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3. Structures of Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins

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3. Structures of Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins

MIT 7.016 Introductory Biology, Fall 2018
Instructor: Barbara Imperiali
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After wrapping up the lecture on lipids, Professor Imperiali moves on to discussing amino acids, peptides, and proteins.

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Amino Acids

It's time to start learning about all the monomers that make up large biomolecules, and the first one we will look at is the amino acid. These make up proteins, which is most of what you are, so this is pretty important stuff!

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Peptide bond formation | Macromolecules | Biology | Khan Academy

How amino acids (including ones in zwitterion form) form peptide bonds (peptide linkages) through a condensation reaction (dehydration synthesis).

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MBS 6250 Chapter 3 Lehninger - Amino acids, peptides, and protein

This is part 1 of a 2 part series.
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Protein Structure and Folding

After a polypeptide is produced in protein synthesis, it's not necessarily a functional protein yet! Explore protein folding that occurs within levels of protein structure with the Amoeba Sisters! Primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary protein structure levels are briefly discussed. Video also mentions chaperonins (chaperone proteins) and how proteins can be denatured.

Table of Contents:
00:00 Intro
0:41 Reminder of Protein Roles
1:06 Modifications of Proteins
1:25 Importance of Shape for Proteins
1:56 Levels of Protein Structure
2:06 Primary Structure
3:10 Secondary Structure
3:45 Tertiary Structure
4:58 Quaternary Structure [not in all proteins]
6:01 Proteins often have help in folding [introduces chaperonins]
6:40 Denaturing Proteins

*Further Reading Suggestions*

Related to Protein Misfoldings:




Learn About The Protein Folding Problem:



Factual References:

OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Jun 1, 2018

Reece, J. B., & Campbell, N. A. (2011). Campbell biology. Boston: Benjamin Cummings / Pearson.


The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching biology at the high school level. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit:


We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook:

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Classification of amino acids | Chemical processes | MCAT | Khan Academy

Amino acids can be classified according to their side chain's chemical properties (the R-group). This video will show you how! By Tracy Kovach. Created by Tracy Kim Kovach.

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How To Calculate The Isoelectric Point of Amino Acids and Zwitterions

This biochemistry video tutorial explains how to calculate the isoelectric point of amino acids. It also explains how to identify the zwitterion structure of an amino acid.

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Introduction to amino acids | Macromolecules | Biology | Khan Academy

Understanding amino acids and their role in the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology (how the information in DNA eventually gets expressed as chains of amino acids). Thinking about the amino and carboxyl groups and how amino acids are typically found as zwitterions at physiological pH. How amino acid side chains can impact protein structure.

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Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course.

About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content.

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MCQs on amino acids, peptides, proteins

This video is based on mcqs of amino acids, peptides and proteins.


do solve and tell your score in the comment section below

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Drawing and Naming a Peptide



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Q1. Draw the structure and give the name for the tripeptide Gly–Ser–Met.

Q2. Draw the structure and give the name for Phe–Thr, a section in glucagon, which is a peptide hormone that increases blood glucose levels.

Step 1 Draw the structures for each amino acid in the peptide, starting with the N-terminus.

Step 2 Remove the O atom from the carboxylate group of the N-terminus and two H atoms from the ammonium group in the adjacent amino acid. Repeat this process until the C-terminus is reached.

Step 3 Use peptide bonds to connect the amino acid residues.

The tripeptide is named by replacing the last syllable of each amino acid name with yl, starting with theN-terminus. The C-terminus retains its complete amino acid name.

N-terminus glycine is named glycyl
serine is named seryl
C-terminus methionine keeps its full name

The tripeptide is named glycylserylmethionine.
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Organic Chemistry 51C. Lecture 18. Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins. (Nowick)

UCI Chem 51C Organic Chemistry (Spring 2012)
Lec 18. Organic Chemistry -- Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins --
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Instructor: James S. Nowick, Ph.D.

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Description: This is the third quarter course in the organic chemistry series. Topics covered include: Fundamental concepts relating to carbon compounds with emphasis on structural theory and the nature of chemical bonding, stereochemistry, reaction mechanisms, and spectroscopic, physical, and chemical properties of the principal classes of carbon compounds. Organic Chemistry 51C is part of OpenChem.

Recorded on June 6, 2012

Index of Topics:

2:49-Amino Acid Structure
5:55-Examples of Polypeptides
12:18-20 Common Amino Acids
17:03-Polar & Charged Amino Acids
22:35-Chemical Synthesis of Peptides and Proteins
27:49-Protecting Groups
31:54-DCC
40:07-Boch Deprotection Mechanism
42:44-Special Amino Acids
43:33-Additional Protecting Groups
46:42-Modern Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis
54:20-Boch Opolystyrene Example
59:54-Fmoc Group


Required attribution: Nowick, James S. Organic Chemistry 51C (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License (

Proteins & Amino Acids | Biochemistry

What are amino acids? How are they different from one another? How do they form proteins? How do proteins fold into functional structures?

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How to Calculate Peptide Charge and Isoelectric Point MCAT Trick

presents: How to calculate peptide charge and Isoelectric Point (pI) without a calculator for the MCAT

Is your MCAT just around the corner? Grab a free copy of my ebook MCAT Exam Strategy - A 6 Week Guide To Crushing The MCAT at

This is video 7 in the MCAT amino acids tutorial video series. Learn how to quickly find the charge and isoelectric point of any given dipeptide, tripeptide or even polypeptide without wasting time on useless trial and error calculations.

