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COVID-19 Insights: Does Coronavirus Really Attack Blood/Hemoglobin in the Cells?


COVID-19 Insights: Does Coronavirus Really Attack Blood/Hemoglobin in the Cells?

Errata. The hemoglobin I mention is the hemoglobin chain.

This report demonstrates that the hemoglobin and neutrophil counts of most patients have decreased, and the index values of serum ferritin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase of many patients increase significantly. This trace implies that the patient's hemoglobin is decreasing, and the heme is increasing, and the body will accumulate too many harmful iron ions, which will cause inflammation in the body and increase C-reactive protein and albumin.

Neutrophil longevity is modulated by heme

Tissues contain porphyrins


How COVID-19 Affects Your Blood

COVID-19 is a disease caused by a virus called SARS-CoV-2. Some people with COVID-19 develop abnormal blood clots, including lots of tiny clots in the smallest blood vessels.

This video is by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

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COVID-19 Insights: COVID-19 (by SARS-COV-2/Coronavirus) Signs, Symptoms and Management

Diseases lasts 2 weeks on average in 81% of the population
In 14% that become serious it can go on from 2 weeks to 6 weeks
in 5% critical cases it can go from 2 to 8 weeks

And, incubation time
Median incubation time is 5.1 days

Symptoms at onset*:
Fever (98%),
Dry cough (76%)
Fatigue & myalgia (44%)
Sputum production (28%)
Headache (8%)
Haemoptysis (5%)
Diarrhoea (3%)
Subsequent symptoms: dyspnoea (25%)

Mild cases: The majority (81%) of these coronavirus disease cases were mild cases. Mild cases include all patients without pneumonia or cases of mild pneumonia.

Severe cases: This includes patients who suffered from shortness of breath, respiratory frequency ≥ 30/minute, blood oxygen saturation ≤93%, PaO2/FiO2 ratio lesser than 300, and/or lung infiltrates greater than 50% within 24–48 hours. 

PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen)
FiO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen)
PaO2/FiO2 is called Horowitz index, or Carrico index and the PF ratio

Critical cases: Critical cases include patients who suffered respiratory failure, septic shock, and/or multiple organ dysfunction or failure.

Supportive management

Antivirals for COVID-19
According to the WHO
There are no known effective antivirals for coronavirus infections.
• Various candidates with potential anti-nCoV activity are being evaluated for clinical trial protocols (see module 15).
• Use of unregistered or unproven therapeutics for nCoV should be done under strict monitoring and ethical approval.
– Use WHO Monitored Emergency Use of Unregistered Interventions (MEURI) framework (see module 15)


Remdesivir cripples an enzyme called RNA polymerase that is used by many viruses to copy themselves; it does not specifically target SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

Article being critical of the remdesivir efficacy

Antimalarial and HIV medicine
Makes the cell organelle less acidic (raises their pH which interferes with the virus replication.)
It also interferes with the terminal glycosylation of the ACE2 receptor negatively influencing the virus receptor binding

COVID-19 | Pathophysiology

How does the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that causes the disease COVID-19 attack the body?
In this video, Dr Mike explains how the virus gets into the cells of the body and produces cough, pneumonia, cytokine storm, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Instagram: @drmiketodorovic

COVID-19 Insights: Heart Patients

Renin increases when the blood volume reduces. I said the other way.

Case fatality rates and comorbidities

New York

Chinese data till February 11th 2020
Case fatality rate (CFR)
Cardiovascular diseases: 10.5%
Diabetes: 7.3%
Chronic respiratory diseases: 6.3%
Hypertension: 6%
Cancer: 5.6%

Italy’s percentage of death with comorbidities out of 355 deaths studied:

HTN: 76%
DM: 36%
IHD (ischemic heart disease): 33%

ACE2 expression in the heart is lesser than intestine but more than lungs
ACE2 expression is increased in cardiac failure

15-30% of the COVID-19 patients have HTN
2.5-15% of the COVID-19 patients have heart disease

Angiotension receptors

Angiotension 1-7

Cardiac troponin

COVID-19 Insights: Blood Groups, Race And Severity of COVID-19

How does COVID-19 severity changes in people with various blood groups?

