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How coronavirus infects human cells in Hindi

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How coronavirus infects human cells in Hindi

How coronavirus infects human cells in Hindi - This lecture explains how coronavirus infects human cells in Hindi. The mechanism of coronavirus infection is explained in this video lecture. Stay tuned to know the following -
How coronavirus attack us?
how coronavirus infect human cell?
how coronavirus spreads in human body?
what is the mode of action of novel coronavirus?
Which cells of our body are affected by coronavirus?

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How COVID-19 Affects the Body

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COVID-19 is the short name for the disease known as novel coronavirus disease 2019. Coronaviruses are a large group of similar viruses. Some are known to infect humans, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The one that causes COVID-19 is called SARS-CoV-2. All coronaviruses are named for the crown-like “spikes” that cover their surface, called spike, or “S,” proteins. Inside the virus, genetic material, called RNA, is made up of genes. Genes carry the information to make more copies of the virus. The virus can infect you if it enters your mouth, nose, or lungs. Inside your body, the S protein of the virus locks to a receptor on the surface of one of your cells. This can trigger the virus to enter the cell in a couple of ways. It may cause the virus to fuse with the cell surface, then release its genes into the cell. Or, the cell may pull the virus inside by enclosing it in a sac. Once inside, the virus can fuse to the sac and release its genes. Next, the genes use a structure in your cell, called a ribosome, to make new copies of the virus. The new viruses travel to the surface of the cell. There, they can leave to infect more cells. In the meantime, viral S proteins left on the surface of the infected cell can cause it to fuse with nearby healthy cells, forming a giant cell. This may be another way for the virus to spread between cells. People may be infected with COVID-19 for two to fourteen days before symptoms appear. The three main symptoms of COVID-19 are: a fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Other symptoms may include: tiredness, body aches, stuffy nose, sore throat, diarrhea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and loss of smell. Most people have a mild illness and can recover at home. Some people who have the virus may not get sick at all or may show no symptoms. But, if you have trouble breathing, or any other symptoms that are severe, call your doctor or the emergency room. They will tell you what to do. For most people who have the virus, the risk for serious illness is thought to be low. People sixty-five years and older may have a higher risk for serious illness. And, people of any age may be at high-risk if they have underlying conditions, such as: chronic lung disease or asthma; serious heart conditions; diabetes; severe obesity; chronic kidney disease, and liver disease. High-risk groups also include people with a weakened immune system, including: those on certain medications, such as corticosteroids; people in cancer treatment; and those with HIV or AIDS. Even if you aren’t in a high-risk group, it’s important to practice social distancing, which means keeping at least two meters, or six feet, between you and other people. This helps prevent infections and serious illness in others as well as yourself. For up-to-date information about COVID-19 and other ways to prevent its spread, visit the CDC website.

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Medical Animation explaining Coronavirus Mechanism of Action - How Coronavirus attacks a human body

our latest video-
While the exact mechanism of action for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus is still unknown, the 3D structure has been published; This structure shows that the virus is very similar to other coronaviruses and so we show the mechanism of action of how coronavirus gains cell entry, coopts the human cell into producing copies of itself, and causes apoptosis or cell death.

For more info on the biology, the spread and the response to 2019 nCoV see our microsite:


The 3D ribbon structure was taken from Innophore who have created the structure based on the genome sequencing data published by Chinese researchers. You can find it here:
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How the Novel Coronavirus Infects a Cell: Science, Simplified

An animated look at how the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19 enters the body and infects cells. Illustrated by a Scripps Research scientist, this installment of Science, Simplified gives an overview of the entire infection process.

Science, Simplified is a new series from Scripps Research highlighting key scientific concepts in short, easy-to-understand videos.

Video Script:

Due to its unique features, the novel coronavirus is particularly good at infecting new cells, both in the upper respiratory tract, as well as deeper down in the lungs. Here’s a look at how the process takes place.
1. The microscopic virus enters through the nose or mouth, where it begins its infection of our airways.
2. The outer spike protein of the coronavirus latches onto specific receptors on the surface of cells in our respiratory tract. In the case of COVID-19, the virus latches on to the ACE2 receptor.
3. This binding triggers the process by which the virus fuses into human cells. The viral envelope merges with the oily membrane of our own cells, allowing the virus to release its genetic material into the inside of the healthy cell.
4. The genetic blueprint of the virus is RNA (instead of DNA), which acts as a molecular message, instructing our host cell machinery to read the template and translate it into proteins that make up new virus particles.
5. The hijacking persists, as the human host cell continues to generate more copies of the virus, assemble these copies into viable particles and traffic them to the outer edges of the cell for release.
6. Each infected cell may produce and release millions of copies of the virus, which can then go on to infect other neighboring cells, as well as neighboring people when they are expelled from the airways in droplets via coughing and sneezing.
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Understanding the Virus that Causes COVID-19, Animation

