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DC Motors: How Do They Work? Construction & Working Principle of a DC Motor | Electrical4U


DC Motors: How Do They Work? Construction & Working Principle of a DC Motor | Electrical4U

Understand EXACTLY how a DC Motor works. We discuss the construction & working principle of a DC Motor. Using Fleming’s left-hand rule, we show you how to determine the direction the winding will spin. Learn more about the operation of DC motors:

The DC motor is of vital importance for the industry today and is equally important for engineers to look into the working principle of DC motor in details that we have discussed in this article. To understand the operating principle of DC motor we need to first look into its single loop constructional feature.

The very basic construction of a DC motor contains a current-carrying armature, connected to the supply end through commutator segments and brushes. The armature is placed in between the north pole and south pole of a permanent or an electromagnet as shown in the diagram above.

As soon as we supply direct current in the armature, a mechanical force acts on it due to the electromagnetic effect of the magnet on armature conductors. Now to go into the details of the operating principle of DC motor it is important that we have a clear understanding of Fleming’s left-hand rule to determine the direction of the force acting on the armature conductors of DC motor.

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DC Motor, How it works?

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The working of a DC motor is well explained in this video with the help of animation. Construction details of DC Motor, Shunt & Series motor, concept of back EMF are also explained in this video.

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Working Principle of DC Motor (animation of elementary model)

Working Principle of DC Motor - Video gives an brief explanation in form of animation how does DC Motor works. Also you can view working principle on elementary model with poles, commutators, brushes, turns and what role in working principles has mechanical force.

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This DC or direct current motor works on the principal, when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a torque and has a tendency to move.
This is known as motoring action. If the direction of current in the wire is reversed, the direction of rotation also reverses. When magnetic field and electric field interact they produce a mechanical force, and based on that the working principle of DC motor is established.

The direction of rotation of a this motor is given by Fleming’s left hand rule, which states that if the index finger, middle finger and thumb of your left hand are extended mutually perpendicular to each other and if the index finger represents the direction of magnetic field, middle finger indicates the direction of current, then the thumb represents the direction in which force is experienced by the shaft of the DC motor.
Structurally and construction wise a direct current motor is exactly similar to a DC generator, but electrically it is just the opposite. Here we unlike a generator we supply electrical energy to the input port and derive mechanical energy from the output port








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DC Machine: Construction And Working Principle (DC Motor & DC Generator)

A SIMPLE explanation of the construction and working principle of a DC Machine (DC Motor or DC Generator). Understand the parts of a DC Machine and the construction of a DC Machine. Learn more about DC motors at:

And our article on the construction of a DC Generator:

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How does an Electric Motor work? (DC Motor)

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Electric motors can seem very mysterious! How do they use electricity to start rotating? Let's break it down step by step to understand how it works. Topics covered in this video: circuits, current, magnets, electromagnets, armature, commutator, brushes, stator, and rotor. This video only covers DC motors.

00:00 - Intro
00:41 - Circuits
01:22 - Magnets
02:27 - Electromagets
04:28 - Improvements to Electric Motor
05:00 - Commutator and Brushes
07:19 - Improving Torque
08:20 - Devices with Motors
09:00 - Brilliant

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Special thanks to those that reviewed this video:
Chad Williams
Ben Francis
Kevin Smith

Internet Sources:

-- How DC Motors Work (National MagLab)
-- How DC motors and universal motors work (Matthias Wandel)
-- How does an Electromagnet work? (Science Buddies)
-- DC Motor Explained - Basic working principle how DC motor works (The Engineering Mindset)

Book Sources:
Schaum's Outline of Basic Electricity, Second Edition by Milton Gussow

How Things Work: The Physics of Everyday Life, 4th Edition by Louis A. Bloomfield

Electric motor image credit:
By Marrrci - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

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Construction and Working of a DC Motor (3D Animation)

Re-uploaded with updates: Details of construction and working of a dc motor is explained in this video.