Are African Americans at a greater risk of severe COVID-19?

Blood group A is at a significantly higher risk of COVID-19 infection and severity.
Blood group O is at a significantly lower risk of COVID-19 infection and severity.

Blood type O have a lower level of vWF

Blood groups
A blood group has A antigen

Black Americans are dying at a 2.6 times higher rate than white Americans. (NY)

Chicago Black Americans make 70% of all deaths from coronavirus. While their population is only 29% of the city.

Black Americans have higher von Willebrand Factor

Vitamin D levels are low in Black Americans

Adiponectin and hypertension

Reduces adiponectin receptor function in obesity

Reduced adiponectin release in obesity leading to hypertension, atherosclerosis, CKD, metabolic syndromes, COPD, sleep apnea, etc.

COVID-19 (SARS Coronavirus 2) - timeline, pathophysiology (ARDS), coronavirus life cycle, treatment

The World health organization (WHO) has declared COVID-19 a pandemic. COVID 19 stands for coronavirus disease 2019 and is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in people and many different species of animals including cats and bats. Common human coronavirus typically causes a URTI, like the common cold. Most people get infected with one or more of these viruses at some point in their lives. The human coronavirus infection typically resolves on its own with basic rest while feeling miserable.

Rarely, the coronaviruses that infect animals can evolve and become a new human coronavirus which then infect and spread between people. Important examples of these type of coronavirus include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS CoV for short in 2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus also known as MERS.

COVID-19 | Coronavirus: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnostics

Ninja Nerds,

What is Corona virus? What is COVID-19? Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-COV2 is a new strain that was discovered in 2019 and has not been previously identified in humans.
Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people.  Detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to humans and MERS-CoV from camels to humans. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans. It is believed that COVID-19 was transmitted from pangolin to humans (current theory).
Common signs of infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death (WHO, 2020).
Ninja Nerd Lectures has compiled the most up to date and recent data on COVID-19 as of March 15, 2020. Please follow along with this lecture to understand the origin and zoonosis of COVID-19, the routes of transmission, epidemiology (current as of 3/15/2020), pathophysiology, and diagnostic tests used to identify COVID-19.
As new information and research is published we will continue to provide updates on COVID-19 and ensure all of our viewers are kept up to date on the most recent data.


REFERENCES: World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

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How Coronavirus Kills: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) & COVID 19 Treatment

How COVID-19 causes fatalities from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) by pulmonologist and critical care specialist Dr. Seheult of
This video illustrates how viruses such as the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 can cause pneumonia or widespread lung inflammation resulting in ARDS.
Includes evidenced-based ARDS treatment breakthrough strategies: Low tidal volume ventilation, paralysis, and prone positioning.

Note: this video was recorded on January 28, 2020, with the best information available. Acute respiratory distress is, of course, not the ONLY way COVID 19 causes fatalities (other causes include heart failure, thrombosis (stroke), etc.)


Or here on YouTube:



Looking for CME, MOC Points, or CE / CEUs?

We have that too - Over 40 hours of accreditation!

Most of our medical lectures and quizzes are not on YouTube (the complete and updated video library is at

Speaker: Roger Seheult, MD
Co-Founder of
Clinical and Exam Preparation Instructor
Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine.

