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Developmental biology lecture | embryo development

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Developmental biology lecture | embryo development

Embryo development - This developmental biology lecture explains different stages of embryonic development in details. It includes the explanation for fertilization, morula, blastula and gastrula in step by step. It also explains the neurulation in frog and chick embryo. it explains the morphogenesis pattern in drosophila development.
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Developmental Biology-Introductory Video (#DB-1)

This is the first video on developmental biology, Unit 5 of CSIR NET LIFE SCIENCES. Inside we have discussed potency, totipotency, pluripotency, multipotency, oligopotency and unipotency. We have also discussed specification and determination steps of stem cells or undifferentiated cells. Consider watching till the end and enjoy the video.
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Introduction to Embryological Development

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Early embryogenesis - Cleavage, blastulation, gastrulation, and neurulation | MCAT | Khan Academy

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Developmental biology part 1 : introduction and grey crescent formation

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Embryogenesis is the step in the life cycle after fertilisation -- the development of the embryo, starting from the zygote (fertilised egg). Organisms can differ drastically in how the embryo develops, especially when they belong to different phyla. For example, embryonal development in placental mammals starts with cleavage of the zygote into eight uncommited cells, which then form a ball (morula). The outer cells become the trophectoderm or trophoblast, which will form in combination with maternal uterine endometrial tissue the placenta, needed for fetal nurturing via maternal blood, while inner cells become the inner cell mass that will form all fetal organs (the bridge between these two parts eventually forms the umbilical cord). In contrast, the fruit fly zygote first forms a sausage-shaped syncytium, which is still one cell but with many cell nuclei.[18]

Patterning is important for determining which cells develop into which organs. This is mediated by signaling between adjacent cells by proteins on their surfaces, and by gradients of signaling secreted molecules.[19] An example is retinoic acid, which forms a gradient in the head to tail direction in animals. Retinoic acid enters cells and activates Hox genes in a concentration-dependent manner -- Hox genes differ in how much retinoic acid they require for activation and will thus show differential rostral expression boundaries, in a colinear fashion with their genomic order. As Hox genes code for transcription factors, this causes different activated combinations of both Hox and other genes in discrete anteroposterior transverse segments of the neural tube (neuromeres) and related patterns in surrounding tissues, such as branchial arches, lateral mesoderm, neural crest, skin and endoderm, in the head to tail direction.This is important for e.g. the segmentation of the spine in vertebrates.

Embryonic development does not always proceed correctly, and errors can result in birth defects or miscarriage. Often the reason is genetic (mutation or chromosome abnormality), but there can be environmental influence (like teratogens) or stochastic events. Abnormal development caused by mutation is also of evolutionary interest as it provides a mechanism for changes in body plan (see evolutionary developmental biology).

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Eric Wieschaus (Princeton) Part 1: Patterning Development in the Embryo



Following fertilization, the single celled embryo undergoes a number of mitotic divisions to produce a ball of cells called a blastula or blastoderm. Although these cells are all genetically identical, they gradually begin to express different gene products that reflect the regions of the adult body they will form. In my first lecture I discuss how these initial patterns of gene expression arise. In Drosophila, a maternally supplied transcription factor called Bicoid plays a particularly important role. Bcd RNA is anchored at the anterior end of the egg but is only translated after fertilization. From that anterior source, Bcd protein is thought to diffuse through the egg, establishing a concentration gradient that activates different genes at different thresholds. See more at
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Drosophila embryo development

GENERAL EMBRYOLOGY - THE THIRD WEEK OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

THE THIRD WEEK OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Developmental biology part 7 : Development of chick

This embryology lecture under the developmental biology series explains the development of chick from egg after fertilization.
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Drosophila development

Drosophila development biology lecture - This developmental biology lecture explains about the drosophila development including the body axis determination of drosophila and the gastrulation and formation of body patterns. It explains the role of genetic interactions in the morphogenesis of drosophila embryo to the adult fly in details.
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A Lecture in Cell and Developmental Biology: Mechanobiology and Developmental Control

Donald E. Ingber, Founding Director of the Wyss Institute, Judah Folkman Professor of Vascular Biology at Harvard Medical School, and Professor of Bioengineering at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, talks about his article Mechanobiology and Developmental Control, which he wrote with Tadanori Mammoto and Akiko Mammoto for the 2013 Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. He discusses the role of physical and mechanical forces in the control of cell development and disease, which he says is as important as chemicals and genes.

