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Diodes Explained - The basics how diodes work working principle pn junction


Diodes Explained - The basics how diodes work working principle pn junction

Diodes Explained, in this tutorial we look at how diodes work, where diodes are used, why diodes are used, the different types. We look at diodes in half and full bridge rectifiers to convert AC to DC.

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Working Principle of Diode

A SIMPLE explanation of the working principle of a Diode. Understand exactly how a diode works, the characteristics of a diode, and forward and reverse bias. Read the full article on the working principle and types of diodes:

Comment below with any additional questions you have. If you enjoyed this video on diodes and want to see more like it, please LIKE and SUBSCRIBE to our Youtube channel.

How does a Diode Work? A Simple Explanation | How Diodes Work | Electrical4U

A SIMPLE explanation of a Diode. Learn how a Diode works through diagrams and example. Want to know more? Read the full article on the working principle and types of diodes here:

A diode is defined as a two-terminal electronic component that only conducts current in one direction (so long as it is operated within a specified voltage level). An ideal diode will have zero resistance in one direction, and infinite resistance in the reverse direction.
Although in the real world, diodes can not achieve zero or infinite resistance. Instead, a diode will have negligible resistance in one direction (to allow current flow), and very high resistance in the reverse direction (to prevent current flow). A diode is effectively like a valve for an electrical circuit.

Semiconductor diodes are the most common type of diode. These diodes begin conducting electricity only if a certain threshold voltage is present in the forward direction (i.e. the “low resistance” direction). The diode is said to be “forward biased” when conducting current in this direction. When connected within a circuit in the reverse direction (i.e. the “high resistance” direction), the diode is said to be “reverse biased”.

The diode is said to be “forward biased” when conducting current in this direction. When connected within a circuit in the reverse direction (i.e. the “high resistance” direction), the diode is said to be “reverse biased”.

Comment below with any additional questions you have. If you enjoyed this video on diodes and want to see more like it, please LIKE and SUBSCRIBE to our Youtube channel.

PN junction Diode Explained | Forward Bias and Reverse Bias

In this video, the PN junction diode has been explained. And the working of this PN junction diode under forward and reverse bias has been explained.

By watching this video, you will learn the following topics:

0:16 What is PN Junction Diode

1:48 The depletion region in the PN junction Diode

3:50 Unbiased PN Junction Diode

7:00 Forward-Biased PN Junction

9:46 Reverse Biased PN Junction

What is PN Junction Diode:

When the P-type and N-type semiconductors are grown on the same crystal then the junction is formed where this P-type and N-type region meets. And this junction is known as the PN Junction. And the entire structure acts as a diode.

The Depletion Region in PN Junction:

In PN junction diode, when p-type and n-type regions are joined together then electrons from the n-side recombines with the holes near the junction. And in this process, they create the positive and negative ions nears the junction. Hence, the region near the junction only contains positive and the negative ions. And being depleted from the free charge region, this region near the junction is knowns as the Depletion region.

The Unbiased PN Junction:
In the PN junction, the positive and the negative ions near the junction creates an electric field (Also knowns as the built-in electric field). This electric field prevents the majority carriers on both p-type and n-type region from diffusing through the depletion region.
So, the depletion region creates a barrier potential or built-in potential for majority carriers.
For, silicon this built-in potential is 0.7V and for germanium, it is 0.3V.
But due to this electric field, the minority carriers near the junction gets attracted towards the junction and swapped across the depletion region.
But under no biasing, the flow of minority charge carrier (due to the built-in electric field) and flow of majority carrier (due to diffusion) balances each other and net current in the circuit is zero.

The forward biased PN junction :

In forward biasing, the p-type terminal is connected to the positive terminal of the battery. While the n-type is connected to the negative terminal of the battery.

And as we increase the external biasing voltage, the width of the depletion region reduces. So, the resistance offered by the depletion region (to majority carrier reduces).
And once the applied voltage is more than the built-in potential, the majority carriers are able to cross this depletion region barrier.
So, under the forward bias condition, the current flows due to majority carriers. And the direction of the current is from p to n side. (Electrons moves from n-side to p-side and holes move from p-side to n-side)

The reversed biased PN Junction:

Under, reverse biased PN Junction, the p-side is connected to the negative terminal of the battery and n-side is connected to the positive terminal of the battery.
And as the reverse bias voltage increases, the width of the depletion region also increases. So, the resistance offered by the depletion region also increases.
But in the reverse bias condition, we get a flow of current due to minority carriers. Due to the strong electric field, the electrons get swapped from p-side to n-side and holes get swapped from n-side to p-side. So, in the reverse biased condition, we get a little flow of current due to minority carriers and the current flows from n-side to p-side. (In the reverse direction than the forward biased condition )
And that's why this current is known as the reverse saturation current.

