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Endocrinology | Thyroid Overview

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Endocrinology - Overview



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Human Endocrine System Made simple- Endocrinology Overview

Endocrinology Made simple- Human Endocrine System Overview

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Human endocrine system, group of ductless glands that regulate body processes by secreting chemical substances called hormones. Hormones act on nearby tissues or are carried in the bloodstream to act on specific target organs and distant tissues. Diseases of the endocrine system can result from the oversecretion or undersecretion of hormones or from the inability of target organs or tissues to respond to hormones effectively.


Modern endocrinology largely originated in the 20th century, however. Its scientific origin is rooted in the studies of French physiologist Claude Bernard (1813–78), who made the key observation that complex organisms such as humans go to great lengths to preserve the constancy of what he called the “milieu intérieur” (internal environment). Later, American physiologist Walter Bradford Cannon (1871–1945) used the term homeostasis to describe this inner constancy.

The endocrine system, in association with the nervous system and the immune system, regulates the body’s internal activities and the body’s interactions with the external environment to preserve the internal environment. This control system permits the prime functions of living organisms—growth, development, and reproduction—to proceed in an orderly, stable fashion; it is exquisitely self-regulating, so that any disruption of the normal internal environment by internal or external events is resisted by powerful countermeasures. When this resistance is overcome, illness ensues.

The nature of endocrine regulation
Endocrine gland secretion is not a haphazard process; it is subject to precise, intricate control so that its effects may be integrated with those of the nervous system and the immune system. The simplest level of control over endocrine gland secretion resides at the endocrine gland itself. The signal for an endocrine gland to secrete more or less of its hormone is related to the concentration of some substance, either a hormone that influences the function of the gland (a tropic hormone), a biochemical product (e.g., glucose), or a biologically important element (e.g., calcium or potassium). Because each endocrine gland has a rich supply of blood, each gland is able to detect small changes in the concentrations of its regulating substances.

Some endocrine glands are controlled by a simple negative feedback mechanism. For example, negative feedback signaling mechanisms in the parathyroid glands (located in the neck) rely on the binding activity of calcium-sensitive receptors that are located on the surface of parathyroid cells. Decreased serum calcium concentrations result in decreased calcium receptor binding activity that stimulates the secretion of parathormone from the parathyroid glands. The increased serum concentration of parathormone stimulates bone resorption (breakdown) to release calcium into the blood and reabsorption of calcium in the kidney to retain calcium in the blood, thereby restoring serum calcium concentrations to normal levels. In contrast, increased serum calcium concentrations result in increased calcium receptor-binding activity and inhibition of parathormone secretion by the parathyroid glands. This allows serum calcium concentrations to decrease to normal levels. Therefore, in people with normal parathyroid glands, serum calcium concentrations are maintained within a very narrow range even in the presence of large changes in calcium intake or excessive losses of calcium from the body.

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Endocrinology | Thyroid Overview

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Join us in this video where we give a brief description of the thyroid gland and an overview of this important endocrine organ.

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Endocrinology - overview

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Thyroid Gland - Thyroid Hormones



Talks in detail about thyroid hormones

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Intro to the endocrine system | Health & Medicine | Khan Academy

Basic overview of hormones and the endocrine system. Created by Sal Khan.

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Endocrine System, Part 1 - Glands & Hormones: Crash Course A&P #23

Hank begins teaching you about your endocrine system by explaining how it uses glands to produce hormones. These hormones are either amino-acid based and water soluble, or steroidal and lipid-soluble, and may target many types of cells or just turn on specific ones. He will also touch on hormone cascades, and how the HPA axis effects your stress response.

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Table of Contents
Endocrine System 2:32
Glands Produce Hormones 2:58
Amino Acid Based and Water Soluble 4:18
Steroidal and Lipid Soluble 4:44
Hormone Cascades 6:15
HPA Axis Effects Your Stress Response 6:30

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Endocrinology | Adrenal Gland Overview

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Join us in this video where we give a brief overview on the adrenal gland, or also known as the suprarenal gland.

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Endocrine system anatomy and physiology | Endocrine system lecture 1

This endocrine system lecture explains the endocrine system anatomy and physiology and it also states about the structural anatomy of endocrine system consist of ductless glands that secrete hormones. This lecture explains about the chemical messengers called hormones secreted from the endocrine glands. Endocrine system anatomy and physiology lecture states the function of endocrine system and physiology of endocrine system by means of hormones biochemistry that regulates the body growth and metabolism. This lecture also states the structure and function of major glands of the endocrine system like hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive organs (ovaries and testes) and pancreas.
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Endocrinology Review Questions - CRASH! Medical Review Series

(Disclaimer: The medical information contained herein is intended for physician medical licensing exam review purposes only, and are not intended for diagnosis of any illness. If you think you may be suffering from any medical condition, you should consult your physician or seek immediate medical attention.)
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Endocrinology Overview Webinar | Jennifer Landa, MD

Join world renowned physician and author, Jennifer Landa, MD as she gives an overview of endocrinology, speaks on MMI’s Fellowship program and presents a patient case study.