Overview of coronavirus family, origin of SARS-CoV-2, viral structure and life cycle, pathophysiology. This video is available for instant download licensing here :
©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved.
Voice by: Ashley Fleming
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All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Coronaviruses are a large family of enveloped, RNA viruses. There are 4 groups of coronaviruses: alpha and beta, originated from bats and rodents; and gamma and delta, originated from avian species. Coronaviruses are responsible for a wide range of diseases in many animals, including livestock and pets. In humans, they were thought to cause mild, self-limiting respiratory infections until 2002, when a beta-coronavirus crossed species barriers from bats to a mammalian host, before jumping to humans, causing the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS, epidemic. More recently, another beta-coronavirus is responsible for the serious Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, MERS, started in 2012. The novel coronavirus responsible for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic, COVID-19, is also a beta-coronavirus. The genome of the virus is fully sequenced and appears to be most similar to a strain in bats, suggesting that it also originated from bats. The virus is also very similar to the SARS-coronavirus and is therefore named SARS-coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV 2. At the moment, it’s not yet clear if the virus jumped directly from bats to humans, or if there is a mammalian intermediate host.
Coronavirus genome is a large, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA molecule that contains all information necessary for the making of viral components. The RNA is coated with structural proteins, forming a complex known as nucleocapsid. The nucleocapsid is enclosed in an envelope, which is basically a LIPID membrane with embedded proteins. From the envelope, club-like spikes emanate, giving the appearance of a crown. This is where the “corona” name came from.
The integrity of the envelope is essential for viral infection, and is the Achilles’ heel of the virus, because the lipid membrane can easily be destroyed by lipid solvents such as detergents, alcohol and some disinfectants. In fact, enveloped viruses are the easiest to inactivate when they are outside a host.
In order to infect a host cell, the spikes of the virus must BIND to a molecule on the cell surface, called a receptor. The specificity of this binding explains why viruses are usually species specific – they have receptors in certain species, and not others. Host jumping is usually triggered by mutations in spike proteins which change them in a way that they now can bind to a receptor in a new species.
The novel coronavirus appears to use the same receptor as SARS-coronavirus for entry to human cells, and that receptor is the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, ACE2. Infection usually starts with cells of the respiratory mucosa, then spreads to epithelial cells of alveoli in the lungs.
Receptor binding is followed by fusion of the viral membrane with host cell membrane, and the release of nucleocapsid into the cell. The virus then uses the host machinery to replicate, producing viral RNAs and proteins. These are then assembled into new viral particles, called virions, by budding into intracellular membranes. The new virions are released and the host cell dies.
Uncontrolled growth of the virus destroys respiratory tissues, producing symptoms. Infection triggers the body’s inflammatory response, which brings immune cells to the site to fight the virus. While inflammation is an important defense mechanism, it may become excessive and cause damage to the body’s own tissues, contributing to the severity of the disease. In an otherwise healthy person, there is a good chance that the virus is eventually eliminated and the patient recovers, although some may require supportive treatments. On the other hand, people with weakened immune system or underlying chronic diseases may progress to severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome, which can be fatal.

Coronavirus outbreak (covid 19) explained through 3D Medical Animation

This video is available in different language subtitles English, Korean (
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The 2019 nCoV Novel Coronavirus is fast threatening to become a pandemic. This 3D medical animation explains the story so far, covering what is a pandemic, current rates of infection and tips to protect against infections. It also delves into the biology and mechanism of action MoA that coronavirus uses to infect and destroy human cells. Though the exact MoA for this coronavirus is not known.

Check back daily for more information as it develops. Alternatively, see our website: , or our dedicated microsite above. The PDF in the video is available for free download also. It is provided under a Wiki CC4.0 creative commons license.

For those of you leading government or private institutions or in the medical community , and if you think our visualizations can help in any way, please feel free to reach out.

Also, any voice over artists, translators, that can offer to support our effort, please contact us on info@scientificanimations.com .

