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13. The Origins of World War I


13. The Origins of World War I

France Since 1871 (HIST 276)

The traditional, diplomatic history of World War I is helpful in understanding how a series of hitherto improbable alliances come to be formed in the early years of the twentieth century. In the case of France and Russia, this involves a significant ideological compromise. Along with the history of imperial machinations, however, World War I should be understood in the context of the popular imagination and the growth of nationalist sentiment in Europe.

00:00 - Chapter 1. Tangled Maps of Empire: Diplomatic Origins of the First World War
07:24 - Chapter 2. A Delicate Balances: The Shifting Alliances of the Great Powers
19:26 - Chapter 3. The British Empire on the World Stage: Capabilities on the Continent
32:29 - Chapter 4. Mounting Tensions in Alsace-Lorraine: The Saverne Crisis
40:14 - Chapter 5. War Expectations and Enthusiasm

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website:

This course was recorded in Fall 2007.

World War 1 - Full Explanation in Telugu // Causes and Effects of First World War // The Great War

World War 1 is one of the deadliest Wars in History. Never before in History has such a War been fought. Almost all the Great powers Participated in this War.

Causes, Progression, Result and Effects of the War are Clearly Explained in this Video. The Reasons why other Countries are involved in this War are also Mentioned in the Video.


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World War One - 1914

Everything you need to know about the first year of World War One in a 12 minute video.
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Recommended books on 1914 & WW1 (as an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases):
Margaret MacMillan, The War that Ended Peace
Max Hastings, Catastrophe: Europe Goes to War 1914
Christopher Clark, The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914
Lyn MacDonald, 1914 : The Days of Hope
Peter Hart, The Great War: 1914-1918
A J P Taylor, The First World War: An Illustrated History
Hew Strachan, The First World War: A New History

'World War One - 1914' is the first in a five-part series covering the Great War. This episode covers the rival alliances that dominated Europe in the build-up to war, the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente, and the fatal gunshots by Gavrilo Princip at Sarajevo that resulted in the death of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Imperial rivalries, the system of alliances and deep-seated animosities helped propel Europe into a general war. However Woodrow Wilson, the US President, ensured America stood apart from Europe's conflict. In August 1914, Germany invaded France and Belgium as part of the Schlieffen Plan. The tiny British Expeditionary Force could only hold up the German army for a few hours at the Battle of Mons, but later joined the French in saving Paris at the Battle of the Marne. The 'Race to the Sea' followed, leading to the First Battle of Ypres, as both sides tried to outflank each other to the north. Their failure led to a stalemate, in which the devastating power of machineguns and artillery forced infantry of both sides to take cover in deep trenches.

At sea, Britain's Royal Navy won the war's first naval battle at Heligoland Bight, and imposed a naval blockade on Germany, preventing war supplies (including, controversially, food) from reaching the country by sea. HMS Pathfinder was soon sunk by a German U-boat, revealing the potential of Germany's submarines to overturn Britain's long-held naval dominance.

On the Eastern Front, a Russian invasion of East Prussia ended in disaster at the Battle of Tannenberg, masterminded by German generals Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff. A second victory at the Battle of Masurian Lakes sent the Russian army into retreat. Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia began badly, with defeat at the Battle of Cer. Things went even worse on the Russian front, as Austria's offensive against the Russians leads to heavy losses, and forced Germany to come to the rescue, by launching the Battle of Łódź.

In Africa, British, French and German colonial forces clashed in British East Africa (Kenya), Togoland (Togo), German South-West Africa (Namibia), and German Kamerun (Cameroon). German Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbek had notable success repelling the British at the Battle of Tanga.

In the Pacific, Japan honoured its alliance with Britain and seized the German naval base at Tsingtao in China. Task forces from Australia and New Zealand secured the German colonies of Samoa and New Guinea. German Admiral von Spee's East Asia Squadron won victory at the Battle of Coronel, off Chile, before sailing into catastrophe at the Battle of the Falkland Islands. In the Middle East, British troops occupied Basra, securing access to Persian oil for their fleet.

