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Harappan (Indus Valley) Civilization | Harappa and Mohenjo Daro Excavations - Ancient Indian History

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The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC)

The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300--1300 BCE; mature period 2600--1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India (see map).[1] Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and of the three the most widespread.[2] It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia, and the Ghaggar-Hakra River, which once coursed through northwest India and eastern Pakistan.[3]
At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). The Indus cities are noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings.[4]
The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India, and now is Pakistan.[5] The discovery of Harappa, and soon afterwards, Mohenjo-Daro, was the culmination of work beginning in 1861 with the founding of the Archaeological Survey of India in the British Raj.[6] Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999.[7] There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early Harappan and Late Harappan, in the same area of the Harappan Civilization. The Harappan civilization is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to distinguish it from these cultures. Until 1999, over 1,056 cities and settlements had been found, of which 96 have been excavated,[8] mainly in the general region of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra Rivers and their tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centres of Harappa, Mohenjo-daro (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Dholavira, Ganeriwala in Cholistan and Rakhigarhi.[9]
The Harappan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is uncertain since the Indus script is still undeciphered. A relationship with the Dravidian or Elamo-Dravidian language family is favored by a section of scholars



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Lothal (Gujarati: લોથલ IPA: [loˑt̪ʰəl]) is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilisation. Located in Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt and dating from 2400 BCE. Discovered in 1954, Lothal was excavated from 13 February 1955 to 19 May 1960 by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), the official Indian government agency for the preservation of ancient monuments. Lothal's dock—the world's earliest known, connected the city to an ancient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert of today was a part of the Arabian Sea. It was a vital and thriving trade centre in ancient times, with its trade of beads, gems and valuable ornaments reaching the far corners of West Asia and Africa. The techniques and tools they pioneered for bead-making and in metallurgy have stood the test of time for over 4000 years.[1]

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Harappan Civilization - Indus Valley Civilization

About 80 years ago, archaeologists discovered the Harappan cities which were developed about 4700 years ago. According to them, the Harappan cities were one of the oldest cities.
They had similar buildings and the city was divided into two parts. Citadel, also known as lower town was the eastern part which was large but lower. Baked bricks were laid in interlocking position to make strong walls around each part of the city.
In Mohenjo-Daro, the Great Bath was built on the citadel. This was an underground water tank which was used by important people to take a dip. This city also had elaborate store houses.
It cities like Kalibangan and Lothal, there were fire altars to perform sacrifices.
The well planned city
The Harappan cities were planned systematically. There were one or two storied houses with a separate bathing area. The people also took take of the hygiene; they had small drains connected to their houses which then lead to bigger drains. The drains were covered and inspection holes were made to clean them.
The life of the Harappan people
While the rulers planned the construction of the city, common men went in search of precious stones and metal. People who used to write were called scribes and they made seals.
There were also many craftsmen who made terracotta toys for the children and many other decorative objects in their workshops.
Archaeologists found many ornaments made out of gold, silver and beads. Tools and vessels made of copper and bronze were also found.
Other finds include rectangular seals with carvings of animals on top. In Mohenjo-Daro, pieces of cloth and spindle whorls were also discovered.

The harappans travelled to distant lands in search of raw materials like gold, silver, precious stones and beads to make ornaments.
They went to many places in search of metals like copper and tin to make tools and vessels.

Farmers grew various kinds of crops like wheat, rice, pulses and peas. We know that they used a plough for farming as plough toys were discovered in these cities. Animals like goat, sheep and cattle were reared by the herdsmen. Both the farmers and herdsmen provided food to the people.
Harappan towns in Gujarat
Dholavira located on Khadir Beyt in Gujarat, was the only city which was divided into three parts. Huge stone walls surrounded these parts and open areas were also present for the people to perform ceremonies.
Archaeologists were also able to find letters written in harappan script. The city of Lothal served as an important port. The city also had a storehouse for storing the shipped objects which were made of metal, stones, shells and beads.
The dockyard in this city is where ships came in and transported goods from one place to the other.
The end of the harappan civilization
Many changes that began around 3900 years ago in these cities brought about the decline of the civilization. People stopped travelling to distant lands for raw materials and also stopped writing. Big houses were built no more, in these areas, and the drains were also never properly maintained.
There is still no definite answer as to why such a beautiful civilization came to an end. It is assumed that this could have happened because of the cities being flooded by the river waters. Some believe drought and deforestation could be one of the reasons.
The reasons may not be clear but the truth remains the same. A progressive and a well developed civilization reached its end.
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Harappa

This topic explains the Harappan civilization.