This video will be helpful to all students of science and engineering in understanding the PN junction and how it works under forward and reverse biased condition.


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What Is a Diode?

This electronics video tutorial provides a basic introduction into diodes. It explains how a diode works and how to perform calculations when it's in series with a resistor.


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What is a Diode? (Interactive!) - Electronics Basics 6

Understand what diodes are and what they do.
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Please refer to my video Reversing Direction. there is a change in how I am demonstrating electron flow, moving to conventional flow.

(Please note: Due to the direction of electron flow in the circuit, the diode symbol does not properly reflect the direction in which current is blocked, as current would actually flow in the reverse directions shown in this video. This is only due to the circuit using electron flow instead of conventional current flow; to be explained in a later video.

But, aside from the slight visual inaccuracies, the video still clearly shows the diode conducting current in only one direction, and opposing current in the other. This is the main point I aimed to get across)

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How does a Diode work ?

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Diodes have numerous applications across the electronic industry, and they are an integral part of any electronic device. In this video, we will explore the inner workings and applications of the diode in great detail. Apart from the basic working of the diode, this video also explains V-I characteristics and applications of diode (rectification using Bridge rectifier) with help of animation.

How does a P-N Junction Diode works? Explained through Animation

An attractive animation is presented in this video with complete voice description. This video explains complete process of diode working i.e. how holes and electrons behave inside the diode when it works.

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How Diodes Work - The Learning Circuit

Karen goes over how diodes work and shows you what happens when you hook it up to a power supply in a circuit. Want to ask Karen a question and know you'll get an answer - ask on element14:

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Diodes have two axial leads coming out of both ends with a stripe in the middle to indicate which end is the cathode, or the negative end. A diode is an electrical component that allows current to flow in one direction but not the other. Diodes are made with a semiconductor material, mostly silicon but sometimes other materials such as germanium, selenium, or gallium arsenide.

Semiconductors typically have four valence electrons in their outer shell. Silicon, being a semiconductor, also has four outer valence electrons. This outer shell can hold up to eight electrons. Electrons are most stable when their outer valence shell has eight electrons, a rule known as the octet rule. Each silicon atom shares an electron to its neighboring silicon atom in order to satisfy the octet rule. When silicon atoms form covalent bonds they crystallize into a very strong structure known as a crystal or a lattice.
In the P-type region silicon is doped with boron or gallium. Boron and Silicon have only three outer electrons. When mixed to a silicon lattice, they form “holes” in the crystal structure electron has nothing to bond to. The absence of electrons gives it a positive charge. In the N-type region silicon is doped with antimony, phosphorus, or arsenic. The fifth electron becomes a free electron. It is free to go wherever the current takes it. These free electrons are negative charge carriers.
The point where the N-Region and the P-Region meet is called the PN Junction. Near the junction the positive charges and the negative charges, having opposing charges are drawn to each other like magnets. The free electrons in the N-type region migrate over and fill the holes in the P-type region. Because of the charged particles moving around, the area near the junction in the P-type region becomes slightly negatively charged while the area near the junction in the N-type region becomes slightly positively charged. This area is known as the depletion zone. Eventually, the depletion zone becomes charged enough to stop electron migration. In a silicon diode this happens at around .7 Volts.

Diodes EP.21 (Tagalog Electronics)

Hi guys! This video discusses one of the basic devices used in electronics which is diode. Diodes basically can be used as a switch as they allow current to flow in one direction. When supplied by a voltage source in such a way that the anode is more positive than the cathode, it is forward biased and current will flow through the diode(closed switch). The required minimum supply voltage however must be 0.7V or higher as required by the threshold voltage of Silicon diode. On the other hand, when the cathode is more positive than the anode, it is reverse biased and no current will flow through the diode (open switch). I simulate series diode circuits to verify the biasing of diodes. I also compute the series resistor that will limit the flow of current through the diode as specified by the data sheets. Happy learning and enjoy watching! #electronics #engineering #tagalog

The PN Junction. How Diodes Work? (English version)

The PN Junction. Developed under Teaching Innovation Project 11-293 of Universidad de Granada (Spain)
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All the themes in the soundtrack were released under Creative Commons licenses by their respective authors.