Link to the 3D structure mentioned in the video:

The Coronavirus Replication Cycle

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In this video, I explain how the Coronavirus (COVID-19) infects and replicates inside the host’s cells.
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Coronavirus Anatomy Explained: Science, Simplified

An animated look at the inner workings of the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Illustrated by a Scripps Research scientist, this installment of Science, Simplified gives an overview of the key elements of SARS-CoV-2. From spike proteins to viral RNA, learn what structures make up the novel coronavirus, and what roles they play.

Science, Simplified is a new series from Scripps Research highlighting key scientific concepts in short, easy-to-understand videos.

Video script: What are the parts of a coronavirus?

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses, some of which infect humans. The coronavirus at the root of COVID-19 is the newest known member of this family. And like other coronaviruses that infect people, the new coronavirus causes respiratory disease, among other symptoms.

At their core, coronaviruses contain a genetic blueprint called RNA, similar to DNA. The single-stranded RNA acts as a molecular message that enables production of proteins needed for other elements of the virus.

Bound to this string of RNA are nucleoproteins—proteins that help give the virus its structure and enable it to replicate.

Encapsulating the RNA genome is the viral envelope, which protects the virus when it is outside of a host cell. This outer envelope is made from a layer of lipids, a waxy barrier containing fat molecules. As well as protecting the precious genetic cargo, this layer anchors the different structural proteins needed by the virus to infect cells.

Envelope proteins embedded in this layer aid the assembly of new virus particles once it has infected a cell.

The bulbous projections seen on the outside of the coronavirus are spike proteins. This fringe of proteins gives the virus its crown-like appearance, from which the Latin name corona is derived. The spike proteins act as grappling hooks that allow the virus to latch onto host cells and crack them open for infection. Like all viruses, coronaviruses are parasites that are unable to thrive and reproduce outside of a living host.

Illustrations by Hailee Perrett, Ward Lab, Scripps Research.

Learn more at:

3D Animation: SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission leading to COVID-19

Thanks to the brilliant team at Helix Animation for this 3D animation outlining the most common ways of transmitting the coronavirus SARS=CoV-2 based on the latest relevant scientific research available (March 2020).

Please note that the knowledge of this infectious disease and its transmission, as well as on this novel coronavirus, is still incomplete and evolving. Facts may change over time as the outbreak is ongoing with the latest updates found at:

As typical for 3D visualizations, the overall virus representation is an artistic depiction, and the surface proteins density and distribution have been simplified, in order the entire audience to easily grasp the most prominent features of this virus.

In light of the united global effort, we would like to provide free usage of this video and/or any of the imagery shown, as long as it is properly credited (including the logo and the full text in the lower left corner). Thus, if you’d like to use it, please drop us a line via our contact section at (Video/Imagery Usage) and we’ll get back to you with the video/imagery files.
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What is a virus? How do viruses work?

What is a virus and how do they work? In the first video in the series, WinchPharma Science & Health look at viruses, how they infect cells and reproduce, as well as some of the practical uses they have.

Symptoms of Coronavirus in Hindi |Coronavirus in hindi |Coronavirus Symptoms in Humans |Corona-Virus

Dr. Ajay Kr. Choudhary talking about Symptoms of Coronavirus in Hindi |Coronavirus in hindi |Coronavirus Symptoms in Humans |Corona-Virus.

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How Coronaviruses Work

How coronaviruses work and assemble their progeny inside cells to eventually cause the human illness, COVID-19. Learn more

It’s one of the tiniest machines on the planet — about a hundred times smaller than the average cell. It’s so small that no scientist can spot it through a typical light microscope. Only with an electron microscope can we see its spiky surface. It’s not alive, and it’s not what most of us would think of as “dead.” This teensy machine seems to survive in a kind of purgatory state, yet it has traveled across continents and oceans from host to host, and brought hundreds of nations to a standstill. Despite its diminutive size, the novel coronavirus, dubbed SARS-CoV-2, has seemingly taken the world by surprise with its virulence.


Disclaimer: This video includes an artist’s rendering of coronaviruses and how they work in the cell. These are not actual images of coronaviruses or cells.


