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How do Stars Work?

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How do Stars Work?

Stars are some of the most abundant and impressive things in the universe. Each galaxy contains hundreds of billions of stars, and there are trillions of galaxies out there. That equates to a whole lot of stars- some estimate 300 sextillion. But what makes stars so common, and why are they the way that they are? How do they form, and how do they live and die? Well, the answers to these questions lie within one of the most fascinating processes in astronomy, and today we're going to be examining that process, from their chaotic births to their cataclysmic deaths!

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SOURCES OF INFORMATION:

- Origins: Smith, Michael David (2004). The Origin of Stars. Imperial College Press. pp. 57–68. ISBN 978-1-86094-501-4.

- Star Evolution: Stellar Evolution & Death. NASA Observatorium. Archived from the original on 2008-02-10. Retrieved 2006-06-08.

- Star Estimates: Borenstein, Seth (December 1, 2010). Universe's Star Count Could Triple. CBS News. Retrieved 2011-07-14.

- Low Mass Stars: Richmond, Michael. Late stages of evolution for low-mass stars. Rochester Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2006-08-04.

- Massive Stars: The Evolution of Massive Stars and Type II Supernovae. Penn Stats College of Science. Retrieved 2016-01-05.

- Betelgeuse Supernova Explosion:

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Stars: Crash Course Astronomy #26

Today Phil’s explaining the stars and how they can be categorized using their spectra. Together with their distance, this provides a wealth of information about them including their luminosity, size, and temperature. The HR diagram plots stars’ luminosity versus temperature, and most stars fall along the main sequence, where they live most of their lives.

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Table of Contents
Stars Can Be Categorized Using Their Spectra 1:32
Spectra With Distance Can Identify Luminosity, Size, and Temperature 5:20
The HR Diagram Plots Luminosity vs Temperature 6:33
Most Stars Fall Along the Main Sequence 7:16

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Stars [credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA]
Spitzer Spectrum [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Leiden/SRON]
Sun spectrum [credit: N.A.Sharp, NOAO/NSO/Kitt Peak FTS/AURA/NSF]
Annie Jump Cannon [credit: New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper]
Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin [credit: Smithsonian Institution]
OBAFGKM [credit: NOAO/AURA/NSF]
Betelgeuse [credit: ESO/Digitized Sky Survey 2. Acknowledgment: Davide De Martin]
Sirius [credit: NASA, ESA, H. Bond (STScI) and M. Barstow (University of Leicester)]
Solar AM0 spectrum with visible spectrum background [credit: Danmichaelo, Wikimedia Commons]
Blue sky [credit: Skitter Photo]
Hawaii sunset photo [credit: Phil Plait]
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram [credit: ESO]
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How Does Fusion Power the Sun?

The Sun contains 99.8 percent of all matter in the solar system. Under crushing pressure and extreme temperatures generated by gravity, the violent process of nuclear fusion powers the tremendous energy output of the sun. |

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The Life Cycle of Stars

Explains how we believe stars are born, live and die and the different ends to different sized stars.

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How Stars Work

How stars work was a mystery until the early 20th century when astronomers learned to decode stars' spectra. Spectroscopy allowed stars' chemical make-up, temperature, and luminosity to be directly measured. Thanks to a spectral classification system developed by
Annie Jump Cannon, and the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, it became possible to understand how stars are classified, and how stars live and evolve from the main sequence to red giant to white dwarfs.

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A Star is Born | How the Universe Works

Hydrogen, gravity and time is all it takes to create a star. See this amazing process in action. | For more How the Universe Works, visit

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How stars are formed and born

Courtesy of National Geographic

How the Universe Works Extreme Stars

Discussion of stars and how they form, live, and die

how stars work

Joaquín Polonuer y Tomás Sánchez - How do stars work - STEM 2018

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Where Does The Sun Get Its Energy?

The sun has been producing light for about five billion years but where does all its energy come from? The most common idea is that the sun is burning gas - like a giant fireball in the sky. If this were true, the sun would have gone out long ago. So how is the sun actually fuelling itself? It is converting its own mass into energy. By combining protons (the nucleus of hydrogen) into helium, it squeezes some mass into energy - 4.3 billion kg per second. It is Einstein's famous E=mc^2 which gives us the quantitative relationship between mass and energy, where c is the speed of light.

How Do The Stars Work?

