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Biological Molecules - You Are What You Eat: Crash Course Biology #3

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Biological Molecules - You Are What You Eat: Crash Course Biology #3

Hank talks about the molecules that make up every living thing - carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins - and how we find them in our environment and in the food that we eat.

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TAGS: biological molecules, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, food, biolography, william prout, urea, energy, monosaccharides, glucose, fructose, disaccharides, sucrose, polysaccharides, simple sugars, cellulose, starch, glycogen, glycerol, fatty acid, triglyceride, phospholipid, steroid, cholesterol, enzymes, antibodies, hormones, amino acids, nitrogen, polypeptides, protein synthesis, biology, molecule, crashcourse, hank green Support CrashCourse on Patreon:
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Biomolecules (Updated)

Updated video on biomolecules (macromolecules): carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids by the Amoeba Sisters including examples, functions, monomers, and structures! Expand details for table of contents. 👇 This video has a handout here: (Note: The old version of this video was called biomolecule band.)

Table of Contents:
What are Biomolecules? 0:22
Monomers 0:40
Carbohydrates 1:08
Lipids 2:04
Proteins 4:09
Nucleic Acids 5:14

Video Notes:

Video mentions that many do not consider lipids to have true monomers. This is due to the fact that their building blocks are made of two different substances (glycerol and fatty acids) that attach to each other--rather than attaching as one type of monomer to another. Also, due the the diversity of lipids, there are lipids that have a very different structure than discussed in this video.

We've seen a few comments attempt to use or critique parts of this video for human dietary guidelines. But this video, as stated in the description, focuses on general functions of biomolecules. The biomolecules: carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, can all can have important functions in the body. However, this video is *not* giving human dietary guidelines and should *not* be used in any attempt to do so. *This is a video about the biomolecules. For your dietary needs, consult with a dietitian or medical doctor.*

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The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching biology at the high school level. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit:

We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook:

We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines and YouTube's policy center We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language.

Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library

We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
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CrashCourse Macromolecules

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Biological Molecules - You Are What You Eat: Crash Course Biology #3 !!.

In this video I discussed more about carbodydtrates.

Carbohydrates 1st Part:

#carbohydrates #fatloss #musclebuilding #instagram #facebook

#Understanding Carbs #Dietary Guidelines : Define Carbohydrates #Effect of Carbohydrates on Blood Sugars #Biological Molecules - You Are What You Eat: Crash Course Biology

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Lipid overview | Macromolecules | Biology | Khan Academy

Types of lipids including fats, waxes, steroids and phospholipids.

Watch the next lesson:

Missed the previous lesson?

Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course.

About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content.

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Proteins | Biological Molecules Simplified #2

Learn about all the macromolecules and more at

The simplest explanation of protein structure and function to help you understand just how important this macromolecule is!

Image Credit: OpenStax Biology

Thanks for stopping by, this is 2 Minute Classroom and today we are talking about proteins, and their structure and function in living organisms.

Proteins are macromolecules made primarily of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen, but can have other atoms for certain proteins. Proteins are so abundant in the body and crucial to cell function that they are often called the building blocks of life. Let’s first talk about protein structure and then we’ll talk about many of their fantastic functions.

The basic subunits of all proteins are called Amino Acids, and there are 20 main amino acids in living organisms. These amino acids all have the same basic structure with a carboxyl group and an amino group, but differ in their R group or side chain. The resulting amino acid may be polar, non-polar, negatively charged, positively charged, or aromatic.

If that all went way over your head, that’s okay for this video. Just know that there are 20 amino acids with subtle differences resulting in a variety of chemical behaviors.

These amino acids bond with each other through a peptide bond and form long chains referred to as polypeptide chains. These chains then fold and bond with themselves form a complete protein, and sometimes they combine with other proteins to make a more complex protein structure.

Hemoglobin is a great example of this. Hemoglobin is the structure in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen to the cells. It is made of four globin protein subunits, each with an iron containing heme group. In other words, amino acids form polypeptide chains that can become complex quickly.

Along with carrying oxygen through the body, proteins have many other important functions.

Enzymes are proteins that assist in most chemical reactions in living organisms. Lactase that was mentioned in my last video is the enzyme responsible for breaking down the carbohydrate lactose. In addition to digestion, enzymes also metabolic energy pathways, genetic functions like transcription and translation, and signaling communication between cells, and the list continues.

