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Genetics

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Genetic Engineering Will Change Everything Forever – CRISPR

Designer babies, the end of diseases, genetically modified humans that never age. Outrageous things that used to be science fiction are suddenly becoming reality. The only thing we know for sure is that things will change irreversibly.


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The best book we read about the topic: GMO Sapiens



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– Good Overview by Wired:


–timeline of computer development:


– Selective breeding:


– DNA:


– Radiation research:


– inserting DNA snippets into organisms:


– First genetically modified animal:


– First GM patent:


– chemicals produced by GMOs:




– Flavr Savr Tomato:


– First Human Engineering:


– glowing fish:


– CRISPR:


– HIV cut from cells and rats with CRISPR:



– first human CRISPR trials fighting cancer:


first human CRISPR trial approved by Chinese for August 2016:


– genetic diseases:


– pregnancies with Down Syndrome terminated:

( 1999 European study)

– CRISPR and aging:





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Genetics 101 | National Geographic

What is a genome, and how are traits passed from generation to generation? Learn how pea plants helped launch the study of genetics and how the field of genetics research has evolved over time.
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DNA, Chromosomes, Genes, and Traits: An Intro to Heredity

Explore DNA structure/function, chromosomes, genes, and traits and how this relates to heredity! Video can replace old DNA structure & function video and in addition covers foundational concepts of heredity. Expand details for video handout: and table of contents.

Table of Contents:
Video Intro 00:00
Intro to Heredity 1:34
What is a trait? 2:08
Traits can be influenced by environment 2:15
DNA Structure 3:25
Genes 5:32
Some examples of proteins that genes code for 5:54
Chromosomes 6:37
Recap 7:18

To learn more about heredity including dominant and recessive traits, alleles, and probabilities in inheritance, see our full playlist here:

The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching biology at the high school level. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit:


We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook:

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Mendelian Genetics and Punnett Squares

For all of human history, we've been aware of heredity. Children look like their parents. But why? When Gregor Mendel pioneered the field of genetics, he began to try to answer that question, and now that we know about chromosomes, all of his work will make a lot of sense. Let's take a look at Mendel's work, his laws of segregation and independent assortment, and try to understand what these mean for genetics and inheritance.

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Meghan Trainor - Genetics (Lyric Video) ft. Pussycat Dolls

“Genetics” by Meghan Trainor featuring Pussycat Dolls
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Lyrics
How you get that bod?
Is it from God?
Did you work real hard?
G-E-N-E-T-I-C-S
How you get that bass?
Is it all fake?
Made in LA?
G-E-N-E-T-I-C-S
G-E-N-E-T-I-C-S

#MeghanTrainor #PussycatDolls #Genetics #Pop

Genetics Basics | Chromosomes, Genes, DNA | Don't Memorise

The topic of Genetics is quite interesting, but for understanding it, we need to first know the Units of Heredity. What are these units? What are the Factors that carry information from one generation to the other? Chromatids? Chromosomes? Genes? DNA? Or all of these? Let us get to know that in this video!

To learn more about Genetics, enrol in our full course now:

In this video, we will learn:
0:00 Introduction
0:52 Chromatids & Condensation of the Threads
2:06 What are Chromosomes?
2:37 Genes
3:06 DNA Molecules
4:06 Genetic Material

Watch next video, Laws of Genetics by clicking here -

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An Introduction to Mendelian Genetics | Biomolecules | MCAT | Khan Academy

An introduction to Mendelian Genetics and inheritance. By Ross Firestone.

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Heredity: Crash Course Biology #9

Hank and his brother John discuss heredity via the gross example of relative ear wax moistness.

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tags: crashcourse, science, biology, evolution, genetics, heredity, aristotle, bloodlines, gregor mendel, mendelian genetics, mendelian trait, classical genetics, chromosome, gene, polygenic, pleiotropic, allele, ear wax gene, somatic, diploid, gametes, sperm, egg, haploid, polyploid, dominance, dominant, recessive, heterozygous, homozygous, phenotype, punnett square, reginald c. punnett, sex-linked inheritance, autosome Support CrashCourse on Patreon:

Mendelian Genetics

029 - Mendelian Genetics

Paul Andersen explains simple Mendelian genetics. He begins with a brief introduction of Gregor Mendel and his laws of segregation and independent assortment. He then presents a number of simple genetics problems along with their answers. He also explains how advances in genetic knowledge may lead to ethical and privacy concerns.