Winter 1914 saw the French launch their first major offensive to break the trench stalemate of the Western Front. But the First Battle of Champagne led to heavy losses for no real gains. Ottoman operations in the Caucasus Mountains also ended in disaster at the Battle of Sarikamish. The war's first Christmas was marked by games of football in No Man's Land on the Western Front, but early hopes of a short war had now been entirely quashed.

CORRECTION: 7.55 - the map shows Cyprus as part of the Ottoman Empire. Cyprus was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1570 to 1914, but when the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in November 1914, Cyprus was annexed by Britain.


#EpicHistoryTV #WorldWarOne #WW1

Slavery - Crash Course US History #13

In which John Green teaches you about America's peculiar institution, slavery. I wouldn't really call it peculiar. I'd lean more toward horrifying and depressing institution, but nobody asked me. John will talk about what life was like for a slave in the 19th century United States, and how slaves resisted oppression, to the degree that was possible. We'll hear about cotton plantations, violent punishment of slaves, day to day slave life, and slave rebellions. Nat Turner, Harriet Tubman, and Whipped Peter all make an appearance. Slavery as an institution is arguably the darkest part of America's history, and we're still dealing with its aftermath 150 years after it ended. Support CrashCourse on Patreon:

Hey teachers and students - Check out CommonLit's free collection of reading passages and curriculum resources to learn more about the events of this episode. Memoirs from former slaves like abolitionist Frederick Douglass provide insightful context on the harsh realities of slavery:
Others resisted the violence of slavery through open rebellion, like Nat Turner:
Abolitionists and free slaves alike had to fight against unfair laws such as the Fugitive Slave Act:

Islam, the Quran, and the Five Pillars All Without a Flamewar: Crash Course World History #13

Crash Course World History is now available on DVD! Visit to buy a set for your home or classroom.

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In which John Green teaches you the history of Islam, including the revelation of the Qu'ran to Muhammad, the five pillars of Islam, how the Islamic empire got its start, the Rightly Guided Caliphs, and more. Learn about hadiths, Abu Bakr, and whether the Umma has anything to do with Uma Thurman (spoiler alert: it doesn't). Also, learn a little about the split between Sunni and Shia Muslims, and how to tell if this year's Ramadan is going to be difficult for your Muslim friends. Let's try to keep the flame wars out of this reasoned discussion.

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Vietnam War in 13 Minutes - Manny Man Does History


Find out about the long and gruelling war fought in Vietnam, how it happened and how it affected the the world superpower of USA!

Written and created by JOHN D RUDDY @johndruddy
Illustrated, voiced and edited by JOHN D RUDDY @johndruddy

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The First Balkan War - Explained in 10 minutes

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♦Music Used :
Kevin MacLeod - All This
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♦Sources :

Erickson, Edward J. (2003). Defeat in Detail: The Ottoman Army in the Balkans, 1912–1913

Fotakis, Zisis (2005). Greek Naval Strategy and Policy, 1910–1919. London: Routledge

#History #Documentary

The Second World War: On a Wing and a Prayer

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Presented by Richard Todd, this film portrays the story of RAF Bomber Command during the Second World War. Beginning with its birth as a fledging arm of the Force in WWI, throughout its development between the wars, its rapid expansion at the outbreak of WWII and a complete insight into the strategy, tactics, personnel, aircraft and operations during the conflict.

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13. Nationalism

European Civilization, 1648-1945 (HIST 202)

In light of the many ethnic and national conflicts of the twentieth century, the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918 appears less surprising than the fact that it remained intact for so long. National identity is not an essential characteristic of peoples, and in many cases in Europe it is a relatively recent invention. As such, there are many different characteristics according to which national communities can be defined, or, in Benedict Anderson's phrase, imagined. Along with religion and ethnicity, language has played a particularly important role in shaping the imaginary identification of individuals with abstract communities. No one factor necessarily determines this identification, as evidenced by modern countries such as Belgium and Switzerland that incorporate multiple linguistic and cultural groups in one national community.