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Indus River Valley Part 1

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The Indus Valley Civilization -Documentary based on excavation

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HCL Learning | Overview of Life in Harappan Civilization

HCL Learning DigiSchool presents you animated study material on the location and life of the Harappans. It shows their engineering expertise in City plan. Also describes the important aspects in everyday life like food, clothing, ornaments, recreation and religious ideas. Visuals , background score takes you in that era. Click .. to watch more animated stories.

ICSE Class 9th History - Indus Valley Civilization(Part 1)

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A Walk Through Mohenjo Daro And Harappa | History For Kids | Periwinkle

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Indus Valley Civilisation UPSC Lesson | Harappa, Mohenjodaro Civilisation,

In this lesson we would be seeing about the Indus Valley Civilisation UPSC Lesson and Harappa, Mohenjodaro Civilisation Both are referring to the Sindh River Civilisation only.

Indus Valley Civilisation, also known as 'Harappan Civilisation', was discovered as a consequence of the excavations conducted in 1920. The culture of Indus Valley Civilization manifested the growth of an ancient society which evolved and thrived during the Bronze Age in the North-West region of India and its subcontinent. The civilization was named after the Indus River, along the banks of which the civilization developed. Geographically, the Indus Valley Civilization covered the territory of Pakistan, the states of Rajasthan and Punjab, the valleys of Narmada and Tapti in Gujarat, with intrusions into the upper Ganga-Yamuna Doab.

Geography of Indus Valley Civilisation
The main areas of the Harappan or Indus Valley Civilisation include the following regions as discovered by recent excavations are:
• Mohenjodaro in Sindh (located on the banks of Indus River)
• Harappa in Punjab (town located on the banks of Ravi River)
• Kalibangan in Rajasthan (located on the banks of Ghaghara River)
• Rupar in Haryana (located on the banks of Sutlej River)
• Lothal in Gujarat (located on the banks of Bhagawar River)
• Rangpur in Gujarat
• Narmada and Tapi belt

Town Planning in Indus Valley Civilisation
The twin cities of Mohenjodaro and Harappa were centres of all activities commercial or socio religious cult in the Indus Valley civilization. Both cities were a mile square with defensive outer walls. Cities were divided into lower dwellings and the citadel housed important buildings. Most of these buildings were built with burnt or mud bricks and stones.

Language in Indus Valley Civilisation
It was Sir John Marshall who first suggested that the people of the Indus Civilization spoke in Dravidian language. Most scholars agreed with Marshall. On the other hand, Piero Meriggi, another historian suggested that they used Brahvi language, which is still used in Baluchistan.

The writing style of Indus Valley civilisation appeared to be a pictographic script. The script seems to have had about 400 basic signs with several variations . The sign probably stood forwards and for syllables. The direction of the writing was generally from right to left. Most of the inscriptions were found on seals. The seals were probably used in trade and also for official and administrative works; mention of literary extravaganza is absent. A lot of the inscribed material was found at different Harappan site which opens the door of awe struck amazement before the world populace.


Religion in Indus Valley Civilization
Scholars are unable to draw a conclusion regarding the religion of the inhabitants of Indus Valley civilization. Unlike Mesopotamia or Egypt, there were no buildings discovered to conclude that there might had been a temple or the people were involved in any kind of public worship.

Some of the seals discovered in Indus Valley Civilisation reveal the existence of 'Swastikas', which are symbols of religions of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. 'Shiva lingams', which means the phallic signs of Lord Shiva have been encountered in the remains of Harrapan civilisation.



Agriculture in Indus Valley Civilisation
Rice, wheat, barley, milk and vegetables like sesame seeds, peas and dates formed the staple diet of the citizens of Harappa and Mohenjodaro. Poultry, beef, mutton, pork and fish were also popular among the locals. Indus Valley Civilisation was majorly an agricultural economy. Cotton and wool were woven by the people.
Both men and women utilized two pieces of garments. Men were mostly clad in 'dhotis' and shawls which were wrapped around their left shoulders. Women used similar attire, with long hair, neatly plaited and held together with a fan shaped bow and a 'hair band' made of silver or gold to ensure that the hair was kept in a specific pattern or position. Male members wore a middle parting in their hair. Small, flat-bottomed boats and bullock carts, were the major means of commutation.