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All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing:
File:Alice's Restaurant.jpg. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, December 18, 2012.
File:Autosomal DOminant Pedigree Chart.svg, n.d.
File:Basal Ganglia and Related Structures.svg. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 29, 2013.
File:Bendable Thumb.jpg. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 1, 2013.
File:Ingrid Moller.jpg, n.d.
File:Meiosis Overview.svg. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 1, 2013.
File:Neuron with mHtt Inclusion.jpg. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 29, 2013.
File:Peas in Pods - Studio.jpg. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 1, 2013.
File:Snow Pea Flowers.jpg. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 1, 2013.
File:Woody Guthrie NYWTS.jpg. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 1, 2013.
Madprime. Genetics Diagram: Punnett Square Describing One of Mendel's Crosses, between Parents That Are Heterozygous for the Purple/white Color Alleles., May 5, 2007. Own work.

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Alleles and Genes

Join the Amoeba Sisters as they discuss the terms gene and allele in context of a gene involved in PTC (phenylthiocarbamide) taste sensitivity. Note: as mentioned throughout video, the ability to taste PTC may be more complex than a single gene trait. This video serves as an introduction before exploring Punnett squares in our heredity series:

This video has a handout!

While this video only focuses on basic understanding of alleles and genes as well as the ability to taste- or not taste- PTC (phenylthiocarbamide), we encourage learning more! Here is a recommended reading that expands on the genetics involved in tasting PTC and includes some of the history in how it was discovered:


The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching biology at the high school level. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit:


We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook:

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Music in this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library

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While we don't allow dubbing of our videos, we do gladly accept subtitle translations from our community. Some translated subtitles on our videos were translated by the community using YouTube's community-contributed subtitle feature. After the feature was discontinued by YouTube, we have another option for submitting translated subtitles here: We want to thank our amazing community for the generosity of their time in continuing to create translated subtitles. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.

TRANSLATION CREDIT:
Huge thank you to Sean Smith for submitting translated subtitles in Afrikaans!

How Mendel's pea plants helped us understand genetics - Hortensia Jiménez Díaz

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Each father and mother pass down traits to their children, who inherit combinations of their dominant or recessive alleles. But how do we know so much about genetics today? Hortensia Jiménez Díaz explains how studying pea plants revealed why you may have blue eyes.

Lesson by Hortensia Jiménez Díaz, animation by Cinematic Sweden.

Genetics Basics - Introduction | Don't Memorise

To cover all concepts related to basics of Genetics, visit our playlist here:

DNA is said to be the Blueprint of life. But the detailed study of this important molecule is carried out under the branch of Biology, named Genetics. Want to know how this molecule governs life? Watch this video to get introduced to the Branch of Genetics in detail.

To learn more about Genetics, enrol in our full course now:

In this video, we will learn:
0:00 Introduction
0:26 Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid Molecule (DNA)
0:29 Genetics

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Why Genetics? - Lesson 1 | Don't Memorise

Ever wondered why organisms give birth to similar organisms only? And in spite of the similarities, the next generation is never EXACTLY the same as their parents. Why is this so? Well, all the answers are found in the mysterious box of Genetics: a branch of biology that deals with Heredity and Variation. Watch this video to get introduced to this branch in detail and also understand the legendary work of the pioneer who laid the foundation for it.

To learn more about Genetics, enroll in our full course now:

In this video, we will learn:
0:00 Golden Rice
1:06 Pomato
1:28 Transgenic Mice / Fluorescent Mice
1:57 Genetics
3:51 Genetics Definition
4:12 Heredity
4:43 Traits & Characters
5:33 Inheritance
5:48 Genetic Variations
6:42 History of Genetics - Evolution
7:21 Foundation of Genetics
7:54 Father of Genetics - Gregor Mendel
5:54 Pisum Sativum - Green Pea Plant
10:13 Characteristics of Pea Plants Studied by Mendel
12:04 Mendel's Experiment
13:19 Crossing
13:46 Emasculation
14:31 Mendel's Experiment Results

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Introduction to Genetics

This HD dramatic video choreographed to powerful music introduces the viewer/student to the science of Genetics and Inheritance. It is designed as a motivational trailer to be shown in classrooms by Biology teachers in middle school, high school and college as a visual Introduction to the history and science of Genetics, Heredity and Biotechnology.