00:00 - Chapter 1. The Imagined Communities of Nationalism: The Macedonian Example
08:24 - Chapter 2. The Construction of National Identities in the Nineteenth Century: Language and Consciousness
25:45 - Chapter 3. The Development of Nationalism in Eastern Europe: Lithuania and Belarus
37:53 - Chapter 4. Complex Identities: Multiple Languages in Belgium and Switzerland
44:00 - Chapter 5. The Balancing Act of the Austria-Hungarian Empire: Factors of Stability

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website:

This course was recorded in Fall 2008.

13. The Historical Jesus

Introduction to New Testament (RLST 152)

It is obvious that certain narratives in the New Testament contradict each other and cannot be woven into a historically coherent whole. How, then, do scholars construct who the historical Jesus was? There are several principles that historical Jesus researchers follow, which include considering data that 1) has multiple attestations and 2) is dissimilar to a text's theological tendencies as more likely to be historical. Using the modern methods of historical research, it becomes possible to construct a historical Jesus.

00:00 - Chapter 1. Contradictory Accounts in the New Testament
13:25 - Chapter 2. Finding History in the New Testament
26:27 - Chapter 3. Methods of Historical Jesus Research
47:53 - Chapter 4. Who Was the Historical Jesus?

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website:

This course was recorded in Spring 2009.

What Caused The Korean War

The Korean War saw a divide between the country, and the North and South taking sides and powerful allies to help them take full control over the country. In today's educational animated cartoon we look at the Korean War and how the country was ultimately divided into two.

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Ten Minute English and British History #13 - The First Scottish War of Independence.


This episode covers the wake of Alexander III's death and Scotland's search for an heir. This led to Edward I of England's intervention and after his dominance was rejected by the Scottish, Edward sought to conquer instead. William Wallace and later King Robert the Bruce were the leaders of the Scottish resistance which eventually saw England defeated and Scotland remain independent.

Recommended books:

A. Barrell, Medieval Scotland (2000). A great overview of the period but its scope is much broader than this episode.

G. Barrow, Kingship and Unity: Scotland, 1100-1306 (2003). Much greater focus than the above.

M. Morris, A Great and Terrible King: Edward I and the forging of Britain (2008). For an overview of England and its aims during the Scottish Wars of Independence.

Ten Minute English and British History is a series of short, ten minute animated narrative documentaries that are designed as revision refreshers or simple introductions to a topic. Please note that these are not meant to be comprehensive and there's a lot of stuff I couldn't fit into the episodes that I would have liked to. Thank you for watching, though, it's always appreciated.

The Korean War (1950–53)

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At the end of the Korean War, after 2 years of negotiation, an armistice was signed on July 27, 1953, at Panmunjom on the 38th parallel. A demilitarised zone was set up which stands to this day.

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English Civil War: Crash Course European History #14

The English Civil War. We'll talk about England after Elizabeth, in which things didn't go that smoothly. We'll talk about James I, Charles I, Oliver Cromwell, Charles II, and James II, all of whom ruled England, (and tried to rule all of Britain and Ireland) with varying degrees of success.

-Hunt, Lynn et al. Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. 6th ed. Boston: Bedford St. Martins, 2019.
-N. H. Keeble, ed. Cambridge Companion to Writing of the English Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
-Kent, Susan K. Gender and Power in Britain, 1640-1990. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Parker, Geoffrey, Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014.

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Which Country had the Most Effective Bomber Planes in World War 2

In this week's episode, we continue on the thread of wartime aviation by taking a look at 10 heavy-hitting bombers of World War 2.

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Causes of the Two World Wars | World Wars - 1900-1950 : Part - I | Social Science | Class 10

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13.) Der Zweite Weltkrieg im Vergleich / Compare Worldwar II

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Home Video: Crash Course Film History #13

As the New Hollywood gained steam in the late 70s and early 80s, another revenue stream opened its doors: home video. From Betamax to Laserdisc to Bluray to streaming services, home video revolutionized how we ingest movies. In this episode of Crash Course Film History, Craig gives us an overview of it all.

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