#HowCoronavirusesWork #SARSCoV2 #JohnsHopkinsMedicine

Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 structure

As of March 17, there are over 180.000 people infected worldwide by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which can cause the coronavirus respiratory disease COVID-19. Recently the WHO named the outbreak a pandemic and now globally cases are rising sharply, outstripping the Chinese cases.
As the outbreak of the disease is reaching a high number of countries all over the world, the general public awareness and scientific interest are also on the rise. Currently, the virus virulence, how it is transmitted between humans and the possible treatments of the disease are being actively studied. As there is already a lot of information available, we have here gathered the known information on the molecular organization and structure of the virus, thus creating a dynamic and scientific accurate 3D animation of SARS-CoV-2!
We hope you like it! If so, please support our work by subscribing to our channel and visit our website focused on 3D animations of diverse biological processes:
Thank you!

Correction:
The video mentions that ACE2 cleaves the spike protein, however a publication published on March 5, 2020 showed that cleavage by the protease TPMSSR2 is required for priming the spike protein for viral entry:
Thanks to Mikail Dogan, norm1124 and Levent Cavas for pointing this out!
We also apologise for referring to the hemagglutinin protein, which is of SARS-CoV. Instead SARS-CoV-2 contains a so called M Protein in the envelope. A correct Figure is here:
Thanks to colicinK and Mike Sauder for pointing this out!

Please feel free to get in touch with us if you are interested in scientifically accurate high-quality animations. Email: office@biolution.net //

The structures used for the video can be found here:
M-protein: PDB ID 3cl4
E protein pentameric ion channel: PDB ID 5x29
Nucleocapsid: PDB ID 2GIB
Spike protein: PDB ID 5i08

Here some links with regularly updated information about the new coronavirus:
- World Health Organization – WHO:
- Johns Hopkins Center for Systems Science and Engineering:
- American Centers of Disease Control and Prevention:

#coronavirus, #covid19, #SARS

Introduction to Coronaviruses (SARS, MERS, COVID-19): Hosts, Symptoms, History of SARS and MERS

Lesson on Coronaviruses (SARS, MERS, COVID-19): Viral subtypes, Coronaviruses are a family of RNA viruses that are important viral pathogens in animals and humans. There are four classifications of coronaviruses, with two that are important causes of infections in humans. Coronaviruses can cause both respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal infections in adults and children. Signs and symptoms are variable dependent on the coronavirus involved. Animals can be both infected and be hosts for the coronaviruses. Transmission of these viruses between species can lead to mutations and development of novel coronaviruses, which can lead to human epidemics and outbreaks. In this lesson, we also discuss a brief history of past human outbreaks and epidemics involving coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and the new Wuhan coronavirus (2019-nCoV).

I hope you find this lesson helpful. If you do, please consider liking, subscribing and clicking the notification bell to help support the channel.

JJ

****EXCLAIMER: The content (ex. images) used in this lesson are used in accordance with Fair Use laws and are intended for educational/teaching purposes only.****

REFERENCES FOR INFORMATION FROM THIS LESSON:

1) The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2 (2020). Nature Medicine.
2) Review of Bats and SARS (2006). Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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Coronavirus: Mechanism of cell entry

So how does coronavirus gain entry into the human host cell ?

There is an enzyme present on the membrane of the epithelial cells of alveoli in lungs, known as angiotensin converting enzyme - 2. It is similar to angiotensin converting enzyme i.e ACE enzyme which converts angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2. However, this ACE-2 further degrades this angiotensin 2 and produces other form i.e angiotensin 1-7. The action of this are completely opposite to that of angiotensin 2.

The coronavirus binds to this ACE-2 enzyme present on alveolar epithelial cells. Another protease enzyme named as TMPRSS2 present nearby cleaves a part of the S protein of coronavirus and kind of activates it. Because of this cleavage the envelope now fuses with the alveolar cell membrane and the virion is taken up inside the cell by a process known as endocytosis.

The envelope the fuses with the membrane of the endosome releasing the RNA into the cytoplasm. The virus then uses host ribosomes and enzymes for translation RNA to proteins and also for replication of its RNA . Then the newly synthesised RNA and proteins assemble in Golgi apparatus taking a part of membrane also and release from the cell.

So wherever this ACE-2 enzyme is present, coronavirus can gain entry into these cells. So this is responsible for tissue tropism of coronavirus i.e the organs which the coronavirus will be able to affect.

Now, thats responseble for respiratory symptoms which occur in patients infected with coronavirus. This ACE-2 enzyme is also expressed in other tissues…these are small intestine epithelial cells which is responsible for GI symptoms in some patients… also in cardiac tissue.. then it is also expressed on liver thats why it is being speculated that why some patients may die of liver failure due to coronavirus.