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MCAT Biochemistry Chapter 1: Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins

Covers stereochemistry of amino acids, characteristics of the alpha carbon, acid-base chemistry, isoelectric point, zwitterionic form, titration curves, peptide bond formation and hydrolysis, characteristics of the peptide bond, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary protein structure, and protein denaturation.
This video follows the structure of the Kaplan MCAT prep books.

Chapter-3-Amino acids, peptides, and proteins: Part1

This video discusses Chapter 3- Amino acids, peptides, and proteins of the Lehninger text book.

In part 1 of this chapter, Dr. V introduces the concept of amino acids and their properties. Specifically, various amino acids and their structures are explained. Additionally, pKa of amino acid side chain as related to their properties is also discussed in this lecture.
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Structure of Amino Acid, Peptide Bonds & Polypeptides



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Here are the molecular formulas of three different amino acids.

All amino acids share this backbone. The main difference between every amino acid is the side groups seen here, and these side groups give each of the amino acids their different characteristics. But before we get into that, let's take a closer look at the structure of an individual amino acid.

You've already discovered that all amino acids share this backbone. But if you look closely, you'll see that there are differences within the backbone itself. All amino acids have a carbon atom at the center.
This is the carbon atom at the center of the amino acid. This atom is essentially what holds the amino acid together as the other groups bind to it. The central carbon atom is also the point at which the other parts of the amino acid rotate. We'll learn more about how this happens and why it is important a little later. Now let's look at the amino group. An amino group is composed of nitrogen and hydrogen.

This is the amino group of the amino acid. Notice that it has a nitrogen atom. The word `amine' is a Latin word that refers to any molecule that is similar to ammonia, such as this amino group. Now let's look at the carboxyl group, which is the acid part of the amino acid. A carboxyl group contains carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.

This is the carboxyl group of the amino acid. Notice that it has a carbon bound to two oxygen atoms. This is where the group gets its name: carb-oxyl. The hydrogen attached to one of the oxygen atoms is what gives the amino acid its acid properties.

The final two groups are easy. The first is a hydrogen atom that is bound to the central carbon atom. The second is the side group which we discussed earlier. The side group is different for each amino acid and it will affect how the amino acid acts when it binds to other amino acids. So let's take a look at how amino acids bind to each other and make proteins.

The bond between two amino acids is called a peptide bond. Now let's look at how these bonds are formed. When a peptide bond forms, a molecule of water is produced. Which atoms in these two amino acids do you think might be lost to form this water molecule?

Watch this peptide bond form between alanine and valine. The carbon atom in the carboxyl group of alanine reacts with the nitrogen atom in the amino group of valine. At the same time, the alanine loses an OH group, and the valine loses a hydrogen atom, forming the water molecule.

This kind of bond is repeated within a protein thousands of times using many different amino acids. In a living cell, these bonds are created in a set order for each protein on a cellular structure called a ribosome. But that will be discussed in detail in a later animation. Right now, let's take a closer look at the central carbon atom and how it affects the whole protein molecule.

The central carbon atom is the point at which the other parts of the amino acid rotate. Small rotations of the bonds around the central carbon atom can lead to large changes in the overall protein structure.

When you have a protein with thousands of amino acids, these small rotations can add up to a large variety of complex structures.

How to draw amino acids and peptide bonds to make a protein

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.

To connect amino acids together, a peptide bond (also called an amide bond) has to be formed.

When a peptide bond is created between two amino acids, a molecule of water is liberated.

As more and more amino acids are added to the chain, the protein's primary structure is made.

Amino acids, peptides, proteins and Nucleic acids

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Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins 1 of 2 (Biochemistry and other Life Sciences)

Assalam-o-Alaikum and Hello, I am Dr. Muhammad Ali with a lecture series on different areas of life sciences.

This is my video lecture on ‘Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins', Chapter 3 from Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry 6th edition.

It covers at least the following contents:
1. Five classes of amino acids and their properties
2. Titration curve and isoelectric point of amino acids
3. Separation of proteins by different techniques
4. Four levels of protein organization
5. Peptide sequencing by Fred Sanger method
6. Mass spectrometry for peptide sequencing
7. Synthesis of small peptides
8. Sequence logos and phylogenetic relationships among living organisms



muhammadali.1@hotmail.com




(Contents of Series-I)
(Contents of Series-II)
(Contents of Series-III)

Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins Part 1 by Dr. Monika Gupta

Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins 01 : Introduction, Structure and Classification by Dr. Monika Gupta

Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amine and carboxyl functional groups, along with a side chain specific to each amino acid. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, although other elements are found in the side chains of certain amino acids.
Amino Acids having both the amine and the carboxylic acid groups attached to the first (alpha-) carbon atom have particular importance. They are known as 2-, alpha-, or α-amino acids. They include the 22 proteinogenic (protein-building) amino acids, which combine into peptide chains (polypeptides) to form the building-blocks of a vast array of proteins.These are all L-stereoisomers (left-handed isomers),


#OrganicChemistry
#AminoAcids#Peptides#Proteins
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