Stars: Crash Course Astronomy #26
Today Phil’s explaining the stars and how they can be categorized using their spectra. Together with their distance, this provides a wealth of information about them including their luminosity, size, and temperature. The HR diagram plots stars’ luminosity versus temperature, and most stars fall along the main sequence, where they live most of their lives.
Table of Contents
Stars Can Be Categorized Using Their Spectra 1:32
Spectra With Distance Can Identify Luminosity, Size, and Temperature 5:20
The HR Diagram Plots Luminosity vs Temperature 6:33
Most Stars Fall Along the Main Sequence 7:16
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Stars [credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA]
Spitzer Spectrum [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Leiden/SRON]
Sun spectrum [credit: N.A.Sharp, NOAO/NSO/Kitt Peak FTS/AURA/NSF]
Annie Jump Cannon [credit: New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper]
Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin [credit: Smithsonian Institution]
OBAFGKM [credit: NOAO/AURA/NSF]
Betelgeuse [credit: ESO/Digitized Sky Survey 2. Acknowledgment: Davide De Martin]
Sirius [credit: NASA, ESA, H. Bond (STScI) and M. Barstow (University of Leicester)]
Solar AM0 spectrum with visible spectrum background [credit: Danmichaelo, Wikimedia Commons]
Blue sky [credit: Skitter Photo]
Hawaii sunset photo [credit: Phil Plait]
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram [credit: ESO]
The Life Cycle of Stars
Explains how we believe stars are born, live and die and the different ends to different sized stars.
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The Life and Death of Stars: White Dwarfs, Supernovae, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes
We've learned how stars form, and we've gone over some different types of stars, like main sequence stars, red giants, and white dwarfs. But a star will move between these categories over its lifetime. How does that happen, exactly? And what is leftover when a star dies? A white dwarf? A neutron star? A black hole? What are these objects? Let's answer all of these questions and more by analyzing the life cycle of a few different star types!
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Sun 101 | National Geographic
The sun keeps the planets in its orbit with a tremendous gravitational force. What would happen if it disappeared entirely? Learn about the star at the center of our solar system, and how it is critical to all life as we know it.
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How Stars Work
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How stars work was a mystery until the early 20th century when astronomers learned to decode stars' spectra. Spectroscopy allowed stars' chemical make-up, temperature, and luminosity to be directly measured. Thanks to a spectral classification system developed by
Annie Jump Cannon, and the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, it became possible to understand how stars are classified, and how stars live and evolve from the main sequence to red giant to white dwarfs.
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How do Stars form? | #aumsum
Stars are like huge balls of fire that emit a tremendous amount of heat and light. Stars don't form in a few seconds, minutes or hours. Star formation process is so slow that it can take millions of years.
A star begins its life inside vast molecular clouds of dust and gas. These molecular clouds are also known as nebulae or dark nebulae. They mostly contain hydrogen and helium molecules along with some other particles. Normally, these molecular clouds are cold and stable. However, a nearby supernova explosion or galactic collision may send a shockwave or tremendous amount of energy through a molecular cloud.
Now, in the molecular cloud, this energy causes a gravitational disturbance due to which it begins to collapse on itself under its own gravity, causing hydrogen and helium to clump together and thus, increasing the mass in the center of the cloud. This increase in mass, increases the gravitational pull, thus attracting even more molecules and particles from the surrounding. As more and more molecules and particles collapse or fall into the center of the cloud, the center begins to heat up. This heated center or heated core is known as a protostar.
A protostar continues to pull more molecules and gets hotter and hotter until the temperature and pressure reach to such an extent that hydrogen nuclei begin to fuse with one another producing helium and releasing heat, light and radiation. This process called nuclear fusion. When this happens, the inward force of gravity is exactly balanced by the outward force created by heat and radiation. These inward and outward forces maintain balance and thus, a star is born.
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How do Stars Work?
Stars are some of the most abundant and impressive things in the universe. Each galaxy contains hundreds of billions of stars, and there are trillions of galaxies out there. That equates to a whole lot of stars- some estimate 300 sextillion. But what makes stars so common, and why are they the way that they are? How do they form, and how do they live and die? Well, the answers to these questions lie within one of the most fascinating processes in astronomy, and today we're going to be examining that process, from their chaotic births to their cataclysmic deaths!