Proteins are also crucial in forming the interior structure of the cell (the cytoskeleton) and are responsible for transporting materials both within the cell and between cells. And of course, our muscles are densely packed with proteins that facilitate the movement of our entire body.

Proteins also include antibodies involved in our immune response and hormones used to communicate specific actions in cells throughout the body.

That was quite the crash course into proteins. If you enjoyed this video let me know by hitting that like button and if you have additional comments or questions throw those below.
Don’t forget to check out my other videos and I’ll catch you next time!

"Royals" Parody - "Macromolecules"

Just something we did for extra credit in biology. Hopefully it can help you understand macromolecules better.(:

LYRICS:


[VERSE 1]
I've never learned so much in 4 months.
Just to study for mid terms, or at least try to.
And I'm not too proud of some grades,
but I've learned so much, all thanks to Mrs. Hayes.

[HOOK]
So lets talk about macromolecules,
there are only four types:
carbs, protein, lipids and nucleic acids.
We don't care,
we're acing every one of our tests.

[SECOND VERSE OF HOOK]
And they're made up of:
oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
carbon, which is what tells if its organic.
In the end,
they're what we're made of so they're our friends.

[CHORUS]
And they are made of monomers, (monomers)
Different kinds for everyone.
Amino acids for proteins,
it's every bio students dream.
We're pretty smart for high schoolers (schoolers)
Glucose is a mono-saccha-ride
and you know the formula (the formula)
C6h12 and O6 too

[VERSE 2]
Our class and I we've cracked the code,
nucleic acids store and transmit genetic info.
Proteins are enzymes which helps us grow.
Don't forget lipids,
they're used for energy storage (like carbohydrates)

[HOOK]
So lets talk about macromolecules,
there are only four types:
carbs, protein, lipids and nucleic acids.
We don't care,
we're acing every one of our tests.

[SECOND VERSE OF HOOK]
And they're made up of:
oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
carbon, which is what tells if its organic.
In the end,
they're what we're made of so they're our friends.

[CHORUS]
And they are made of monomers, (monomers)
Different kinds for everyone.
Lipids have fatty acids,
sorry if this song is too passive.
We're pretty smart for high schoolers (schoolers)
Nucleic acids have nucleotides,
and oh we'll try,
on the test to get it right.

Oooh ooooh ohhh
Its easier then it may seem, there's no need to fret and scream
Oooooh ooooh ohhhhh
Made by dehydration synthesis, a covalent bond forms this


[CHORUS]

And they are made of monomers, (monomers)
Different kinds for everyone.
This is the song from us to you,
we hope it might help you too
We're pretty smart for high schoolers (schoolers)
Glucose is a mono-saccha-ride
And you know its true,
We know it all because of you.

Biological Molecules | Cells | Biology | FuseSchool

Molecules make you think of chemistry, right? Well, they also are very important in biology too. In this video we are going to look at carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. When I say lipids, I am talking about fats and oils.

Life processes depend on biological molecules, whose structure is related to their function.

Did you know that living organisms are actually made from quite a small group of molecules? What do you think the most common molecule in you is?

It is actually water. About 55 to 60% of a human adult’s body weight comes from water. And in some organisms it can be up to 90% of their body weight!! [could show jellyfish here]
Your muscles and kidneys are particularly ‘watery’ at 79%, but even your bones have 31% water. Bet you didn’t expect that! Does that mean we really can walk on water?!

Ok, I’m done with the water for now. Imagine I removed all of the water from your body. What would be left? Well it would pretty much just be proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids such as DNA.

So what are these all made of? Well both carbohydrates and lipids are really simple; they both just contain three elements… carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Protein is a little more complex with four or five elements… carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulphur.

Let’s start by looking at carbohydrates. There are 3 main types of carbohydrate: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.

Simple sugars, like glucose and fructose, are monosaccharides.

Sucrose, which is made of 2 simple sugars joined together, is a disaccharide.

And some carbohydrates are polymers that are made of lots of sugars joined together, and so are called polysaccharides. Starch, glycogen and cellulose are three important polysaccharides. Cellulose is found in plant walls, and starch is the storage unit for surplus glucose made in photosynthesis. Glycogen is the storage unit used by animals for surplus glucose, and is found in liver and muscle tissues.

Starch is tested for using iodine solution. If the solution turns blue-black, then starch is present.

Now onto proteins… proteins are also polymers. But whereas in carbohydrates the monomer (or repeating unit) was glucose, for proteins it is amino acids.