How does an Electric Motor work? DC Motor explained

DC Motor explained - in this video we look at how does a dc motor work to understand the basic working principle of a DC motor. We consider conventional current, electron flow, the winding, armature, rotor, shaft, stator, brushes, brush arms, terminals, emf, electromagnets, magnetic attraction as well as detailed animations for how the dc motor works.


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DC Motor Working Principle - How it Works?

DC Motor Working Principle - How it Works?

Working Principle Of DC Motor ( #DCMotor )
The working of a DC motor is well explained in this video with the help of animation and real voice including DC Motor Construction details. Also the concept of back EMF is explained in this video.

How a DC Motor Works - Before understanding the working of DC motor first, we need to think about their development. The armature and stator are the two fundamental pieces of the DC motor. The armature is the moving part, and the stator is their stationary part. The armature loop is connected with the DC supply.

The armature curl comprises the commutators and brushes. The commutators convert the AC initiates in the armature into DC and brushes exchange the current from turning some portion of the engine to the stationary outside burden. The armature is put between the north and south shaft of the lasting or electromagnet.

For effortlessness, think about that the armature has just one curl which is put between the attractive field appeared in the figure A. At the point when the DC supply is given to the armature loop the present begins coursing through it. This current builds up their very own field around the curl. Figure B demonstrates the field actuates around the loop.

By the cooperation of the fields (delivers by the loop and the magnet), resultant field creates over the conductor. The resultant field will in general recover its unique position, for example in the pivot of the principle field. The field applies the power at the closures of the conductor, and in this manner the curl begins pivoting.

Let the field creates by the fundamental field be Fm, and this field pivots the clockwise way. At the point when the present streams in the curl, they produce their own attractive field says Fr. The field Fr endeavors to come toward the fundamental field. In this manner, the torque follow up on the armature curl.

The genuine DC engine comprises an enormous number of armature curls. The speed of the engine is legitimately corresponding to the quantity of curls utilized in the engine. These curls are held under the effect of the attractive field.

The one end of the conductors are held affected by north post, and the opposite end is held affected by the South shaft. The present goes into the armature loop through the north shaft and move outwards through the south post. At the point when the curl moves starting with one brush then onto the next, in the meantime the extremity of the loop likewise changes. In this way, the heading of the power or torque following up on the loop stays same.

The torque initiates in the loop become zero when the armature curl is opposite to the principle field. The zero torque implies the engine quits pivoting. For tackling this issue, the quantity of armature curl is utilized in the rotor. So on the off chance that one of their curls is opposite to the field, at that point different loops incite the torque. What's more, the rotor moves ceaselessly.

Likewise, for getting the persistent torque, the game plan is kept so that at whatever point the loops cut the attractive impartial pivot of the magnet the course of current in the curls become turned around. This should be possible with the assistance of the commutator.

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Understand the Working and Construction of a DC Motor | CBSE Class 10 Physics @Vedantu Class 9 & 10

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How Does Permanent Magnet DC Motor or PMDC Motor work ?

Permanent Magnet DC Motor or PMDC Motor 3d construction and working principle

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In a DC motor, an armature rotates inside a magnetic field. Basic working principle of DC motor is based on the fact that whenever a current carrying conductor is placed inside a magnetic field, there will be mechanical force experienced by that conductor. All kinds of DC motors work in this principle only. Hence for constructing a DC motor it is essential to establish a magnetic field. The magnetic field is obviously established by means of magnet. The magnet can by any types i.e. it may be electromagnet or it can be permanent magnet. When permanent magnet is used to create magnetic field in a DC motor, the motor is referred as permanent magnet DC motor or PMDC motor. Have you ever uncovered any battery operated toy, if you did, you had obviously found a battery operated motor inside it. This battery operated motor is nothing but a permanent magnet dc motor or PMDC motor. These types of motor are essentially simple in construction. These motors are commonly used as starter motor in automobiles, windshield wipers, washer, for blowers used in heaters and air conditioners, to raise and lower windows, it also extensively used in toys. As the magnetic field strength of a permanent magnet is fixed it cannot be controlled externally, field control of this type of dc motor cannot be possible. Thus permanent magnet DC motor is used where there is no need of speed control of motor by means of controlling its field. Small fractional and sub fractional kW motors now constructed with permanent magnet.

