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Developmental biology lecture | embryo development

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Developmental biology lecture | embryo development

Embryo development - This developmental biology lecture explains different stages of embryonic development in details. It includes the explanation for fertilization, morula, blastula and gastrula in step by step. It also explains the neurulation in frog and chick embryo. it explains the morphogenesis pattern in drosophila development.
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Developmental biology part 2 : clevage of zygote, polarity and differentiation

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Embryogenesis is the step in the life cycle after fertilisation -- the development of the embryo, starting from the zygote (fertilised egg). Organisms can differ drastically in how the embryo develops, especially when they belong to different phyla. For example, embryonal development in placental mammals starts with cleavage of the zygote into eight uncommited cells, which then form a ball (morula). The outer cells become the trophectoderm or trophoblast, which will form in combination with maternal uterine endometrial tissue the placenta, needed for fetal nurturing via maternal blood, while inner cells become the inner cell mass that will form all fetal organs (the bridge between these two parts eventually forms the umbilical cord). In contrast, the fruit fly zygote first forms a sausage-shaped syncytium, which is still one cell but with many cell nuclei.[18]

Patterning is important for determining which cells develop into which organs. This is mediated by signaling between adjacent cells by proteins on their surfaces, and by gradients of signaling secreted molecules.[19] An example is retinoic acid, which forms a gradient in the head to tail direction in animals. Retinoic acid enters cells and activates Hox genes in a concentration-dependent manner -- Hox genes differ in how much retinoic acid they require for activation and will thus show differential rostral expression boundaries, in a colinear fashion with their genomic order. As Hox genes code for transcription factors, this causes different activated combinations of both Hox and other genes in discrete anteroposterior transverse segments of the neural tube (neuromeres) and related patterns in surrounding tissues, such as branchial arches, lateral mesoderm, neural crest, skin and endoderm, in the head to tail direction.[20] This is important for e.g. the segmentation of the spine in vertebrates.[19]

Embryonic development does not always proceed correctly, and errors can result in birth defects or miscarriage. Often the reason is genetic (mutation or chromosome abnormality), but there can be environmental influence (like teratogens) or stochastic events.[21][22] Abnormal development caused by mutation is also of evolutionary interest as it provides a mechanism for changes in body plan (see evolutionary developmental biology).[2 Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. Copyright by original content developers of Wikipedia.
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Developmental biology part 1 : introduction and grey crescent formation

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Embryogenesis is the step in the life cycle after fertilisation -- the development of the embryo, starting from the zygote (fertilised egg). Organisms can differ drastically in how the embryo develops, especially when they belong to different phyla. For example, embryonal development in placental mammals starts with cleavage of the zygote into eight uncommited cells, which then form a ball (morula). The outer cells become the trophectoderm or trophoblast, which will form in combination with maternal uterine endometrial tissue the placenta, needed for fetal nurturing via maternal blood, while inner cells become the inner cell mass that will form all fetal organs (the bridge between these two parts eventually forms the umbilical cord). In contrast, the fruit fly zygote first forms a sausage-shaped syncytium, which is still one cell but with many cell nuclei.[18]

Patterning is important for determining which cells develop into which organs. This is mediated by signaling between adjacent cells by proteins on their surfaces, and by gradients of signaling secreted molecules.[19] An example is retinoic acid, which forms a gradient in the head to tail direction in animals. Retinoic acid enters cells and activates Hox genes in a concentration-dependent manner -- Hox genes differ in how much retinoic acid they require for activation and will thus show differential rostral expression boundaries, in a colinear fashion with their genomic order. As Hox genes code for transcription factors, this causes different activated combinations of both Hox and other genes in discrete anteroposterior transverse segments of the neural tube (neuromeres) and related patterns in surrounding tissues, such as branchial arches, lateral mesoderm, neural crest, skin and endoderm, in the head to tail direction.This is important for e.g. the segmentation of the spine in vertebrates.

Embryonic development does not always proceed correctly, and errors can result in birth defects or miscarriage. Often the reason is genetic (mutation or chromosome abnormality), but there can be environmental influence (like teratogens) or stochastic events. Abnormal development caused by mutation is also of evolutionary interest as it provides a mechanism for changes in body plan (see evolutionary developmental biology).

Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. Copyright by original content developers of Wikipedia.
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Developmental biology part 7 : Development of chick

This embryology lecture under the developmental biology series explains the development of chick from egg after fertilization.
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Developmental biology part 5, developmental biology of drosophila

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During oogenesis, cytoplasmic bridges called ring canals connect the forming oocyte to nurse cells. Nutrients and developmental control molecules move from the nurse cells into the oocyte. In the figure to the left, the forming oocyte can be seen to be covered by follicular support cells.

After fertilization of the oocyte the early embryo (or syncytial embryo) undergoes rapid DNA replication and 13 nuclear divisions until approximately 5000 to 6000 nuclei accumulate in the unseparated cytoplasm of the embryo. By the end of the 8th division most nuclei have migrated to the surface, surrounding the yolk sac (leaving behind only a few nuclei, which will become the yolk nuclei). After the 10th division the pole cells form at the posterior end of the embryo, segregating the germ line from the syncytium. Finally, after the 13th division cell membranes slowly invaginate, dividing the syncytium into individual somatic cells. Once this process is completed gastrulation starts.[23]

Nuclear division in the early Drosophila embryo happens so quickly there are no proper checkpoints so mistakes may be made in division of the DNA. To get around this problem, the nuclei that have made a mistake detach from their centrosomes and fall into the centre of the embryo (yolk sac), which will not form part of the fly.

The gene network (transcriptional and protein interactions) governing the early development of the fruit fly embryo is one of the best understood gene networks to date, especially the patterning along the antero-posterior (AP) and dorso-ventral (DV) axes (See under morphogenesis).[23]

The embryo undergoes well-characterized morphogenetic movements during gastrulation and early development, including germ-band extension, formation of several furrows, ventral invagination of the mesoderm, posterior and anterior invagination of endoderm (gut), as well as extensive body segmentation until finally hatching from the surrounding cuticle into a 1st-instar larva.

During larval development, tissues known as imaginal discs grow inside the larva. Imaginal discs develop to form most structures of the adult body, such as the head, legs, wings, thorax and genitalia. Cells of the imaginal disks are set aside during embryogenesis and continue to grow and divide during the larval stages—unlike most other cells of the larva, which have differentiated to perform specialized functions and grow without further cell division. At metamorphosis, the larva forms a pupa, inside which the larval tissues are reabsorbed and the imaginal tissues undergo extensive morphogenetic movements to form adult structures. Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. Copyright by original content developers of Wikipedia.
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Online Developmental Biology: Overview of the Field

Unit 1, Lecture 1: Little Man.
History of the field, current concepts, and future video lecture content
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Animal Development: We're Just Tubes - Crash Course Biology #16

Hank discusses the process by which organisms grow and develop, maintaining that, in the end, we're all just tubes.

Crash Course Biology is now available on DVD!

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Table of Contents
1) Zygote 2:38
2) Morula 2:53
3) Blastula 3:25
4) Radial Symmetry 4:11
5) Bilateral Symmetry 4:26
6) Gastrulation 4:52
7) Blastopore 5:02
8) Gastrula 5:17
9) Protostomes & Deuterostomes 5:33
10) Germ Layers 6:22
a) Diploblastic 6:32
b) Triploblastic 6:44
11) Biolography 7:27

References for this episode can be found in the Google document here:

animal development, biology, science, crashcourse, animal, classification, phylum, embryo, multi-cellular, sea sponge, symmetry, organs, cells, complexity, tube, life form, tissue, jellyfish, coral, sperm, egg, zygote, morula, blastula, mouth, anus, radial symmetry, bilateral symmetry, digestive tract, gastrulation, gastrula, protostome, deuterostome, chordate, vertebrate, ectoderm, endoderm, germ layer, mesoderm, ernst haeckel, recapitulation theory, ontogeny, phylogeny, evolution, embryology, developmental biology Support CrashCourse on Subbable:

Developmental biology part 3 : Gastrulation

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Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a trilaminar (three-layered) structure known as the gastrula. These three germ layers are known as the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.[1][2]

Gastrulation takes place after cleavage and the formation of the blastula and primitive streak. Gastrulation is followed by organogenesis, when individual organs develop within the newly formed germ layers.[3] Each layer gives rise to specific tissues and organs in the developing embryo. The ectoderm gives rise to epidermis, and to the neural crest and other tissues that will later form the nervous system. The mesoderm is found between the ectoderm and the endoderm and gives rise to somites, which form muscle; the cartilage of the ribs and vertebrae; the dermis, the notochord, blood and blood vessels, bone, and connective tissue. The endoderm gives rise to the epithelium of the digestive system and respiratory system, and organs associated with the digestive system, such as the liver and pancreas.[4] Following gastrulation, cells in the body are either organized into sheets of connected cells (as in epithelia), or as a mesh of isolated cells, such as mesenchyme.[2][5]