#coronavirus
#covid-19
#physiologyopen

Life Cycle of the Coronavirus

How does SARS-CoV2 infect people, and what are researchers learning about its possible vulnerabilities?

In a richly illustrated infographic from Jennifer E. Fairman, which the Bloomberg School animated into this accompanying video, professor Andrew Pekosz talks viewers through the complete life cycle of the novel coronavirus: how it infects people, and how it replicates and spreads.

To read more about how researchers are using what they learn about the virus to exploit its potential vulnerabilities, view the complete infographic:

COVID-19 | Coronavirus: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnostics

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What is Corona virus? What is COVID-19? Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-COV2 is a new strain that was discovered in 2019 and has not been previously identified in humans.
Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people.  Detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to humans and MERS-CoV from camels to humans. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans. It is believed that COVID-19 was transmitted from pangolin to humans (current theory).
Common signs of infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death (WHO, 2020).
Ninja Nerd Lectures has compiled the most up to date and recent data on COVID-19 as of March 15, 2020. Please follow along with this lecture to understand the origin and zoonosis of COVID-19, the routes of transmission, epidemiology (current as of 3/15/2020), pathophysiology, and diagnostic tests used to identify COVID-19.
As new information and research is published we will continue to provide updates on COVID-19 and ensure all of our viewers are kept up to date on the most recent data.

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Explainer: How the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infects human cells

For story suggestions or custom animation requests, contact tips@nextanimation.com.tw. Visit to view News Direct's complete archive of 3D news animations.


RESTRICTIONS: Broadcast: NO USE JAPAN, NO USE TAIWAN Digital: NO USE JAPAN, NO USE TAIWAN
Researchers from China have used cryo-electron microscopy to show how the virus responsible for COVID-19 infects humans via a subtype of ACE2 receptor that has never been discovered before.


RUNDOWN SHOWS:
1. SARS-CoV-2 can bind with cellular receptors in the lungs and other organs.
2. Goblet and ciliated lung cells are specifically targeted
3. Viral spike protein's receptor binding domains
4. COVID-19 attacks a previously unknown type of ACE-2 receptor
5. The virus' upward facing RBD crucial for infecting humans
6. Virus take over endoplasmic reticulum to replicate RNA, proteins
7. Hijacked Golbi body assembles new viruses
8. Stress from viral infection leads to cellular death


VOICEOVER (in English):
Researchers from China have used cryo-electron microscopy to show how SARS-CoV-2 infects humans. The study published in Science says the virus targets a type of receptor found on human cells in the lungs, heart, kidneys and intestines.


Citing Kingston University microbiologist Mark Fielder, Sky News reports that the virus seems to attack two types of lung cells: goblet cells that coat the respiratory tract with mucus, and ciliated cells that usually filter out pathogens.


A previous study published in Science found the virus' spike protein has two receptor binding domains, or RBDs, facing downward and another facing upward. These allow the virus to bind with and invade human cells.


According to the new study, the virus targets a human ACE2 receptor that has bonded with an amino acid transporter. This subtype of ACE2 structure has never been discovered before.


The virus uses the spike protein's 'up' RBD to penetrate the cell. The virus then dissolves its own protein shell and releases its RNA payload inside the cell, according to the British Society for Immunology.


A study in Frontiers in Microbiology says a coronavirus hijacks the cell's structure to reproduce. The viral RNA takes over the host cell's endoplasmic reticulum to replicate itself and to manufacture the protein parts to make new viruses.


According to the Society for Immunology, the hijacked cell's Golgi bodies then package viral RNA and proteins in a viral protein shell. This leads to the creation of new viruses that leave the infected cell via the membrane.


The study in Frontiers in Microbiology says coronavirus takeover imposes stress on the host cell. Cell death, or apoptosis, is the result when the infection overwhelms the host cell's ability to maintain homeostasis.


SOURCES:Science, Sky News, Drugtargetreview.com, British Society for Immunology, Frontiers in Microbiology, the Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry









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How the Coronavirus Hijacks Your Cells

The virus that causes Covid-19 is so tiny that it can only be viewed through an electron microscope. Scientists have been studying what the virus does to our cells. Here’s what they've discovered so far.

Video by Vicky Feng

#coronavirus #covid #Science

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