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4. Molecular Genetics I

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4. Molecular Genetics I

(April 5, 2010) Robert Sapolsky makes interdisciplinary connections between behavioral biology and molecular genetic influences. He relates protein synthesis and point mutations to microevolutionary change, and discusses conflicting theories of gradualism and punctuated equilibrium and the influence of epigenetics on development theories.

Stanford University


Stanford Department of Biology


Stanford University Channel on YouTube

5. Molecular Genetics II

(April 7, 2010) Robert Sapolsky continues his series on molecular genetics in which he discusses domains of mutation and various components of natural selection on a molecular level. He also further assesses gradualism and punctuated equilibrium models of evolution, integrating these theories into an interrelated model of development.


Stanford University


Stanford Department of Biology


Stanford University Channel on YouTube
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DNA Structure and Replication: Crash Course Biology #10

Hank introduces us to that wondrous molecule deoxyribonucleic acid - also known as DNA - and explains how it replicates itself in our cells.

Crash Course Biology is now available on DVD!

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References for this episode can be found in the Google document here:

1:41 link to Biological Molecules

Table of Contents:
1) Nucleic Acids 1:30
2) DNA
-A) Polymers 1:53
-B) Three Ingredients 2:12
-C) Base Pairs 3:45
-D) Base Sequences 4:13
3) Pop Quiz 5:07
4) RNA 5:36
-A) Three Differences from DNA 5:43
5) Biolography 6:16
6) Replication 8:49
-A) Helicase and Unzipping 9:22
-B) Leading Strand 9:38
-C) DNA Polymerase 10:08
-D) RNA Primase 10:24
-E) Lagging Strand 10:46
-F) Okazaki Fragments 11:07
-F) DNA Ligase 11:47

DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, chromosome, nucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, RNA, polymer, nucleotide, double helix, nucleotide base, base pair, base sequence, friedrich miescher, rosalind franklin, replication, helicase, leading strand, lagging strand, rna primase, dna polymerase, okazaki fragment Support CrashCourse on Subbable:

Molecular Biology

Paul Andersen explains the major procedures in molecular biology. He starts with a brief description of Taq polymerase extracted from the hot pools of Yellowstone Park. He then uses the analogy of the ransom note to explain each of the processes that are required in genetic engineering. He explains how DNA is cut using restriction enzymes and glued using hydrogen bonds. He explains how gel electrophoresis can be used to sort DNA according to length and how the Polymerase Chain Reaction can be used to copy DNA. He finishes with a brief description of DNA sequencing.

Intro Music Atribution
Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav
Artist: CosmicD
Link to sound:
Creative Commons Atribution License
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Molecular Genetics Review Video

6. Behavioral Genetics I

(April 12, 2010) Robert Sapolsky introduces a two-part series exploring the controversial scientific practice of inferring behavior to genetics. He covers classical techniques in behavior genetics and flaws, the significance of environmental factors, non genetic inheritance of traits, and multigenerational effects and relationship to epigenetic differences.

Stanford University


Stanford Department of Biology


Stanford University Channel on YouTube
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7. Behavioral Genetics II

(April 14, 2010) Robert Sapolsky continues his series addressing the link between behavior and genetics. He covers the complex endeavor of gene isolation and variability and heritability and wrongly eliminated environmental influences in heritability tests -- finding that genes and environment are infinitely interconnected and co-dependent on each other.

Stanford University


Stanford Department of Biology


Stanford University Channel on YouTube

Basics of Molecular Genetics

Bare Basics of Molecular Genetics examining how DNA is used for:
1. replication(only when cell reproduces) or
2. transcription and translation to produce RNA and protein (used continuously by cell)

Career Advice on becoming a Molecular Geneticist by Helen S (Full Version)

Visit for more careers info.

Helen S is a trainee molecular geneticist, she did well at GCSE, but not so well at A Level. Taking a job in a bank, she studied Biology at university but found studying whilst working hard. On her job she says, it's good working in an environment like this because there is always something new being identified or discovered.Highlights at

DNA replication and RNA transcription and translation | Khan Academy

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Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course.