Art and Craft of Indus Valley Civilisation
The patterns that the craft traditions in India were to take and which were to survive for years appear already mature. It firmly established the urban life of the Indus valley. The Indus valley crowd revealed expertise in craftsmanship. Dancing, painting, sculpture, and music were all part of Indus culture. Though statues are abundantly found, but only stone,
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Indus Valley Civilization- World History

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Main Features- Harappan Civilization | Indus Valley Civilization | History 9 | SSC | UPSC Exams

Main Features- Harappan Civilization | Indus Valley Civilization | History 9 | SSC | UPSC Exams

One of the oldest civilization of the world- Indus Valley Civilization
One of the longest river in Asia- Indus River
What do you mean by Civilisation?
Features of Indus Valley Civilisation
- proper housing
- proper drainage system
- valued cleanliness
- proper garbage disposal system
- importance to structure and planning
- city structure

Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were highly developed and well-planned city.
Harappa was first discovered by Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921.

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What Is The Indus Valley Civilization? Animated Videos on Facts about Indus Valley Civilization

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Ancient Indian Civilizations: Indus Valley Civilisation and Harappa Civilisation

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India’s First Civilization
India has been always looked upon as the cradle of all civilizations and it is no wonder that the very first civilization had its birth in India.
Here we look at some of the unique features of this civilization
It is said that the Indus Valley Civilization or the Harrappan Civilization is almost 8000 years old and not 5500 years as it was believed earlier.
In geographical terms to it covered a large area in comparison to the ancient civilizations of that time.
It had a population of over 5 million and most of its inhabitants were artisans and traders.
Excavations till date have discovered 1056 cities here.
Since most of the population lived in the villages and probably used perishable material like mud and timber for their housing there is no trace of these dwellings.
Archaeologists believe it’s a misnomer to call it the Indus Valley Civilization as only few settlements are found around this river while most settlements have been found around the Saraswathi River. There is mention of an exotic place Meluhha which from the descriptions of the Mesopotamian scribes is similar to the Harrappan cities.
Initially when they discovered the range of toys there they thought that they had come across a civilization of only children. It is felt that the Hardpans had a great love for toys and games. An early form of chess seems to have been popular with them. They also seem to have known the use of dice.
They were the first to be credited with having planned cities and all the excavations go to prove this. Town planning was standardized and all cities, villages and towns were planned in a similar way.
They also had a good drainage system that added to the value of their planned cities. A huge granary to store food grains were also seen here. An amazing feature of this civilization is that there is no evidence of a central authority to lay down rules but a very high level of administration seems to have been the order of the day.
It is said that the British used the bricks they found here to lay the railway lines in that area. Many cities were constructed and all had a standardized model. All construction was with burnt bricks and this also had a standard size. Many houses were built and they were two storied or three storied. They had ample space and with luxurious toilets inside with flushing systems in place . This was unheard of in the other civilizations of that time.
All this makes it clear that the people had a great awareness of hygiene and made use of well managed water systems. Several brick containers were found in important places in the city showing that they could have been garbage dispensers.
Dholavira was the place where water was stored during dry seasons.
It is clear that Harappans had trade via sea as a huge dockyard and ports are visible. Moreover other civilizations also mention trade with them.
The seals excavated show that the Harrappans were very religious and believed in God like Shiva, Parvathy etc.. The seals also show that they may have been used as coins for trade. Evidence of barter system is also prevalent hence there is con fusion as to the use of seals.
The Harappans were excellent metallurgists and are credited to be the first dentists. They were very good at art and craft and loved to have fun. A number of games using dice were seen in the civilization.
They learnt the use of cotton and made the first buttons. They seemed to be a peaceful lot as there is no evidence of warfare anywhere. They have many inscriptions but their script has not been deciphered.
What caused this civilization to disappear from the face of the earth also is not clear. Most historians feel that natural disaster could be a cause others say the coming of the Aryans and their taking over as a cause but still uncertainty prevails over the reasons. In conclusion it can be said that this civilization truly deserves to be called themother of all civilizations as the discoveries that have been made are unparalleled in other civilizations of that time #theopenbook #Education #Educationalvideos #Studyiq #learn #Cbse #icse #ssc #generalknowledge

INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION Part 1 | HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION SSC History | The Vedic Academy

Hello students ! Here is the 1st part of the 2nd chapter of History:
Indus Valley Civiization also known as Harappan Civilization.
Harappan civilization SSC also known as Indus Valley Civilization SSC is a very important chapter for SSC, Railways, RRB, UPSC. Many questions are asked from the chapter Harappan Civilization in SSC. So it is important chapter of SSC History.
It is also called Harappa Sabhyata in Hindi. Harappan Civilization documentary has also been made.