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GENERAL EMBRYOLOGY -THE FIRST WEEK OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

DR ROSE JOSE MD
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EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT| IMPORTANT EVENTS IN EMBRYOGENESIS | DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY

Embryogenesis is very fascinating domain of developmental biology. It a series of developmental process from a single cell to a complete organism. Fertilization, cleavage, differentiation, etc. are some of the important process that took place in embryogenesis process.

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Embryology animation fertilization to development of the nervous system everything in one place.

01- Fertilization
02- Cleavage and blastocyst formation
03- Implantation
04- Gastrulation
05- Folding of the embryo
06- Development of body cavity
07- Pharyngeal arches, tongue, thymus, and thyroid
08- The development of the face and palate
09- Respiratory development
10- The development of the gastrointestinal tract
11- The development of the reproductive system
12- The development of the urinary tract
13- The development of the heart
14- The development of the vascular system
15- The development of the nervous system

#embryology #fertilization #development

Online Developmental Biology: Overview of the Field

Unit 1, Lecture 1: Little Man.
History of the field, current concepts, and future video lecture content
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Introduction to Developmental Biology

This Lecture talks about Introduction to Developmental Biology

Chicken Embryo -- Biology Sample

A Biology video made for Dr. Oppenheimer's Online Embryology Laboratory

Eric Wieschaus (Princeton/HHMI): Drosophila Embryo Development

Eric Wieschaus describes the events leading from a single celled Drosophila embryo to an embryo with many cells with distinct functions. View the whole seminar go to

Developmental biology part 5, developmental biology of drosophila

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During oogenesis, cytoplasmic bridges called ring canals connect the forming oocyte to nurse cells. Nutrients and developmental control molecules move from the nurse cells into the oocyte. In the figure to the left, the forming oocyte can be seen to be covered by follicular support cells.

After fertilization of the oocyte the early embryo (or syncytial embryo) undergoes rapid DNA replication and 13 nuclear divisions until approximately 5000 to 6000 nuclei accumulate in the unseparated cytoplasm of the embryo. By the end of the 8th division most nuclei have migrated to the surface, surrounding the yolk sac (leaving behind only a few nuclei, which will become the yolk nuclei). After the 10th division the pole cells form at the posterior end of the embryo, segregating the germ line from the syncytium. Finally, after the 13th division cell membranes slowly invaginate, dividing the syncytium into individual somatic cells. Once this process is completed gastrulation starts.[23]

Nuclear division in the early Drosophila embryo happens so quickly there are no proper checkpoints so mistakes may be made in division of the DNA. To get around this problem, the nuclei that have made a mistake detach from their centrosomes and fall into the centre of the embryo (yolk sac), which will not form part of the fly.

The gene network (transcriptional and protein interactions) governing the early development of the fruit fly embryo is one of the best understood gene networks to date, especially the patterning along the antero-posterior (AP) and dorso-ventral (DV) axes (See under morphogenesis).[23]

The embryo undergoes well-characterized morphogenetic movements during gastrulation and early development, including germ-band extension, formation of several furrows, ventral invagination of the mesoderm, posterior and anterior invagination of endoderm (gut), as well as extensive body segmentation until finally hatching from the surrounding cuticle into a 1st-instar larva.

During larval development, tissues known as imaginal discs grow inside the larva. Imaginal discs develop to form most structures of the adult body, such as the head, legs, wings, thorax and genitalia. Cells of the imaginal disks are set aside during embryogenesis and continue to grow and divide during the larval stages—unlike most other cells of the larva, which have differentiated to perform specialized functions and grow without further cell division. At metamorphosis, the larva forms a pupa, inside which the larval tissues are reabsorbed and the imaginal tissues undergo extensive morphogenetic movements to form adult structures. Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. Copyright by original content developers of Wikipedia.
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Lecture 5 Drosophila

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