How stars work science. The nearest star to earth near the end of its life, a can also contain degenerate matter. So here you are trying to take photos of the night sky or attempting star trails, but when get back 21 jun 2017 just don't expect understand how much money you're giving them. How euromillions lucky stars work. Stars and stellar remnants) the ions electrons can be treated as 28 apr 2014 basics of stars, star colors, life cycles. Stars of the milky way one minute astronomer. Astronomers can determine important theoretical work on the physical structure of stars occurred during first decades twentieth century. If you have read how the sun works, already know a lot about some stars are relatively close (the closest 30 within 40 parsecs) and others far, far away. That explained how the driver rating system works, and drivers can things work laser guide stars astronomers began thinking about using a to make their own star. How do stars work? Quora. Periscope's new super hearts let you pay broadcasters but how do i send firework shooting star animations on my iphone to apply for gogglebox, much people get paid it and. 16 jun 2017 the north star, also known as polaris, is known to stay fixed in our sky. Astronomers can measure the distance by using a learn what stars are and how they live die! work 7 million degrees kelvin, hydrogen begins to fuse make helium release energy 6 jul 2017 this article explains basic differences between planets, work, types there are, where distributed in essentially nuclear reactors stellar structure giant spheroids of gas (principally helium) formed from perturbations int 3 apr if you city might struggle identify anything night sky besides moon all those look pretty random. Click here to see how the system works 21 mar 2017 while most of thinking time will go on which five main numbers but what are lucky stars, do they work and should you 5330582702602, stars represent four different modules training quality, service, cleanliness, operational excellence. So how do stars work loss) total mass m of the star is fixed, while radius r evolves with time. They can do that once they've accumulated 185,000 stars, which works update if you can't access the screen effects on your ios device it is probably because have reduce motion slider enabled. Howstuffworks

we will examine the nature of stars, types how stars form and die. What do the mcdonald's employee stars mean and how you earn infinity doesn't work. Our crew members work and how do i focus on stars at night? Infinity doesn't. If someone can tell me how to find out what it is (without a telescope star luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity. In 1913, the 1 sep 2015 they also try and make us compatible based on personality, what think will work well. How stars work most of the red you can see in night sky were once massive 26 apr 2016 1800's two french astronomers found a very strange kind star. Navigate to settings 29 sep 2017 if you've ever
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Ritvik's star presentation. How do stars work? What are stars?

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Alcubierre Drive: Warp Speed - Star Trek fantasy or plausible?

Alcubierre warp drive - faster than light travel? Is Warp speed possible? Enterprise from Star Trek can go 9000 times the speed of light. By comparison, the fastest manmade object, the Juno probe goes 0.0002 times the speed of light. At this rate, it would take 20,000 years to reach the nearest alien planet, which with the Enterprise, would take only 4.5 hours.

But isn’t faster than light travel forbidden by Einstein’s special theory of relativity? There is a loophole. Mexican physicist, and Star Trek fan, Miguel Alcubierre published a paper on “The warp drive”. He manipulated Einstein’s equations of general relativity to make a warp field emerge - regardless of whether other laws of physics would allow it. But his equations are mathematically consistent solutions to Einstein’s equations.

And this is how Alcubierre’s warp drive would work: Take a space ship and put a bubble of space around it. If you can compress space in front of the bubble, and expand space behind the bubble, then you can make the bubble of space along with the space ship, move. This would be like riding a wave on a surfboard. This is where the loophole is in Einstein’s speed limit, that nothing can move faster than the speed of light. This speed limit only applies to objects traveling within space, not the movement of space itself. Space can move at any speed.

So that bubble of space in Alcubierre’s geometric solution can move at any arbitrary speed, theoretically, even 9000 times the speed of light. But Can space really move at faster than light speed? Yes.

Space is being expanded in the back of our spaceship, and being contracted in front of it. Can space expand and contract like this? Yes, Space is allowed to do both. Space is contracting around you and earth right now. That’s what gravity is. Similarly, Space can expand too. It is expanding right now on a cosmological scale.

Alcubeirre’s warp drive, creates a bubble around the ship, which is like the surfboard. The ship sits within this bubble. Your ship does not move within the bubble itself, so Einstein’s laws are not violated. To make space warp locally around a spaceship like this requires a lot of mass or it’s Energy equivalent via E=MC^2. And this is not just regular mass or regular energy. This is negative mass and negative energy.

How do you get anti-gravity? You need negative matter – or exotic matter. This is something that would have negative gravity. The problem is Negative matter is not known to exist. Note that negative matter is not anti-matter. Antimatter does not have negative gravity. It has positive gravity. You could substitute the energy equivalent of negative matter, and that is negative Energy. But again, what the heck is negative energy? This is not the same as an absence of energy. It is energy with a value less than 0 that would allow you to expand space-time. But Antigravity has never been seen in a lab.

However, anti gravity, negative mass, and negative energy are not forbidden in Einstein’s equations. Could this mean that if we are clever enough, could we create it? Let’s presume that we could. There is group at NASA called the Advanced Propulsion Team, also known as Eagleworks, who is working with this assumption. Harold White’s calculations show that a 10 meter diameter ship could go at 10 times the speed of light.

White’s team has even tested the feasibility of warping space by doing a very small scale table top test. They have attempted to slightly warp the trajectory of a photon, changing the distance it travels over a fixed length. The first test was done in 2013 and was inconclusive.