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Introduction to the Indus Valley (Harappan) Civilization

In this video we're going to start our study of ancient India with the Indus Valley (or Harappan) civilization. It's one of the first urban societies in the world and not only set the foundation of what would become Indian civilization, but also interacted with other ancient societies of its day, including those of Mesopotamia and the Gulf coast. The Indus Valley civilization is one of the must know civilizations of the ancient world.

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What Was The Indus Valley Civilisation?

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In British India in the 1920's odd stone seals kept popping up at ruins near Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro along the Indus river valley. They baffled everyone, with their inscriptions in a never before seen written language. Archaeologists, intrigued by this, started excavating these previously ignored sites.

They soon uncovered a 4,500-year-old civilisation. A civilisation completely absent in the historical record. One of the earliest urban civilizations in human history. It flourished alongside Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China around 3300-1900BCE but was bigger than all of them. A civilisation that built wonders not to gods or kings but to sanitation. A civilisation without war. Made up of massive planned cities built in brick. Masters of bronze and sculpture. They created their own writing system, traded across the vast sea, and possibly invented the world’s first indoor toilets and then vanished for reasons still not understood.

So what was this civilisation in the Indus Valley, what did they achieve, and what does it have to do with rubber duckies? Well let’s find out.

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Sources:

Understanding Ancient Civilizations Jane R. McIntosh - The ancient Indus Valley new perspectives -
A population history of India - From the First Modern People to the Present Day by Tim Dyson -
A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India From the Stone Age to the 12th Century by Upinder Singh -
India’s Ancient Past by R.S. Sharma -
An Environmental History of India From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century by Fisher, Michael H -
The Lost River On the trail of Saraswati by Michel Danino -
The Indus Civilization by Irfan Habib -
The Cambridge history of India Suppl. vol. The Indus Civilization by Mortimer Wheeler
Climate change and the course of global history a rough journey by John L Brooke -
The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective by Gregory L. Possehl -
Allchin, Bridget, and Raymond Allchin The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan -
Bellwood, Peter First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies -















Belcher, William R. 1997. “Ancient Harappa in 3-D.”
Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark. 1996. “Around the Indus in 90 Slides.”

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Mohenjo Daro 101 | National Geographic

Mohenjo Daro, built at the time of the pyramids and centuries before the Roman Baths, was the largest city of the Indus Civilization. Learn facts about this ancient city, including engineering feats like the Great Bath.
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Indus Valley Civilization Facts - History of Ancient India | Educational Videos by Mocomi

presents: Ancient Civilizations - The Indus Valley Civilization

One of the earliest urban civilizations in India and in fact, in the world, was the Indus Valley Civilization, also called the Harappan Culture.

About 5000 years ago, a group of nomads traveling from Sumeria (present-day Iran) entered North Western India, near present day Karachi. These nomads found a land so richly fertile by the banks of the river Indus that they settled there without hesitation. This area was abundant with water, fodder and fuel.

Over the next thousand years, the immigrants spread over an area of half a million square miles. Excavations prove that the level of urban planning and architecture prevalent here was incomparable. The anchor for this civilization lay in the beautiful twin cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa.

The name Mohenjo-Daro means ‘Mound of the Dead’ in Sindhi. The city was built around 2600 BC and abandoned around 1700 BC. Evidence suggests that the city was highly prone to floods.

Watch this video to learn about this civilization and its way of life.

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Harappan (Indus Valley) Civilization | Harappa and Mohenjo Daro Excavations - Ancient Indian History

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This 3D documentary is about Harappan civilization (also known as The Indus Valley Civilization ) which has its earliest roots in cultures. The two greatest cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, emerged circa 2600 BCE along the Indus River valley in Punjab and Sindh.[5] The civilization, with a writing system, urban centers, and diversified social and economic system, was rediscovered in the 1920s.

Archaeologists know that people in the in the Harappan civilization use cloth because they have found pieces of cloth attached to the lid of a silver vase. They have also found spindle whorls, made of terracotta and faience. They were used to spin thread.

Harappan Civilization- In The Earliest Cities (Class VI (6th), NCERT, CBSE) History. Also for (Class VI, IX [ICSE]-XII).

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