How does a diode work - the PN Junction (with animation) | Intermediate Electronics

To understand the definition of a diode you need to understand the...wait for it...PN Junction! We've gone over what semiconductors are in other videos but we finally start going over what you can use those semiconductor materials for. When semiconductors of different types are put next to each other, interesting things happen that can be used for a lot of different applications. In the most basic junction, the PN junction, a diode is formed. We lay the foundation of why a diode acts like it does when an n-doped material and a p-doped material are put together. It's crazy exciting stuff, because this is why you're able to watch this video on your phone. Seriously. Crazy, right?

For the transcript of this video with the animations embedded, check out the site:

Table of Contents:
0:43 The PN Junction
1:03 Formation of the Depletion Region
1:52 Barrier Potential
2:26 Energy Diagram of the PN Junction
3:33 Energy Diagram of the Depletion Region
4:22 Summary

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Diodes - What Are Diodes - PN Junction - Forward Bias - Reverse Bias - Zener Diodes

- What are Diodes?
- Types of Diodes
- Applications of Diodes
- PN Junction Diode
- Construction
- Working
- Forward Bias, Reverse Bias and their significance
- Characteristics of Diodes
- Zener Diode

P-N Junction (Diode)

P-N Junction (Diode)
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Lecture By: Mr. Pradeep Kshetrapal, Tutorials Point India Private Limited.

Animation | How a P N junction semiconductor works | forward reverse bias | diffusion drift current

This simple animation video clearly explains the topics P-N junction semi conductor or diode, what is forward bias and reverse bias, what is diffusion current and drift current, what is avalanche breakdown etc

What is a P -- N junction semiconductor and how is it formed?

The PN junction semi conductor is a combination of P type semiconductor with N type semiconductor to achieve the practical utility of both. It's formed, when a P type semi conductor is joined to an N type semiconductor.

The P type semiconductor has free holes with positive charged and the N type semiconductor has free electrons with negatively charge.

What happens when a PN junction is made?

When P and N semiconductors are joined to make the PN junction semiconductor diode, the electrons near the PN junction jump from N to P and holes near the junction jump from P to N. This phenomenon creates a space charge region or a depletion layer as shown in the video. At this space charge region due to the movement we have electrons in P region and holes in N region. For some time the electrons move back from P to N in the space region or depletion layer and some holes move back from N to P in the space region. This continues to happen till equilibrium is reached. This movement of electrons and holes in the space region or diffusion layer gives rise to Diffusion current.

What is Forward bias and how does it occur?

Forward bias occurs when the positive terminal of battery is connected to the P region and the negative terminal of battery is connected to the N region. In this condition what happens is the positive terminal repels the holes towards the junction and the negative terminal repels the electrons towards the junction. Due to this repulsion, the depletion region or space region narrows down as shown in the video.

But at a particular condition, If the voltage in the forward bias is above a specified range, the electrons in the N region drifts through the junction and migrates to the P region and the holes in the P region drifts through the junction and migrates to the N region.

Now the current flows across the circuit and this current are called the Drift current.

What is Reverse bias and how does it occur?

Reverse bias occurs when the negative terminal of the battery is connected with the N region and positive terminal with the P region. In this condition holes (positively charged) from the P region get attracted to the negative terminal of the battery and electrons (negatively charged) get attracted to the positive terminal of the battery. This results in the depletion layer to widen up.

Now the PN junction acts as an insulator and will not allow any current to flow in the circuit. But at a condition, if the battery voltage is above a particular limit, which is called as the reverse bias breakdown voltage level. Electrons and the holes breakdown through the PN junction and cross over resulting in the current to flow through the circuit. This break down is called avalanche breakdown

In this process the current flowing through the PN junction is very high and ultimately the PN junction gets damaged due to overheating caused by the excess flow of current.
This is how a PN junction semiconductor works.


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How pn junction diode works. How diode works, animation diode, animation pn junction, working of pn junction, how does a pn junction semiconductor works, what is avalanche breakdown, what is drift current, how drift current forms, what is space charge region, how space charge region forms, what is depletion layer, how depletion layer formed, how an electric field is formed in pn junction, what is forward bias, what is reverse bias, how forward bias occurs, how reverse bias occurs, what is diffusion current, how diffusion current is formed.