Endocrine gland hormone review | Endocrine system physiology | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Welcome to the Endocrine System. Get ready to learn about one of the most important ways that our body parts communicate! By Ryan Patton. . Created by Ryan Scott Patton.

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Endocrinology | Pancreas Overview

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Join us in this video where we discuss the pancreas overview. We give a brief description on the functions of insulin and glucagon, and how that helps to adjust the blood glucose levels.

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Overview of Thyroid Diseases (Hashimoto’s, Graves’, Sick Euthyroid Syndrome, Toxic adenoma, etc.)

Overview lesson on thyroid diseases (Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease, De Quervain's thyroiditis, sick euthyroid syndrome, toxic adenoma and toxic multinodular goiter). Thyroid diseases can be categorized by their function into hypothyroid conditions and hyperthyroid conditions. There are also autoimmune thyroid conditions as well including Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s. In this lesson, we will look at broad overview of important points you need to know for these various thyroid disease. We will also talk about mnemonic tips and tricks to help you remember each of these conditions.

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Thyroid Hormone Overview

A basic overview of thyroid hormone production, regulation and transport
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Hypothalamic Pituitary Thyroid Axis (regulation, TRH, TSH, thyroid hormones T3 and T4)

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The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis plays the major role in regulating thyroid hormone homeostasis in the body. The thyroid hormone are very important in fetal development and metabolism in adults. Important structures are the hypothalamus, pituitary gland specifically the anterior pituitary gland and the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located at the base of the neck and wraps around the trachea just below the cricoid cartilage .

Here is a zoomed in structure of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis (HPT axis) is under the control of neurons located in the medial region of the PVN that synthesize and release thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) into the pituitary portal circulation. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is a tripeptide, stimulates the release of thyrotropin (TSH) from the anterior pituitary, which in turn stimulates the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones.

Again thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates the synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH), which acts at the thyroid to stimulate all steps of TH biosynthesis and secretion. The THs thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) control the secretion of TRH and TSH by negative feedback to maintain physiological levels of the main hormones of the HPT axis.

Reduction of circulating TH levels due to primary thyroid failure results in increased TRH and TSH production, whereas if there is high TH the opposite occurs, there will be low T3 and T 4.

The functional unit of the thyroid gland are the follicles made up of follicular cells. The centre of the follicle is the colloid. The thyroid gland has a rich blood supply. Here are capillaries. Next to the follicles are the parafollicular cells also known as C cells which produce calcitonin another hormone, which does not really have an important role in humans.

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INTRODUCTION TO ENDOCRINOLOGY (overview)

This video explains the basic concept of Endocrinology. The contect is taken from guyton and hall textbook and also from internet, which is enough for MBBS students.
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Hyperthyroidism Overview (causes, pathophysiology)

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Hyperthyroidism is defined as elevated Thyroid Hormones (TH) in circulation. Thyroid hormones are important hormones in fetal development and also metabolism. So high thyroid hormone levels as you can imagine will amp up metabolism to a point where it becomes pathological. Hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis refers to the same thing really. However some define hyperthyroidism specifically as increased synthesis of thyroid hormones where as thyrotoxicosis refers to the clinical syndrome of excess circulating thyroid hormones, irrespective of the source. In this video hyperthyroidism will mean high levels of thyroid hormones in circulation causing the signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism.

Understanding the physiology of the thyroid gland, the hypothalamic, pituitary thyroid axis is important to understanding hyperthyroidism

thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates the synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH), which acts at the thyroid to stimulate all steps of TH biosynthesis and secretion. The THs thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) control the secretion of TRH and TSH by negative feedback to maintain physiological levels of the main hormones of the HPT axis.

In hyperthyroidism there is elevation of circulating TH this means there will be a negative feedback loop causing a decrease in TRH and TSH

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Graves Disease - Overview (causes, pathophysiology, investigations and treatment)

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Review of Thyroid Physiology – Endocrinology | Lecturio

This video “Review of Thyroid Physiology” is part of the Lecturio course “Endocrinology – Thyroid Disorders” ► WATCH the complete course on

► LEARN ABOUT:
– Thyroid physiology
– Thyrotropin (TSH)
– Role of TSH
– Triiodothyronine (T3)

► THE PROF: Dr. Michael Lazarus is the Section Chief of the UCLA Hospitalist Program at Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles. He is a Professor of Clinical Medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine. He has been teaching internal medicine residents and medical students for over twenty years and has won numerous teaching awards.

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