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Carbohydrates Part 1: Simple Sugars and Fischer Projections

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Carbohydrates Part 1: Simple Sugars and Fischer Projections

It's the night before the big game! You're carbo-loading! Wait, what are carbs? Did you know that sugar is a carbohydrate? You didn't?! Well, you'd better watch this, my friend. We will cover all the monosaccharides in their linear and cyclic form. That'll get you up to speed. Now get some sleep! You'll need to be rested if you're going to beat those kids from Khan Academy in the morning.

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Carbohydrates - Haworth & Fischer Projections With Chair Conformations

This organic chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into carbohydrates. It explains how to convert the fischer projection of glucose into the haworth projection and the chair conformation.

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Here is a list of topics:
1. Intro to Carbohydrates
2. Monosaccharides - Glucose, Fructose, & Galactose
3. Disaccharides - Sucrose, Maltose, and Lactose
4. Polysaccharides - Starch & Cellulose
5. Fischer Projection of D-Glucose and D-Fructose
6. D and L notations of sugars
7. Epimers - Glucose and Galactose
8. Aldohexoses vs Ketohexoses
9. Fischer Projection to Haworth Projection
10. Anomers - Alpha D-Glucose vs Beta D-Glucose
11. Haworth Projection to Chair Conformation of Glucose

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Carbohydrates Part 2: Polysaccharides

Now that we know about simple sugars, we need to know about how these polymerize to form long polysaccharide chains, like cellulose, starch, and glycogen. Check it out!

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Carbohydrates (Part 1 of 4) - Introduction

Moof's Medical Biochemistry Video Course:

For Related Practice Problems with Worked Video Solutions on Carbohydrates, visit courses.moofuniversity.com.

In this video, I introduce the topic of carbohydrates / sugars.

(CH2O)n is the general formula for a monosaccharide or simple sugar. Glucose (C6H12O6) is a very common and very important example.

Carbohydrate names end in “-ose”
Aldoses have aldehydes in their straight-chain forms (depicted as Fischer projections)
Ketones have ketones in their straight-chain forms (depicted as Fischer projections)

There are D sugars and L sugars, and the convention is based on the Fischer projections of D-glyceraldehyde and L-glyceraldehyde. The two are enantiomers because they are opposite in absolute configuration at all of their chiral centers (which, in this case, is only one). D-glyceraldehyde has an OH on the right, while L-glyceraldehyde has an OH on the left. Sugars that have their last OH on the right are D sugars; sugars that have their last OH are L sugars. Most sugars that exist in life forms are D sugars.

In the video, I depict the difference between Fischer projections (straight chain sugars) and Haworth projections (sugars in their ring forms). I also briefly mention the idea of anomers as a class of epimers, which are a specific class of diastereomers.

Diastereomers are stereoisomers that differ in at least one, but not all chiral centers.
Epimers are stereoisomers that differ at only one chiral center (they are a subclass of diastereomers).
Anomers are stereoisomers that differ at only one chiral center when that chiral center is specifically the anomeric carbon, the stereocenter that forms when a sugar forms a ring. Anomers are a subclass of epimers.

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Aldoses, Ketoses, Fischer Projections and Epimers

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Chapter 22 – Carbohydrate Chemistry: Part 1 of 3

In this video I'll introduce you to carbohydrate chemistry, by teaching you about Fischer (Fisher) projections and how to inter-covert between them and traditional wedge-and-dash structures. --Dr. Mike Christiansen from Utah State University.

Carbohydrates & sugars - biochemistry

What are carbohydrates & sugars? Carbohydrates simple sugars as well as complex carbohydrates and provide us with calories, or energy. Find more videos at

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Fischer & Haworth projection formulae for Glucose (Biomolecules class 12 chemistry )

Fischer & Haworth projection formulae for Glucose. fischer structures and haworth structures are important in biomelecules chapter. in this video i explained about glucose (monosaccharides) of carbohydrates.

Super Trick for Haworth and Fischer Projection of Glucose and Fructose | Part 1 | Carbohydrates |

Carbohydrates - cyclic structures and anomers | Chemical processes | MCAT | Khan Academy

Created by Ryan Scott Patton.

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MCAT on Khan Academy: Go ahead and practice some passage-based questions!

About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content.

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Fischer to Haworth Projection

Fischer to Haworth Projection: This video gives an elaborate explanation on how the cyclic Haworth projection is formed from the open chain Fischer projection for both galactose and glucose. More specifically, it builds from the old presentation and comes into its own at 3min 10 seconds giving an elaboration on how (and why) the OH group on carbon 5 bonds with carbon number 1 as opposed to the OH from the 6th carbon. The presentation also explains how to label alpha and beta anomers for both D and L glucose and galactose while also proving a range of examinable questions with model answers. Enjoy :-)

Chapter 22 – Carbohydrate Chemistry: Part 2 of 3

In this video I'll continue teaching you about carbohydrate chemistry by showing you how to classify simple sugars and how to distinguish between D and L sugars. I'll also teach you what happens when sugars are reacted with sodium borohydride (NaBH4), bromine (Br2), and nitric acid (HNO3). I'll teach you further about the Fischer-Kiliani synthesis, the Wohl degradation (with mechanisms). --Dr. Mike Christiansen from Utah State University.

For a good article showing the mechanism of bromine oxidation, see the last page of this link:

Fischer projections | Chemical processes | MCAT | Khan Academy

Created by Jay.

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MCAT on Khan Academy: Go ahead and practice some passage-based questions!

About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content.

For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything

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Drawing Fischer Projections of Aldopentose

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Monosaccharides - Glucose, Fructose, Galactose, & Ribose - Carbohydrates

This biology video tutorial provides a basic introduction into carbohydrates such as monosaccharides which include Glucose, Fructose, Galactose, and Ribose.

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Fischer to Haworth and Chair for Glucose and Fructose (Vid 5 of 5)

Presents: Converting a Fischer Projection to Haworth and Chair conformation for Glucose, and Fructose Fischer to Haworth

Catch this entire video series + practice quiz and cheat sheet on my website:

Video 5 of 5 in my in my Fischer Projection series shows you my shortcut for converting from the linear D-Glucose to a Haworth Ring and chair conformation, and then a similar trick for converting D-Fructose from linear to cyclic form.

Chair Conformations Tutorial:

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Lecture - 16 Carbohydrates I

Lecture Series on BioChemistry I by Prof.S.Dasgupta, Dept of Chemistry, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEl visit

Introduction to Monosaccharides & Fischer Projections

This webcast introduces the monosaccharides and describes how to draw them using Fischer projections.

Simple Sugars & Complex Carbs

Simple sugars, starch, glycogen... A few words on how carbs are classified, digested and absorbed [Nutrition Steps 4.2]

Drawing Fischer Projections & Terminology of D and L Sugars

for video on jOeCHEM and attached worksheet + solution (below video on jOeCHEM aka the link)

In this video, we'll look at how to represent sugars (monosaccharides) with Fischer Projections. There's some new terminology we need to cover, so we'll talk about how to reference the # of carbons in a sugar, whether a sugar is D or L, and how to properly name a sugar.

You may need to memorize 3-6 carbon aldoses and ketoses, so be sure to check with your professor/instructor if you have to or don't have to.

Carbohydrate series -

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