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Gram Positive vs. Gram Negative Bacteria

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GRAM POSITIVE VS GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA

Bacteria have cell walls made up of polysaccharides that give them strength and rigidity. This is important since bacteria often experience variations in osmotic strength from solutions of their environment, and their cell walls prevent them from shrinking or swelling. As a reminder, osmosis is the process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated one, equalizing the concentration on either side of the membrane. Nearly all bacterial cell walls have a peptide-polysaccharide layer called peptidoglycan, or sometimes murein. Peptidoglycan is a polymer made up of sugars and amino acids which forms a kind of mesh.
Bacteria can be classified based on their reaction to the Gram stain, which identifies them based on the chemical and physical properties of their cell walls, as gram positive or gram negative. Gram positive bacteria have a thick cell wall, which consists of up to around 30 layers of peptidoglycan. This cell wall surrounds a monoderm, which is a single plasma membrane. Gram negative bacteria have a MUCH thinner cell wall, consisting of a single layer of peptidoglycan. This layer of peptidoglycan is sandwiched between two lipid bilayer membranes called diderms.
We can differentiate between gram positive and gram-negative bacteria by dying them with crystal violet and then washing them with a decolorizing solution. Then, a counterstain is added, for example safranin or fuchsine. Gram positive bacteria will retain the crystal violet dye and remain purple, while the gram-negative bacteria will be stained pink. Note that gram positive bacteria also pick up the pink colour of the counterstain, however this is not visible when they are dyed with the darker purple colour of the crystal violet stain.
The reason for these staining differences is due to differences in cell wall structure, which is the chief difference between gram positive and gram-negative bacteria. The gram stain detects peptidoglycan, and since Gram positive bacteria have a thick, multilayered peptidoglycan layer, they retain the crystal violet dye. Gram-negative bacteria do not retain the dye for two reasons – they have an outer membrane getting in the way of the crystal violet and they lack peptidoglycan to retain the stain.
Although both gram positive and gram-negative bacteria can be pathogenic, gram negative bacteria are more resistant to antibodies because of their impenetrable cell wall. Unfortunately, these bacteria also develop resistance more quickly.
Not all bacteria can be reliably classified through Gram staining. Acid-fast bacteria or Gram-variable bacteria for example, do not respond to Gram staining. Acid-fast bacteria have cell walls that retain stains particularly well. Although they aren’t closely related to gram-positive bacteria, they can appear purple after the gram stain test. Gram-variable bacteria show a mix of pink and purple cells when stained.


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Gram Positive vs. Gram Negative Bacteria

This video highlights the similarities and differences between Gram positive and Gram Negative bacteria. The process of a Gram Stain is also discussed.

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Keywords:
Bacteria
Gram
Stain
Positive
Negative
Prokaryote
Cell
Peptidoglycan
Plasma Membrane
Antibiotics
Science
Biology
Microbiology
Purple
Pink
Capsule
Cell wall
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Gram Positive Bacteria vs Gram Negative Bacteria

Biology Professor (Twitter: @DrWhitneyHolden) describes the major differences in Gram-Positive bacteria cell walls and Gram-Negative bacteria cell walls, including peptidoglycan layers, inner wall zones and periplasm, plasma and outer membranes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and lipoteichoic acids. Common examples of both Gram-Positive bacteria and Gram-Negative bacteria are also described. Great for MCAT Biology Review! For more information on how Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria are distinguished under a microscope using a Gram Stain, see Biology Professor's video:
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Gram Positive (+ve) vs. Gram Negative (-ve) Bacteria

Dr Mike explains the differences between gram +ve and gram -ve bacteria and how we exploit these differences clinically.
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Gram Positive vs Gram Negative Bacteria - Gram Staining Technique

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Gram Positive vs. Gram Negative Bacteria :- Differences, Gram Staining Method, Examples

Gram staining technique was originally developed by the Danish biologist, Hans Christian Gram. It is a technique that is used to differentiate two large groups of bacteria, based on their cell wall composition.
So, in this video I'm gonna discuss about the following topics.
1. Differences between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.
2. Common examples for Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.
3. Gram staining method.
So, I would recommend you to watch the video till the end, and make sure to post a comment in the comment section.
If you have any question or doubt regarding this topic, feel free to post them in the comment section.
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Difference between Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

This video explains:
Difference between Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria
Why the name gram staining?
Cell wall of gram positive and gram negative bacteria
How gram stain works?
Flagella?

For more:
Gram staining step wise procedure


Gram Positive vs Gram Negative Bacteria


Example of Gram Positive Bacteria


Example of Gram Negative Bacteria

Bacterial Cell Envelope, Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

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Differences Between Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall.

Gram-positive bacteria take up the crystal violet stain used in the test, and then appear to be purple-coloured when seen through a microscope. This is because the thick peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall retains the stain after it is washed away from the rest of the sample, in the decolorization stage of the test.

Gram-negative bacteria cannot retain the violet stain after the decolorization step; alcohol used in this stage degrades the outer membrane of gram-negative cells, making the cell wall more porous and incapable of retaining the crystal violet stain. Their peptidoglycan layer is much thinner and sandwiched between an inner cell membrane and a bacterial outer membrane, causing them to take up the counterstain (safranin or fuchsine) and appear red or pink.