Video produced by Kyle Allred

MedCram = More understanding in less time

Topics from our COVID-19 pandemic series include: coronavirus spread, How Hospitals & Clinics Can Prepare for COVID-19, The ACE-2 Receptor - The Doorway to COVID-19 (ACE Inhibitors & ARBs), Flatten The COVID-19 Curve, Social Distancing, New Outbreaks & Travel Restrictions, Possible COVID-19 Treatments, Italy Lockdown, Global Testing Remains Limited, Coronavirus Epidemic Update 32: Data from South Korea, Can Zinc Help Prevent corona virus? Mortality Rate, Cleaning Products, A More/Less Severe Virus Strain? More Global COVID-19 Outbreaks, Vitamin D May Aid Prevention, Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), Rapid antigen tests, mutations, COVID-19 in Iran & more. has medical education topics explained clearly including: Respiratory lectures such as Asthma and COPD. Renal lectures on Acute Renal Failure, Urinalysis, and The Adrenal Gland. Internal medicine videos on Oxygen Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve / Oxyhemoglobin Curve and Medical Acid Base. A growing library on critical care topics such as Shock, Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), aortic stenosis, and Mechanical Ventilation. Cardiology videos on Hypertension, ECG / EKG Interpretation, and heart failure. VQ Mismatch and Hyponatremia lectures have been popular among medical students and physicians. The Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) videos, how coronavirus causes morbidity and mortality, and Ventilator-associated pneumonia lectures have been particularly popular with RTs. NPs and PAs have provided great feedback on Pneumonia Treatment and Liver Function Tests among many others. Mechanical ventilation for nursing and the emergency & critical care RN course is available at Dr. Jacquet teaches our EFAST exam tutorial, lung sonography & bedside ultrasound courses. Many nursing students have found the Asthma and shock lectures very helpful. We're starting a new course series on clinical ultrasound & ultrasound medical imaging in addition to other radiology lectures.

Recommended Audience - Clinicians and medical students including physicians (MD and DO), nurse practitioners (NPs) , physician assistants (PAs), nurses (RNs), respiratory therapists (RTs), EMT and paramedics, and other clinicians. Review and test prep for USMLE, MCAT, PANCE, NCLEX, NAPLEX, NBDE, RN, RT, MD, DO, PA, NP school and board examinations. Continuing Medical Education (CME), MOC Points, CEU / CEs for medical professionals.

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Please note: MedCram medical videos, medical lectures, medical illustrations, and medical animations are for medical education and exam preparation purposes, and not intended to replace recommendations by your doctor or health care provider.

#coronavirus #COVID19 #ARDS

COVID 19 Part 1: Basic Pathophysiology

Part one in a series as of 17 March 2020.

How COVID-19 Has Affected Sickle Cell Disease Patients

Jonathan Sorof, MD, Head of Medical Affairs at Global Blood Therapeutics (GBT) talks about the way patients with sickle cell disease have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Sickle cell disease, as described by the NIH, is an inherited blood disorder. Early symptoms usually occur in childhood and include swelling, fatigue, and jaundice. As the disease progresses, there is an increased risk of infections, delayed growth, and periodic episodes of pain. Over time, organ damage can occur, creating problems in the spleen, brain, eyes, lungs, liver, heart, kidneys, penis, joints, bones, and/or skin.

The primary way in which the current pandemic has affected sickle cell disease patients is by limiting treatment options, especially those in need of transfusions or emergency care. Last November, the FDA approved GBT’s voxelotor, an oral therapy which specifically inhibits sickle hemoglobin polymerization, the direct cause of sickle cell disease. As Dr. Sorof mentions, the availability of voxelotor is crucial since it can be administered at home.

One positive effect of the pandemic that Dr. Sorof also mentioned, is the increased use of telehealth, which has allowed sickle cell disease patients to communicate with their doctors without exposing themselves or others to unnecessary danger.

To keep up to date on the latest development in sickle cell disease and other rare conditions, please sign up to our weekly newsletter at

Coronavirus outbreak (covid 19) explained through 3D Medical Animation

This video is available in different language subtitles English, Korean (
Our dedicated microsite-
The 2019 nCoV Novel Coronavirus is fast threatening to become a pandemic. This 3D medical animation explains the story so far, covering what is a pandemic, current rates of infection and tips to protect against infections. It also delves into the biology and mechanism of action MoA that coronavirus uses to infect and destroy human cells. Though the exact MoA for this coronavirus is not known.

Check back daily for more information as it develops. Alternatively, see our website: , or our dedicated microsite above. The PDF in the video is available for free download also. It is provided under a Wiki CC4.0 creative commons license.