Please rate this video and feel free to comment. If you like it, please help me spread the word by posting links on your media websites. The more students who can enjoy these dramatic videos, the better!

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I wish to thank all the quality video and music producers whose postings enabled me to assemble this video for educational use. To best enjoy this video, turn up your speakers. The music is very powerful and dramatic!

I can customize this video to add your name or school name at the end credits, for a very modest fee. If interested, email me at fsgregs@comcast.net

Until recently, you were able to download my videos for free from my other video storage site (vimeo.com). Recently, however, they began charging a significant membership fee to enable that feature, so downloading from there is no longer available. However, you can search for and obtain free download addons for your browser that will allow you to download my videos from either YouTube or Vimeo.
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Laws of Genetics - Lesson 5 | Don't Memorise

The study of Genetics is incomplete without studying the Laws put forth by Mendel. The Three Laws of Genetics give us an idea of the types of genes, how exactly the genes separate from each other and even tell us how they assort irrespective of each other during gamete formation. Watch this video to get introduced and understand the Three Laws of Genetics in detail.

To access all videos related to Genetics, enrol in our full course now:

In this video, we will learn:
0:00 Introduction
0:25 first law in genetics
0:36 Alleles
1:46 Definition of the first law in genetics
4:11 law of independent assortment
9:31 Law of Dominance

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Genetics part 1 introduction to advanced genetics

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Mendelian inheritance was initially derived from the work of Gregor Johann Mendel published in 1865 and 1866 which was re-discovered in 1900. It was initially very controversial. When Mendel's theories were integrated with the Chromosome Theory of Inheritance by Thomas Hunt Morgan in 1915, they became the core of classical genetics.
The laws of inheritance were derived by Gregor Mendel, a nineteenth-century Austrian monk conducting hybridization experiments in garden peas (Pisum sativum).[1] Between 1856 and 1863, he cultivated and tested some 5,000 pea plants. From these experiments, he deduced two generalizations which later became known as Mendel's Principles of Heredity or Mendelian inheritance. He described these principles in a two-part paper, Experiments on Plant Hybridization, that he read to the Natural History Society of Brno on February 8 and March 8, 1865, and which was published in 1866.[2]

Mendel's conclusions were largely ignored. Although they were not completely unknown to biologists of the time, they were not seen as generally applicable, even by Mendel himself, who thought they only applied to certain categories of species or traits. A major block to understanding their significance was the importance attached by 19th-century biologists to the apparent blending of inherited traits in the overall appearance of the progeny, now known to be due to multigene interactions, in contrast to the organ-specific binary characters studied by Mendel.[1] In 1900, however, his work was re-discovered by three European scientists, Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns, and Erich von Tschermak. The exact nature of the re-discovery has been somewhat debated: De Vries published first on the subject, mentioning Mendel in a footnote, while Correns pointed out Mendel's priority after having read De Vries's paper and realizing that he himself did not have priority. De Vries may not have acknowledged truthfully how much of his knowledge of the laws came from his own work, or came only after reading Mendel's paper. Later scholars have accused Von Tschermak of not truly understanding the results at all.[1]

Regardless, the re-discovery made Mendelism an important but controversial theory. Its most vigorous promoter in Europe was William Bateson, who coined the terms genetics and allele to describe many of its tenets. The model of heredity was highly contested by other biologists because it implied that heredity was discontinuous, in opposition to the apparently continuous variation observable for many traits. Many biologists also dismissed the theory because they were not sure it would apply to all species. However, later work by biologists and statisticians such as R. A. Fisher showed that if multiple Mendelian factors were involved in the expression of an individual trait, they could produce the diverse results observed. Thomas Hunt Morgan and his assistants later integrated the theoretical model of Mendel with the chromosome theory of inheritance, in which the chromosomes of cells were thought to hold the actual hereditary material, and created what is now known as classical genetics, which was extremely successful and cemented Mendel's place in history.

