Gaṇita, similar to all Indian schools of thought and modern science, accepts pratyakṣa pramāṇa or empirical evidence, as the first means of knowledge. Formal western mathematics however depends entirely on axioms, binary logic and eternally valid proofs (theory), as opposed to calculations (prayoga). Mathematics categorically rejects the empirical world and is imbued with theological dogma. Moreover binary logic is not normative as Buddhist Catuṣkoṭi and Jain Syādavāda follow different approaches. Western mathematics, which is the only type of mathematics taught in schools today, therefore comes across as arcane, abstract and complicated to most non-specialists, and has become a tool of cultural hegemony.
Key Readings
1. Pollock, S. (1985). The Theory of Practice and the Practice of Theory in Indian Intellectual History.
2. Pollock, S. (2005). The ends of man at the end of premodernity.
3. Malhotra, R. (2016). The Battle for Sanskrit.
4. Raju, C. (2012). Euclid and Jesus - How and why the church changed mathematics and Christianity across two religious wars.
5. Srinivas, M. D. (2016). On the Nature of Mathematics and Scientific Knowledge in Indian Tradition.
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Lecture by DR. C.K. Raju
Dr. C.K. Raju is an Indian mathematician who is in the forefront of the struggle to decolonize mathematics. He was a key contributor to the first Indian supercomputer, PARAM (1988–91).
In this lecture he will answer the following questions:
Why do we learn that science is primarily a Western thing?
What is of the origin of the natural sciences and mathematics as we know it today?
What are the historical contributions of for instance the Indians and Egyptians?
What is the value of a better understanding of the history of science? Is it useful to know who contributed what?
Prof. C. K. Raju on Decolonising Math and Science Education 2011
Prof. C. K. Raju's presentation laying out a framework for 'Decolonising Science and Math' from Session Five of the Multiversity International Conference on Decolonising Our Universities held in Penang, Malaysia, 27-29 June 2011 under the auspices of Universiti Sains Malaysia and Citizens International. The conference brought together scholars, activists, students and journalists from Asia, Africa, the Mideast and elsewhere to address the problem of Eurocentrism in the universities of the Global South and to explore alternatives and paths of resistance. The full video of the session is available at
Goodbye Euclid Part 3
Part 3 of a talk given at Universiti Sains Malaysia, on 22 July 2011, chaired by the then Malaysian Deputy Education Minister, where the Euclid prize of RM 10000 was reiterated. The prize is offered for serious evidence about Euclid. See, also, the blog at and the published article Goodbye Euclid!, archived at and, of course, the book Euclid and Jesus. Part 1 is at and part 2 at
Navgathi 10th Foundation Day - CK Raju Session 3
Navgathi celebrated its tenth foundation day along with ADITYA's first year anniversary of successful operation. ADITYA is India's first solar ferry and designed by NavAlt.
This video is the third part part of CK Raju's key note session.
Vraaggesprekje met dr. C.K. Raju
Op 23 maart 2017 hield dr. C.K. Raju een lezing op de UVA over de dekolonialisering van de wiskunde. Dr. Raju zei onder meer dat de beroemde Griekse wiskundige Euclides geen witte man was, maar een Zwarte vrouw. Na afloop stelde Grapevine TV een paar vragen aan dr. Raju.
C-programming lecture by Prof. C. K. Raju
Episode 76 of MCPRV Wings of TMG School
Navgathi 10th Foundation Day - CK Raju Session 2
Navgathi celebrated its tenth foundation day along with ADITYA's first year anniversary of successful operation. ADITYA is India's first solar ferry and designed by NavAlt.
This video is the second part part of CK Raju's key note session.
Blackhouse Kollective - Black Talks - With Professor C.K. Raju - Decolonising Mathematics
A conversation with Mathematics guru, Professor C.K. Raju, about 'DECOLONISING MATHEMATICS'.
The discussion was held at the Blackhouse Kollective, Dobsonville, Soweto.
Professor Raju speaks on the need to remove theology and western superstitions (metaphysics) from the teaching of mathematics.
He also looks at the Indian origins of Calculus, and also his method of teaching Calculus within a week.
C. K. Raju interviewed by Claude Alvares (2013) [part 1 of 4]
TV Multiversity is proud to present a five part series featuring Professor C. K. Raju interviewed by Claude Alvares. Professor Raju brings to bear his immense knowledge of mathematics, history, and philosophy in providing a systematic deconstruction of the Eurocentrism of mathematics as currently conceived and taught. Beginning with a discussion of why mathematics has become so difficult to learn, the interviews proceed through the myths surrounding the 'heroes' of Western science, from Euclid to Einstein. They also cover the transmission of mathematical knowledge from India through the Islamic world into Europe, where it was initially misunderstood but then coopted and corrupted by the Holy Roman Empire. One of his most startling conclusions is that mathematics has become essentially religious in nature, and he offers a way to think about and practice mathematics shorn of its theological assumptions and historical accretions. Professor Raju has developed this material over a series of books, ranging from 'Time: A Consistent Theory' (1994) to his latest work, 'Euclid and Jesus' (2012). Conducted in Penang, Malaysia, during June 2013 and totalling over nine hours of material, these exclusive new interviews were produced and distributed on behalf of the Multiversity Project for the Multiworld Network and are presented here for the first time.
In Part One, Prof. Raju discusses why mathematics has become difficult to learn, the myths surrounding Euclid and 'The Elements,' and the Greek origins of science and mathematics.
In 2010 C. K. Raju was awarded the Telesio-Galilei Gold Medal in Hungary for correcting a mistake made by Einstein in the theory of relativity. Prof. Raju presently teaches at AlBukhary International University in Malaysia, where he has designed a course on 'decolonized' history and philosophy of science The course demonstrates that science and mathematics originated universally, and not with the Greeks as claimed in the myth propagated by Western historians. His most recent work is 'Euclid and Jesus' (2012), and he has written several other books on these topics, including 'Cultural Foundations of Mathematics' (2007) and 'Time: Towards a Consistent Theory' (1994). Prof. Raju is firmly committed to a non-Eurocentric view of the world and to the regeneration of 'decolonized' minds. More information is available on his homepage:
The interviewer is Claude Alvares, India-based coordinator of the Multiversity Project--inspired and initiated in 2003 by S.M. Mohamed Idris in Penang, Malaysia. One of Multiversity's primary aims is the decolonisation of knowledge and the de-linking of academic teaching and research from its continuing Eurocentric bias. A specific project is the re-writing of a more factual and less biased history of science which highlights and celebrates the scientific contributions of people from across the planet, rather than solely those of Western Europe.
For more about the Multiversity project, visit:
Claude Alvares also interviewed a number of students from Albukhary University, where Prof. Raju taught his math courses. The interviews are available here:
C-programming lecture by Prof. C. K. Raju
Episode 77 of MCPRV Wings of TMG School
Navgathi 10th Foundation Day - CK Raju Session 4
Navgathi celebrated its tenth foundation day along with ADITYA's first year anniversary of successful operation. ADITYA is India's first solar ferry and designed by NavAlt.
This video is the fourth part part of CK Raju's key note session.
MITS TALKS #008 06-Apr-2019 Dr RAJU C.K(CSE)
Logical Fallacies