For those of you leading government or private institutions or in the medical community , and if you think our visualizations can help in any way, please feel free to reach out.

Also, any voice over artists, translators, that can offer to support our effort, please contact us on .

Link to the 3D structure mentioned in the video:

T cell Responses in COVID-19

Watch our quick presentation to learn more about the importance of the cell response during coronavirus infection. We also discuss a variety of BioLegend tools that help accelerate COVID-19 research, including multiplexing assay and antibodies for flow cytometry, proteogenomics, and western blotting.

The State of COVID-19: Virus Emergence, the Impact of the Pandemic, and Preparedness and Response

At the 2020 NAM Annual Meeting, Anthony S. Fauci delivered a keynote address focused on COVID-19 Public Health and Scientific Challenges, followed by a panel discussion moderated by Sanjay Gupta and featuring Susan R. Weiss, Chikwe Ihekweazu, and Nicole Lurie.

COVID-19 Pathophysiology A Complete Review (Aug 13th 2020)

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COVID-19 Insights: Will Steam Kill the SARS-COV-2 inside The Cells?

We have been getting a lots of messages that people are using hot fluids and steam to kill the virus. We explain here that not only this will not kill the virus, but, it will also cause sever damage to our mouth, throat, and respiratory system. Potentially even causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (due to widespread airway tissue damage,) and kill the person.

Here is a study to refer to for the points I have made:

COVID 19 Part 14: Poisoned Haemoglobin?

Does this happen clinically? I discuss a widely misunderstood idea that is propagating rapidly. Original article:

Carrying sickle cell trait may make you vulnerable to COVID-19, UTHealth research shows

September is National Sickle Cell Awareness Month, and new research being done at UTHealth is shedding light on the very serious risks related to the disease and COVID-19.


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How COVID19 attacks hemoglobin | Hypothesis

#covid19 #hemoglobin
This is a hypothesis, more than a study which was based on computer simulation. I mention this at the end of the video - it's has not been tested in vitro or in vivo, so it should be taken with a grain of salt. Please watch the entire video before commenting .
In this video we talk about the action of COVID-19 on hemoglobin in the red blood cells. COVID-19 binds to the iron molecules on heme and therefore prohibits its transport to the different organs throughout the body. This leads to hypoxia and shortness of breath in the patient.
Remember that this is an illustration, not a real life specimen because that would be impossible to do with #covid19
This video does not contain any medical advice, consult your own doctor for any medical concerns.

Could red blood cells hold the secret to treating COVID-19?

CINCINNATI (WKRC) – One of the most severe complications of the coronavirus is called Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. It generally results when fluid accumulates in the lungs and oxygen can’t cross it, so patients can’t breathe.

“We are starting to realize that maybe that’s not true,” said Dr. Zach Jenkins, an infectious disease specialist with Cedarville University. “There's been some data coming out how ventilators are doing more harm than good in some of these COVID-19 patients. One of the things that’s actually been proposed is actually this idea that hemoglobin is attacked by COVID-19.”

Hemoglobin is a red blood cell responsible for grabbing on to oxygen and helping to carry it around the body. A recent study by Chinese researchers revealed that COVID-19 attacks hemoglobin in the red blood cells and renders them incapable of transporting oxygen.

“The thought is that maybe we need to ventilate less in the patients that may be present, looking a little bit more like it’s an oxygen delivery system issue as opposed to an oxygen absorption issue. So, for those patients, we would typically just give them high-flow oxygen. We wouldn't put them on the ventilator, and there's a lot of other thoughts on that as well, but that would be the strategy for getting the oxygen demands to increase,” said Dr. Jenkins.

Dr. Jenkins admits this is just one theory right now for COVID-19 complications.

“There’s some other discussion that maybe some small blood clots that may be occurring that can decrease blood flow, and we know this virus can damage the lung itself,” said Dr. Jenkins. “This is evolving so quickly before our eyes, and we’re getting more and more data every day. Unfortunately, we’re really drowning in information and starving for wisdom right now.”



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