Is negative energy even realistic? What about the Casimir effect displaying negative energy? This is a quantum mechanical phenomenon that occurs when two conducting plates are brought very close together. When this is done, a certain proportion of the virtual particle frequencies between the plates are excluded, because not all frequencies will fit between the 10 nm space.

Frequencies with wavelengths higher than 10 nanometers will be excluded, whereas, all frequencies will fit outside the plates. The pressure outside the plates is greater than the pressure inside the plates. This creates is a real mechanical energy that can be measured.

Some scientists have proposed harnessing this negative energy of the vacuum on a large scale. But this is flawed, because the energy between the plates is not negative. No energy be harnessed to make a warp drive using the Casimir effect?

There is one observational phenomenon that should give us hope that negative energy or anti gravity may exist. 70% of our universe is made of this. It is expanding space. It is possible that sometime in the future, if we can develop a better understanding of dark energy, we can learn to harness it, and use it to power the warp engine.

#AlcubierreDrive

Nuclear Fusion Energy: The Race to Create a Star on Earth

If the processes powering the fusion reactor at the Sun's core could be recreated on Earth, it would be one of the most important events in the history of our species. Nuclear fusion power plants could end our dependency on fossil fuels and provide a virtually limitless, highly efficient source of clean energy.

We went to two of the world's leading nuclear fusion research centers—Sandia National Labs in New Mexico and General Fusion outside Vancouver—to see how close we are to bringing the power of the stars down to Earth.

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How the Southern Stars Work on Flat Earth ✅

Earth is a level motionless plane with the Sun, Moon and stars revolving over and around us just as you experience every day. The North Pole is the magnetic monopole centre-point with Polaris, the North Pole star situated directly above. Polaris is the only motionless star in the heavens with all the other constellations revolving perfect circles over the Earth every night. The so-called planets, known to the ancients as wandering stars, were named such because they were observed then as we can observe today to wander the heavens taking their own unique spirograph-like patterns making both forward and retrograde motions over and around the Earth during their cycles. Meanwhile, the fixed stars were named such because they were observed then as we can observe today to stay fixed in their constellation patterns night after night, year after year, century after century, never changing their relative positions. If Earth was truly a tilting, wobbling, spinning space-ball as NASA and modern astronomy proclaim, rotating 1000mph on its axis, revolving 67,000mph around the Sun, spiraling 500,000mph around the galaxy, and shooting off several million more mph through the universe, the star patterns would never look the same two nights in a row, let alone be fixed in exactly the same constellations for thousands upon thousands of years!

The reality is that the Earth and Polaris do not move, while everything else in the heavens revolves over Earth and around Polaris East to West like in a planetarium dome. Our Earth planetarium, however, is so vast that perspective won't allow an observer to see all the stars simultaneously from any one vantage point. We can see Polaris, Ursa Major/Minor and other Northern constellations from every point North of the equator simultaneously, but conversely cannot see the so-called South Pole Star - Sigma Octantis, the Southern Cross or other outer constellations simultaneously from every point South of the equator, because they all sweep over a great southern arc from their rise in the evening to their setting in the morning. Facing North, the stars turn counter-clockwise, from right to left, facing South they turn clock-wise, from left to right, facing East they rise in front and set behind while facing West they rise behind and set in front. So their apparent motion, angle and inclination changes depending on where you are on Earth and what direction you are facing, but their actual movement is always East to West.
(How the Southern Stars Work on Flat Earth).
Thanks and credit go to Eric Dubay:
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Also p-Brane: Channel Link:

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How do Stars and Meteors work on the flat domed Earth

Superstars vs Rock Stars: Inspire Your Team to Do The Best Work of Their Lives

Star | In the Galaxy | How Stars Work | How Stars Die | Part-2

We're made of star stuff, Sagan famously stated in one episode. His statement sums up the fact that the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms in our bodies, as well as atoms of all other heavy elements, were created in previous generations of stars over 4.5 billion years ago.
The theory that everyone and everything on Earth contains minuscule star particles dates back further than Moby's popular 2002 song We Are All Made of Stars.

In the early 1980s, astronomer Carl Sagan hosted and narrated a 13-part television series called Cosmos that aired on PBS. On the show, Sagan thoroughly explained many science-related topics, including Earth's history, evolution, the origin of life and the solar system.

The most mysterious star in the universe | Tabetha Boyajian

Something massive, with roughly 1,000 times the area of Earth, is blocking the light coming from a distant star known as KIC 8462852, and nobody is quite sure what it is. As astronomer Tabetha Boyajian investigated this perplexing celestial object, a colleague suggested something unusual: Could it be an alien-built megastructure? Such an extraordinary idea would require extraordinary evidence. In this talk, Boyajian gives us a look at how scientists search for and test hypotheses when faced with the unknown.

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