The protein then folds up into a complex 3D shape, which is held together by weak bonds. The function of each protein depends on its shape.

Because enzymes are proteins, and the bonds holding proteins together are weak, this is why enzymes denature above certain temperatures. The bonds are broken and the structure of the protein is changed.
There are 20 different amino acids that make up proteins. The order of amino acids varies in different proteins and so 20 different amino acids means an almost infinite number of different proteins can be made. It is estimated that there are about 50,000 different proteins in the human body alone.
You will come across proteins everywhere…
In cell membranes where they control the movement of substances during active transport,
as enzymes - so in photosynthesis, respiration, DNA copying and digestion,
as hormones like insulin, oestrogen and testosterone,
and as antibodies for fighting infection to name just a few examples.

So that’s proteins and carbohydrates. Let’s end with lipids. Many lipids are triglycerides. These have a single glycerol molecule with three fatty acid tails attached.


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Enzymes (Updated)

The Amoeba Sisters explain enzymes and how they interact with their substrates. Vocabulary covered includes active site, induced fit, coenzyme, and cofactor. Also the importance of ideal pH and temperatures for enzymes are discussed. This video has a handout here:

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The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching biology at the high school level. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit:

We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook:

We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines and YouTube's policy center We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language.

Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library

We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES ~ Detailed AQA A-level Revision

A detailed summary of biological molecules required for AQA A-level biology, with a little bit of extra knowledge thrown in, just for luck :)

If you found this useful, please let me know! Feel free to comment with any suggestions for future videos.
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Introduction to amino acids | Macromolecules | Biology | Khan Academy

Understanding amino acids and their role in the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology (how the information in DNA eventually gets expressed as chains of amino acids). Thinking about the amino and carboxyl groups and how amino acids are typically found as zwitterions at physiological pH. How amino acid side chains can impact protein structure.

Watch the next lesson:

Missed the previous lesson?

Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course.

About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content.

For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything

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Protein Structure and Folding

After a polypeptide is produced in protein synthesis, it's not necessarily a functional protein yet! Explore protein folding that occurs within levels of protein structure with the Amoeba Sisters! Primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary protein structure levels are briefly discussed. Video also mentions chaperonins (chaperone proteins) and how proteins can be denatured.

Table of Contents:
0:41 Reminder of Protein Roles
1:06 Modifications of Proteins
1:25 Importance of Shape for Proteins
1:56 Levels of Protein Structure
2:06 Primary Structure
3:10 Secondary Structure
3:45 Tertiary Structure
4:58 Quaternary Structure [not in all proteins]
6:01 Proteins often have help in folding [introduces chaperonins]
6:40 Denaturing Proteins

*Further Reading Suggestions*

Related to Protein Misfoldings:




Learn About The Protein Folding Problem:



Factual References:

OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Jun 1, 2018

Reece, J. B., & Campbell, N. A. (2011). Campbell biology. Boston: Benjamin Cummings / Pearson.

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The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching biology at the high school level. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit:


We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook:

Our intro music designed and performed by Jeremiah Cheshire.

End music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library

We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines and YouTube's policy center We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language.

We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages, and we are thankful for those that contribute different languages! YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are not affiliated with any of the translated subtitle credits that YouTube may place below. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.

The Molecules of Life

Paul Andersen describes the macromolecules that make up living organisms. He starts with a brief description of organic chemistry and the importance of functional groups. He also covers both dehydration and hydrolysis in polymerization. He finally covers the four major macromolecules: nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates.

Intro Music Atribution
Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav
Artist: CosmicD
Link to sound:
Creative Commons Atribution License

Biological Molecules

042 - Biological Molecules

Paul Andersen describes the four major biological molecules found in living things. He begins with a brief discussion of polymerization. Dehydration synthesis is used to connect monomers into polymers and hydrolysis breaks them down again. The major characteristics of nucleic acids are described as well as there directionality from 3' to 5' end. Protein structure is describes as well as the structure of its monomers; amino acids. The carboxyl and amino ends of a protein are described. The major groups of lipids are included with a brief discussion of saturated, unsaturated and trans fats. Finally carbohydrates and their sugar monomers are discussed.

Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos:


Intro Music Atribution
Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav
Artist: CosmicD
Link to sound:
Creative Commons Atribution License

All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:
→AzaToth. Myoglobin 3D Structure, February 5, 2008. self made based on PDB entry.
en.wikibooks, Original uploader was Calibuon at. English: Each Nucleic Acid Contains Many Building Blocks Called Nucleotides. The Nucleotides Have a Distinctive Structure Composed of Three Components That Held Together by Covalent Bond:a Nitrogen-Containing Base (cytosine,thymine,acenine,guanine, a 5-Carbon Sugar - Ribose or Deoxyribose, a Phosphate Group., November 9, 2008. Transferred from en.wikibooks; transferred to Commons by User:Adrignola using CommonsHelper.
File:Alpha-D-Glucopyranose-2D-Skeletal.png. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 18, 2013.
File:Amino Acids.svg. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 18, 2013.
File:Beta-D-Glucopyranose-2D-Skeletal.png. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 18, 2013.
File:Biological Cell Vacuole.svg. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 18, 2013.
File:Common Lipids Lmaps.png. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 18, 2013.
File:Difference DNA RNA-EN.svg. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 18, 2013.
File:Nyc-Trans-Poster.gif. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, September 11, 2013.
File:Rasyslami.jpg. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 18, 2013.
File:Starchy-Foods..jpg. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 18, 2013.
glycoform. English: 3D Projection of Amylose, Alpha-1-4 Linked Glucose Polymer, January 3, 2009. Own work.
michael. Probable Nucleic Acid Precipitated., May 6, 2007. Probable Nucleic Acid precipitated.
Tyagi.anuj. Animo Group, August 20, 2008. Own work.

Biological Macromolecules

Information on the four macromolecules for Doc B's classes at MVCC
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Lipids | Fats, Steroids, and Phospholipids | Biological Molecules Simplified #4

Learn about all the macromolecules and more at

Lipids are more then just fats! And Fats are more then just the excess weight we gain as we make poor diet choices. Ironically steroids are also a lipid, and they make people buff...

Image Credit: OpenStax Biology

Thanks for stopping by, this is 2 Minute Classroom and today we are talking about lipids. If you’ve learned about lipids before, you probably associate them with fats, and while fats are a lipid, so are waxes, oils, steroids and phospholipids.

Lipids are macromolecules made up of long hydrocarbon chains, thus named because they are made up exclusively of hydrogen and carbon. These long hydrocarbon chains give lipids their non-polar property, which means they are not soluble in water. This is why oil separates out from water when mixed.

One of the most common components of certain lipids is the fatty acid. Three fatty acids come together with glycerol to form a larger molecule called a triglycerol or triglyceride. Triglycerides have various functions in the body, but a primary one is energy storage as fat or adipose.

Fatty acids also include saturated and unsaturated fats, trans fats, and the omega fatty acids, but we won’t go into their detailed differences in this video.

Another molecule that incorporates the fatty acid chain is the phospholipid, most famous for its formation of the phospholipid bilayer which protects a cell from outside intrusion. Phospholipids contain two non-polar fatty acid tails bound to a polar phosphoglycerol head. This is why they form a bilayer, because the nonpolar tails are attracted to each other and the heads are attracted to water solutions in and out of the cell. At some point I’ll make a video discussing just how awesome this cell membrane is.

Let’s talk about steroids next. And yes, this includes these type of steroids, but that is not the focus of this video. Steroids are hydrophobic and not water soluble like the other lipids, but they do not contain fatty acids. Instead, they have four cyclic rings linked together. This basic structure is then added to to give us common steroids like cholesterol and cortisol. Steroids have many functions throughout the body, including the presence of hormone steroids like progesterone and testosterone, both formed from cholesterol.

Finally, lets not forget about waxes. Waxes have a variety of unique structures, and are found in the feathers of some birds and leaf structures of many plants. This is why water beads up or runs off certain plants.

There is a lot more to lipids, we didn’t even talk about soaps and detergents, but this was a great overview. If you have additional questions about lipids or just want to show some love, comment below!

Then watch these videos and don’t forget to subscribe to reap all my latest content.
I’ll catch you next time.

Biological Molecules - You Are What You Eat

Ms. Parrott teaches about the structure and function of the four main biological molecules: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids. She also discusses what types of food are good sources of these molecules.

Proteins

What are proteins? Proteins are an essential part of the human diet. They are found in a variety of foods like eggs, dairy, seafood, legumes, meats, nuts, and seeds. Regardless of the source, the protein that we eat gets broken down and reformed into new proteins in our bodies.
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Medical disclaimer: Knowledge Diffusion Inc (DBA Osmosis) does not provide medical advice. Osmosis and the content available on Osmosis's properties (Osmosis.org, YouTube, and other channels) do not provide a diagnosis or other recommendation for treatment and are not a substitute for the professional judgment of a healthcare professional in diagnosis and treatment of any person or animal. The determination of the need for medical services and the types of healthcare to be provided to a patient are decisions that should be made only by a physician or other licensed health care provider. Always seek the advice of a physician or other qualified healthcare provider with any questions you have regarding a medical condition.