Despite their thicker peptidoglycan layer, gram-positive bacteria are more receptive to certain cell wall targeting antibiotics than gram-negative bacteria, due to the absence of the outer membrane
, the following characteristics are present in gram-positive bacteria:
Cytoplasmic lipid membrane
Thick peptidoglycan layer
Teichoic acids and lipoids are present, forming lipoteichoic acids, which serve as chelating agents, and also for certain types of adherence.
Peptidoglycan chains are cross-linked to form rigid cell walls by a bacterial enzyme DD-transpeptidase.
A much smaller volume of periplasm than that in gram-negative bacteria.
Gram positive cells have two layers- inner cytoplasmic membrane and outer thick peptidoglycan
Whereas gram negative cells have three layers-inner cytoplasmic membrane, thin peptidoglycan layer and outer membrane with lipopolysaccharide
Gram positive have low lipid content while gram negative have high lipid content
Gram positive have no endotoxins while gram negative have endotoxin-lipid A
Gram positive have no porins while gram negative have porin channels
Gram positive are vulnerable to lysozyme and penicillin attack while gram negative are resistant to lysozyme and penicillin attack

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Mnemonics for gram positive and gram negative bacteria | Gram positive and negative bacteria |

This video lecture describes the simple mnemonics for remembering the complex list of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.
#Mnemonics #GramPositive #GramNegative

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Gram Positive vs Gram Negative

Comparison of the cell wall structure between Gram positive and negative bacterial cells.

Gram positive Vs Negative

General microbiology discussion

Microbiology lecture 2 | Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria Gram staining principle

Microbiology lecture 2 | Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria Gram staining principle - This second microbiology lecture will explain the properties of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. It also explains the differences in characteristics of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. You will learn the cell wall structure of bacteria and the cell wall structure of Gram negative bacteria and Gram positive bacteria.
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Microbiology lecture 5 |Gram positive vs Gram negative (Bergey’s manual)

Microbiology lecture 5 |Gram positive vs Gram negative (Bergey’s manual) - This microbiology lecture is going to teach you the bacterial classification scheme. It explains the bacterial classification between gram positive and gram negative bacteria. This lecture also explains about the Bergey’s Manual of systemic taxonomy. It explains the rules of Bergey’s Manual and the classification of microorganisms based on Bergey’s Manual of taxonomy. So stay tuned to know more about the difference between gram positive and gram negative bacteria as per presence in bergeys manual.
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Difference between cell wall of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

How the cell wall of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria is different?
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Short 5 minute, point wise explanation
The video explains
1. Cell wall layers of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria
2. How Gram staining works?
3. Cell wall composition of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria
4. porin proteins and lysozyme sensitivity


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Quorum sensing in Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria

This quorum sensing lecture explains the quorum sensing mechanism between Gram positive bacteria. It also illustrates the importance on intercellular signaling between bacteria and pathogen via cell signaling cascades.
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How to Do a Gram Stain: Differentiate Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteria

Step-by-step video and audio instructions on how to Gram stain a slide that includes three bacterial smears; a Gram+ control (known Gram-positive bacteria), a Gram- control (known Gram-negative bacteria) and an unknown.

This video also has photos of a Gram stained slides, as well as photo micrographs of Gram stained Staphylococcus (a Gram+) and Escherichia (a Gram-).

For a video on how to prepare a bacterial smear for Gram staining see:

Video by Tami (Guy) Port, Chief Executive Nerd at ScienceProfOnline.com. For the lab materials that go with this movie, see the Virtual Microbiology Classroom Identification of Unknown Bacteria Laboratory Main Page at ScienceProfOnline.com.

Gram Positive vs Gram Negative Bacteria

According to gram staining bacteria are classified into two major types gram positive and gram negative.
in this video you will learn what are the major differences between these two types on the basis of what characteristics.
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Difference in Gram-Positive & Gram-Negative Bacteria (HINDI) = GPAT-NIPER - Pharmacist Examination

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Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer and no outer lipid membrane whilst Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer and have an outer lipid membrane. The gram-positive bacteria retain the crystal violet colour and stains purple whereas the gram-negative bacteria lose crystal violet and stain red. Thus, the two types of bacteria are distinguished by gram staining.

Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant against antibodies because their cell wall is impenetrable. Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are classified based on their ability to hold the gram stain. The gram-negative bacteria are stained by a counterstain such as safranin, and they are de-stained because of the alcohol wash. Hence under a microscope, they are noticeably pink in colour. Gram-positive bacteria, on the other hand, retains the gram stain and show a visible violet colour upon the application of mordant (iodine) and ethanol (alcohol).

Gram-positive bacteria constitute a cell wall, which is mainly composed of multiple layers of peptidoglycan that forms a rigid and thick structure. Its cell wall additionally has teichoic acids and phosphate. The teichoic acids present in the gram-positive bacteria are of two types – the lipoteichoic acid and the teichoic wall acid. The cell wall is known as murein. As Gram-positive bacteria lack an outer lipid membrane, when correctly referring to their structure rather than staining properties, are termed monograms. The outer lipid membrane possessed by Gram-negative bacteria means that, when referring to their physical structure, they are termed sidearms.

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Gram positive vs Gram Negative Bacteria | Microbiology | Medicos Scientia

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