Mendel's findings allowed other scientists to predict the expression of traits on the basis of mathematical probabilities. A large contribution to Mendel's success can be traced to his decision to start his crosses only with plants he demonstrated were true-breeding. He also only measured absolute (binary) characteristics, such as color, shape, and position of the offspring, rather than quantitative characteristics. He expressed his results numerically and subjected them to statistical analysis. His method of data analysis and his large sample size gave credibility to his data. He also had the foresight to follow several successive generations (f2, f3) of pea plants and record their variations. Finally, he performed test crosses (back-crossing descendants of the initial hybridization to the initial true-breeding lines) to reveal the presence and proportion of recessive characters. Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. Copyright by original content developers of Wikipedia.
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Lecture 1 - Introduction to Genetics

basic of genetics mdcat | basic of genetics | genetics terms and definitions | genetic terminology

basic of genetics mdcat | basic of genetics | genetics terms and definitions | genetic terminology
GENES, ALLELES AND GENE POOL

Hereditary characteristics pass from parents to ofspring through genes in their
gametes. Gene is the basic unit of biological information. In fact DNA stores all sorts of
biological information coded in the sequence of its bases in a linear order, and genes
are actually parts of DNA comprising its base sequences. The position of a gene on the
chromosome is called its locus.
Genes are responsible for producing startling inherited resemblences as well as
distinctive variations among generations. When these pass in the form of intact
parental combination between generations, inherited similarities are conserved; but
when these shule, mutate or juggle with each other, variations emerge. Genes form
pairs on pairs of homologous chromosomes. One member of a gene pair is located on
one homologue, and the other member on the other homologue. Partners of a gene
pair are called alleles. Each allele of a gene pair occupies the same gene locus on its
respective homologue. Both alleles on one locus may be identical, or diferent from
each other.
Phenotype is the form of appearance of a trait. Genotype is the genetic complement
i.e., the genes in an individual for a particular trait. A lower may be red or white in
colour. Flower colour is a trait and red and white are its two phenotypes. Each form
of expression is determined-by a diferent allele of the colour gene. Allele “R” is the
determiner for redness, while “r” is the determiner for whiteness
GENE POOL
Any group of interbreeding organisms of the same species that exist together in
both time and space is called a population. All the genes/alleles found in a breeding
population at a given time are collectively called the gene pool. It is the total genetic
information encoded in the total genes in a breeding population existing at a given
time.
Complete Dominance
When one allele (R) is completely dominant over the other (r), presence of the recessive
allele is functionally hidden, so the heterozygote (Rr) has the same round phenotype
as (RR) homozygote.
The contrasting pairs of alleles for all the seven characters chosen by Mendel showed
complete dominance. After Mendel, further breeding experiments were carried out
on diferent plants and animals. Many novel phenotypes and phenotypic rat tios were
observed that could not be explained on the basis of complete dominance.
Codominance

The phenotype of heterozygote is distinct in quality from those of the two homozygotes.
It is not an intermediate quantitative expression like incomplete dominance. Each allele
of the gene pair is associated with a diferent substance, e.g.,

Codominance occurs when both the alleless express independently in heterozygote;
(A|A2) and form their respective products X and Y. The codominant heterozygote
would have both substances at the same time.
Diferent alleles of a gene that are both expressed in a heterozygous condition are
called codominant.
MULTIPLE ALLELES

Gene mutations may produce many diferent alleles of a gene. Some genes may have
as many as 300 alleles. All such altered alternative forms of a gene, whose number
is more than two, are called multiple alleles. Any two of these multiple alleles can be
present in the genome of a diploid organism, but a haploid organism or a gamete can
have just one of them in its genome
Gene linkage is a physical relationship between genes. A chromosome carries
its linked genes en bloc in the form of a linkage group. The number of linkage groups
corresponds to the number of homologous pairs of chromosomes. Man has 23 linkage
groups. Genes for colour blindness, haemophilia, gout etc form one linkage group on
human X - chromosome.

Introduction to Genetics and Chromosomes

Genetics Unit Notes Day 1: Introduction to Genetics and Chromosomes

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