Carbohydrates & sugars - biochemistry

What are carbohydrates & sugars? Carbohydrates simple sugars as well as complex carbohydrates and provide us with calories, or energy. Find more videos at

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Our Vision: Everyone who cares for someone will learn by Osmosis.
Our Mission: To empower the world’s clinicians and caregivers with the best learning experience possible. Learn more here:

Medical disclaimer: Knowledge Diffusion Inc (DBA Osmosis) does not provide medical advice. Osmosis and the content available on Osmosis's properties (Osmosis.org, YouTube, and other channels) do not provide a diagnosis or other recommendation for treatment and are not a substitute for the professional judgment of a healthcare professional in diagnosis and treatment of any person or animal. The determination of the need for medical services and the types of healthcare to be provided to a patient are decisions that should be made only by a physician or other licensed health care provider. Always seek the advice of a physician or other qualified healthcare provider with any questions you have regarding a medical condition.

K-Bio Matter 3: Biological Molecules 1- Carbohydrates & Lipids

There may be nothing all that special about the elements we find in living systems, but there sure is something special about the way those elements are put together. In this video (part 1 of 2), Mr. Knuffke discusses two of the four major types of biological molecules: Carbohydrates and Lipids. An introduction to their structures and functions is provided, with examples from both groups to illustrate how differences in their structures leads to differences in their functions for life.

Thanks for watching! Do you still have questions? Would you like to make a request, or a correction? Leave a comment, send an email ( or check out the other resources available at

Slide handouts for this unit:

AP Curriculum Framework Video Correlations:
Link to standalone image credits:

Image Credits:
All images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing, except where otherwise noted. Attribution credit where applicable:
Dhatfield, derivative work: English: The Cell Membrane, Also Called the Plasma Membrane or Plasmalemma, Is a Semipermeable Lipid Bilayer Common to All Living Cells. It Contains a Variety of Biological Molecules, Primarily Proteins and Lipids, Which Are Involved in a Vast Array of Cellular Processes. It Also Serves as the Attachment Point for Both the Intracellular Cytoskeleton And, If Present, the Cell Wall., June 16, 2008. Cell_membrane_detailed_diagram_3.svg.
“File:5alpha-Dihydroprogesterone 3D Ball.png.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 4, 2016.
“File:Beta-D-Glucose-3D-Balls.png - Wikimedia Commons.” Accessed August 4, 2016.
“File:Common Lipids Lmaps.png.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 4, 2016.
“File:Estradiol.svg.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 4, 2016.
“File:Glycerol-3D-Balls.png.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 4, 2016.
“File:Glycogen Spacefilling Model.jpg.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, March 21, 2012.
“File:Glycogen Structure.svg.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 4, 2016.
“File:Oleic-Acid-3D-Ball-&-Stick.png - Wikimedia Commons.” Accessed August 4, 2016.
“File:Sucrose-3D-Balls.png - Wikimedia Commons.” Accessed August 4, 2016.
“File:Testosteron.svg.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 4, 2016.
“File:Trimyristin-3D-vdW.png - Wikimedia Commons.” Accessed August 4, 2016.
Jonathunder. English: A Pat of Butter, Served on a Leaf, with a Butter Knife and Bread, January 15, 2011. Own work.
Jynto. Ball-and-Stick Model of the α-Linolenic Acid Molecule, an Unsaturated Fatty Acid., June 9, 2011. Own work This chemical image was created with Discovery Studio Visualizer.
LHcheM. English: Sample of Urea in the Form of Granules, March 12, 2012. Own work.
Mills, Ben. Ball-and-Stick Model of the Water Molecule, H2O., April 29, 2008. Own work.
Mills, Jynto and Ben. Ball-and-Stick Model of the Palmitic Acid Molecule (also Known as Hexadecanoic Acid), a Saturated Fatty Acid with 16 Carbon Atoms., August 1, 2010. Derived from File:Caproic-acid-3D-balls.png.
———. Ball and Stick Model of the Urea Molecule., November 9, 2009. Derived from File:Acetamide-3D-balls.png.

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