Construction of Permanent Magnet DC Motor or PMDC Motor

As it is indicated in name of permanent magnet DC motor, the field poles of this motor are essentially made of permanent magnet. A PMDC motor mainly consists of two parts. A stator and an armature. Here the stator which is a steel cylinder. The magnets are mounted in the inner periphery of this cylinder. The permanent magnets are mounted in such a way that the N – pole and S – pole of each magnet are alternatively faced towards armature as shown in the figure below. That means, if N – pole of one magnet is faced towards armature then S – pole of very next magnet is faced towards armature. In addition to holding the magnet on its inner periphery, the steel cylindrical stator also serves as low reluctance return path for the magnetic flux. Although field coil is not required in permanent magnet DC motor but still it is sometimes found that they are used along with permanent magnet. This is because if permanent magnets lose their strength, these lost magnetic strengths can be compensated by field excitation through these field coils. Generally, rare earth hard magnetic materials are used for these permanent magnet.

Rotor : The rotor of pmdc motor is similar to other DC motor. The rotor or armature of permanent magnet DC motor also consists of core, windings and commutator. Armature core is made of number of varnish insulated, slotted circular lamination of steel sheets. By fixing these circular steel sheets one by one, a cylindrical shaped slotted armature core is formed. The varnish insulated laminated steel sheets are used to reduce eddy current loss in armature of permanent magnet dc motor. These slots on the outer periphery of the armature core are used for housing armature conductors in them. The armature conductors are connected in a suitable manner which gives rise to armature winding. The end terminals of the winding are connected to the commutator segments placed on the motor shaft. Like other DC motor, carbon or graphite brushes are placed with spring pressure on the commutator segments to supply current to the armature.

Working Principle of Permanent Magnet DC Motor or PMDC Motor
As we said earlier the working principle of PMDC motor is just similar to the general working principle of DC motor. That is when a carrying conductor comes inside a magnetic field, a mechanical force will be experienced by the conductor and the direction of this force is governed by Fleming’s left hand rule. As in a permanent magnet DC motor, the armature is placed inside the magnetic field of permanent magnet; the armature rotates in the direction of the generated force. Here each conductor of the armature experiences the mechanical force F = B.I.L Newton where, B is the magnetic field strength in Tesla (weber / m2), I is the current in Ampere flowing through that conductor and L is length of the conductor in metre comes under the magnetic field. Each conductor of the armature experiences a force and the compilation of those forces produces a torque, which tends to rotate the armature.

PMDC motor is extensively used where small DC motors are required and also very effective control is not required, such as in automobiles starter, toys, wipers, washers, etc .

Brushless DC Motor, How it works ?

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The working of a BLDC motor is explained in this video with help of animation.

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Construction and Working of DC Motor Electrical

DC Motors - Construction & Working of DC Motors - Shunt & Series Motors

This EzEd Video Lecture covers
- Construction of DC Motors
- Working of DC Motors
- Types Of Motors
- Shunt Motor
- Series Motor

Working Principle of a DC Motor - DC Machines - Basic Electrical Engineering - First Year Engg

Video Lecture on Working Principle of a DC Motor of Chapter DC Machine of Subject Basic Electrical Engineering for First-Year Engineering Students.

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Three Point Starter: Explanation & Working Principle

A SIMPLE explanation of 3 point starters. Learn what a 3 point starter is and the formula and working principle of a three point starter. You can learn more about 3 point starters here:

Note that three-point starters are also commonly referred to as 3 point motors.

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DC Motor | DC Motor Working Principle, Construction and Types [Hindi]

DC Motor | DC Motor Working Principle, Construction and Types [Hindi]

In This Video we will Learn-
1. What is DC Motor.
2. Construction of DC Motor.
3. Working Principle of DC Motor.
4. Fleming's Left hand Rule.
5. Types of DC Motor .

So watch this video learn about DC Motor.

Thanks for watching This Video!



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