How does a Diode work ⚡ What is a Diode

3D animation of how a diode works and what is a diode, specifically the semiconductor diode, the pn junction and the vacuum diode (Vacuum valve), the most well-known of the diodes
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Semiconductor Diode

Analog Electronics: Semiconductor Diode
Topics Covered:
1. Diode symbol.
2. Expression of diode current.
3. Diode current and diode voltage relation.
4. Numerical problem.


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What is a DIODE and how it works - PN junction and 3D animation

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The diode is a mainly resistive non-linear passive electronic component with two terminals, whose function is to allow the flow of electric current in one direction and virtually block it in the opposite one.
The two diode terminals are called ANODE and CATHODE. The electric current conventionally goes from the anode to the cathode following this direction.
Opposite polarization of the diode will oppose a virtually infinite resistance, the diode blocks the current reducing it to “zero”
Diodes are PASSIVE electronic components, in fact they do not introduce energy into the circuit in which they are inserted and do not require an external power supply apart the input itself.
There are many kinds of diode, depending on the uses. They can be used in various electronic applications and they indeed are an integral part of many electronic devices.
But how is a diode made?
We can see, that here inside there is a semiconductor material, in this specific case: silicon.
Theoretically pure silicon crystal has no free electrons in conduction band, for this reason the silicon in question has been doped. For Doping we mean that the “impurity inclusion” is made by diffusion of certain elements, in general this is obtained by using a very little percentage of atoms spread within silicon crystal lattice, these impurities even if in negligible amount change dramatically the crystal electric behavior.
These atoms are called donor atoms, since they yield electrons to the crystal lattice of silicon. This creates 2 distinct parts within the diode with 2 different charge levels.
One part is doped in order to obtain an excess of electrons and therefore it is negatively charged, while the other is doped in order to obtain an excess of holes and is therefore positively charged.
We will call N the negatively charged part and P the positively charged part. Thus distinguishing the so-called P-N junction.
Now we can see that in the N part of the diode there is a majority of free electrons while in the P part there is a majority of electron holes, which are the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice.
In this situation the part N will have a tendency to release excess electrons, since these will naturally move towards the holes available on the P side, so the border region of the P side is slightly negatively charged and the border region of the N side is slightly positively charged.
A current, called DIFFUSION CURRENT, will flow between the two parts and will try to balance this difference in charges.
We can thus see the so-called DEPLETION ZONE. As there is a positive and negative charge in this area an electric field will be created which will go from the cathode “K”, towards the anode “A”. This electric field causes the generation of another current, the DRIVE CURRENT, which will try to balance the previous DIFFUSION CURRENT.
In case of an electric field, an ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL will be created and consequently a BARRIER POTENTIAL.
The barrier potential is created when the electric field opposes a further migration of electrons from part N to part P. This phenomenon creates some sort of barrier against the flow of electrons. This barrier value is usually around 0.7 volts, for silicon.
We here now connect the cathode to the positive pole and the anode to the negative pole of a current generator, in this case: a battery. By doing this, an INVERSE POLARIZATION or an INVERSE BIAS CONDITION is obtained.
The electrons and the holes are attracted in the way to polarize the P-N junction to increase the depletion region and consequently prevent the flow of current.
The effect of reverse polarization is to enlarge the depletion region.
If we try instead, to connect the positive pole of the battery with the P side of the diode the situation changes completely. The diode will be in a forward biased condition and the depletion region will shrink...
Supposing now that our battery has enough voltage to overcome the potential barrier. This will cause the movement of the electrons driven by the electric potential imposed by the battery.
When the electrons cross the potential barrier, their motion no longer meets resistance and will thus more easily occupy the holes in the P zone.
Now, the electrons that have moved from the N side to occupy the P side holes, due to the attraction of the positive pole of the battery, will move further going to occupy the nearby holes and so on, until they flow through the external circuit.
This condition is known as DIRECT POLARIZATION or FORWARD BIAS CONDITION of the diode.

Diode Working Animation

There are so many Animated videos available of Diode Working on YouTube and on many other websites, I didn't found any video which presents actual picture of what happens inside a diode when it works. That's why, I made this small animation clip for my Subscribers. I think this will present a clear picture of working of diode under forward biased condition, here is only animation in this video and complete voice description will be uploaded soon.



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