The molecular mechanism and timing of gastrulation is different in different organisms. However, some common features of gastrulation across triploblastic organisms include: (1) A change in the topological structure of the embryo, from a simply connected surface (sphere-like), to a non-simply connected surface (torus-like); (2) the differentiation of cells into one of three types (endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal); and (3) the digestive function of a large number of endodermal cells.[6]

Lewis Wolpert, pioneering developmental biologist in the field, has been credited for noting that It is not birth, marriage, or death, but gastrulation, which is truly the most important time in your life.

The terms gastrula and gastrulation were coined by Ernst Haeckel, in his 1872 work Biology of Calcareous Sponges.[7]

Although gastrulation patterns exhibit enormous variation throughout the animal kingdom, they are unified by the five basic types of cell movements that occur during gastrulation: 1) invagination 2) involution 3) ingression 4) delamination 5) epiboly.[8] Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. Copyright by original content developers of Wikipedia.
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Drosophila development

Drosophila development biology lecture - This developmental biology lecture explains about the drosophila development including the body axis determination of drosophila and the gastrulation and formation of body patterns. It explains the role of genetic interactions in the morphogenesis of drosophila embryo to the adult fly in details.
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Cleavage and furrowing of zygote, morula | Developmental biology lecture

Cleavage and furrowing of zygote, morula - This developmental biology lecture explains about the Cleavage and furrowing of zygote. It explains the steps in development of egg into morula.
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Sea urchin development

This developmental biology lecture explains about the sea urchin development including the sea urchin fertilization, prevention of polyspermy and the blastula and gastrulation of sea urchin embryo to produce the adult sea urchin animal.
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Fertilization in sea urchin | Developmental biology lecture

Fertilization in sea urchin- This developmental biology lecture explains about the fertilization process in sea urchin. It also explains the polyspermy prevention in sea urchin development.
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Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology-
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Early embryogenesis - Cleavage, blastulation, gastrulation, and neurulation | MCAT | Khan Academy

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Neurulation | Developmental biology lecture

This Developmental biology lecture explains explains about neurulation process in chicken and frog. neural development process explained with neural tube development.
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Introduction to Developmental Biology

This Lecture talks about Introduction to Developmental Biology
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Development of embryo in angiosperm

Explanation of development of embryo in angiosperm plants for students preparing for pre medical entrance exams-NEET AIIMS and others

EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT| IMPORTANT EVENTS IN EMBRYOGENESIS | DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY

Embryogenesis is very fascinating domain of developmental biology. It a series of developmental process from a single cell to a complete organism. Fertilization, cleavage, differentiation, etc. are some of the important process that took place in embryogenesis process.

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Cleavage In Egg | Early Embryonic development | Developmental Biology for csir | vinay rajput

Cleavage In Egg | Early Embryonic development | Developmental Biology | vinay rajput csir net life science lectures. In this lecture we discuss about the cleavage in egg in Embryonic development. and also the phases occcur on that time.
Cleavage,Developmental,Biology,Developmental Biology,Cleavage In Developmental Biology,cleavage and its types,cleavage and blastulation,cleavage in human zygote,cleavage in embryonic development,cleavage in egg,types of cleavage,embryo cleavage,early embryonic development,human development,cleavage and blastocyst formation,vinay rajput,development of zygote,vinay rajput tutorial,developmental biology by vinay,csir,most important topics for csir,csir net,vinay


PART - 2 Structure of an ovum | ova | egg | developmental biology | vinay rajput . LINK -

PART - 1 Types Of Eggs In Embryology | Isolecithal, Telolecithal, Centrolecithal, developmental biology | VINAY RAJPUT . LINK -

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Please watch: Cellular respiration - Krebs cycle | TCA cycle | Citric acid cycle trick in hindi

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Developmental biology part 6 : cleavage in frog

This embryology lecture under the developmental biology series explains the cleavage in frog embryo.
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Morphogenesis | Developmental biology lecture

This Developmental biology lecture explains about the morphogenesis process including step by step process of organogenesis.
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Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology-
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