About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content.

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Molecular Genetics

Please fill out the Questions About Molecular Genetics survey at

Molecular Genetics Introduction

Mr. Lima introduces the topic of molecular genetics and talks about the importance of DNA for life and biology research
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Molecular Genetics Part 4: The Nucleus

In this video from our course on molecular genetics learn all about the nucleus.
Need more help? Check out our course page on Molecular Genetics here!

DNA, Hot Pockets, & The Longest Word Ever: Crash Course Biology #11

Hank imagines himself breaking into the Hot Pockets factory to steal their secret recipes and instruction manuals in order to help us understand how the processes known as DNA transcription and translation allow our cells to build proteins.

Crash Course Biology is now available on DVD!

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Table of Contents:
1) Transcription 2:12
A) Transcription Unit 3:00
B) Promoter 3:10
C) TATA Box 3:32
D) RNA Polymerase 4:12
E) mRNA 4:15
F) Termination signal 5:21
G) 5' Cap & Poly-A Tail 5:34
2) RNA Splicing 6:08
A) SNuRPs & Spliceosome 6:26
B) Exons & Introns 6:56
3) Translation 7:28
A) mRNA & tRNA 8:01
B) Triplet Codons & Anticodons 8:39
4) Folding & Protein Structure 10:51
A) Primary Structure 11:11
B) Secondary Structure 11:23
C) Tertiary Structure 11:58
D) Quaternary Structure 12:44


Links to episodes referenced in the video:
DNA structure episode:
Animal cells episode:
Fold-it SciShow episode:

REFERENCES for this video can be found in the Google document here:

This video contains the following sounds from Freesound.org:
IMPresora.wav by melack
swishes.wav by pogotron

tags: crashcourse, science, biology, DNA, titin, hot pocket, transcription, translation, gene, RNA, enzyme, transcription unit, adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine, TATA box, DNA strand, mRNA, messenger RNA, RNA polymerase, uracil, termination signal, RNA splicing, SNuRPs, spliceosome, exons, introns, ribosome, tRNA, transfer RNA, amino acid, nitrogenous base, codon, anticodon, polypeptide chain, folding, helix, pleated sheets, protein biosynthesis, gene expression Support CrashCourse on Subbable:

Molecular Genetics and Cancer



Mary Beckerle explains that molecular genetics make it possible to determine which genes are turned on or off in different tumors and she discusses the implications for cancer treatment. See the whole lecture at
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Molecular Genetics

Sara Cleland, Amanda Lang, and Liam Dahlberg

46. Unit 4. Molecular genetics 4 of 5

This video looks at the structure of DNA and the nucleotides that make it. We then look at how DNA is packaged into chromosomes, and some important concepts for when we talk about numbers of chromosomes in cells (ploidy).
The video then moves into some further information of transcription (you should know both transcription and translation for Unit 4).
Finally we look at how DNA is replicated (for example when a cell divides!) in a process called semi conservative replication.

44. Unit 4. Molecular genetics 2 of 5

This video looks at the structure of DNA and the nucleotides that make it. We then look at how DNA is packaged into chromosomes, and some important concepts for when we talk about numbers of chromosomes in cells (ploidy).
The video then moves into some further information of transcription (you should know both transcription and translation for Unit 4).
Finally we look at how DNA is replicated (for example when a cell divides!) in a process called semi conservative replication.

43. Unit 4. Molecular genetics 1 of 5

This video looks at the structure of DNA and the nucleotides that make it. We then look at how DNA is packaged into chromosomes, and some important concepts for when we talk about numbers of chromosomes in cells (ploidy).
The video then moves into some further information of transcription (you should know both transcription and translation for Unit 4).
Finally we look at how DNA is replicated (for example when a cell divides!) in a process called semi conservative replication.

History of Molecular Biology

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