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SOURCES OF INFORMATION:
- Origins: Smith, Michael David (2004). The Origin of Stars. Imperial College Press. pp. 57–68. ISBN 978-1-86094-501-4.
- Star Evolution: Stellar Evolution & Death. NASA Observatorium. Archived from the original on 2008-02-10. Retrieved 2006-06-08.
- Star Estimates: Borenstein, Seth (December 1, 2010). Universe's Star Count Could Triple. CBS News. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
- Low Mass Stars: Richmond, Michael. Late stages of evolution for low-mass stars. Rochester Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2006-08-04.
- Massive Stars: The Evolution of Massive Stars and Type II Supernovae. Penn Stats College of Science. Retrieved 2016-01-05.
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How STARS work in CS:GO's Operation 'Shattered Web'
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How The Heck Does Gravity Make Stars?!
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Stars come from a very precise situation in the universe. What exactly happens though?
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What is a star?:
A star is a huge sphere of very hot, glowing gas. Stars produce their own light and energy by a process called nuclear fusion. Fusion happens when lighter elements are forced to become heavier elements.
WHAT IS A STAR?
Look up in the night sky and you'll see lots of stars. But what is a star? In a scientific sense, a star is ball of hydrogen and helium with enough mass that it can sustain nuclear fusion at its core.
HOW DOES A STAR FORM?;
We owe our entire existence to the Sun. Well, it and the other stars that came before. As they died, they donated the heavier elements we need for life. But how did they form?
Stars form inside relatively dense concentrations of interstellar gas and dust known as molecular clouds. These regions are extremely cold (temperature about 10 to 20K, just above absolute zero).
WHERE DO STARS FORM?:
Stars form in the densest regions of the interstellar medium, or ISM, called molecular clouds. The ISM is the name given to the gas and dust that exists between the stars within a galaxy. It is 99% gas and 1% dust, by mass.
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF STARS?
A star is a star, right? Sure there are some difference in terms of color when you look up at the night sky. But they are all basically the same, big balls of gas burning up to billions of light years away, right?
Stars are classified by their spectra (the elements that they absorb) and their temperature. There are seven main types of stars. In order of decreasing temperature, O, B, A, F, G, K, and M.
SINGLY IONIZED HELIUM ATOM:
Singly ionized helium is an atom that has lost one of its electrons. We must expect its remaining electron to act like a hydrogen electron. There is only one difference between a hydrogen atom and a singly ionized helium atom; number of protons in the nucleus, so the nuclear charge. Thereby we have to modify our equation that we found for hydrogen atom.
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How do Stars Work
Here's a video showing you how turf & combine ops stars work in Mafia City.
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Sea Star Health: Using Blood Work to Identify Sick Sea Stars
Oregon Sea Grant and Oregon State University have created the first ever blood panel to use as a baseline for detecting sick ochre sea stars. The tool could help aquarists treat them before they succumb to Sea Star Wasting Syndrome, which causes their limbs to fall off. The cause of the syndrome, which was first seen in the Pacific Northwest in 2013, is unknown. OSU veterinary student Heather Renee Srch-Thaden created the blood panel under the guidance of Dr. Tim Miller-Morgan, an aquatic veterinarian with Oregon Sea Grant Extension, and Dr. Susan Tornquist, dean of OSU's College of Veterinary Medicine. The video was filmed at OSU's Hatfield Marine Science Center in Newport, where the public can touch and learn about sea stars in a tidepool exhibit at the HMSC Visitor Center.
Filmed and edited by Oregon Sea Grant videographer Vanessa Cholewczynski. Photos by Tim Miller-Morgan and Heather Renee Srch-Thaden.
HOW DO NEW FUTURE STARS CARDS WORK? FIFA 19
In this FIFA 19 Ultimate Team video, I will be talking to you about the new promo that is coming on January 18th which is this Friday and the cards that will be released. There are brand new cards coming to FIFA 19 Ultimate Team but we are not sure how these cards are going to work. Future stars will receive these cards which may start with low ratings and you need to work your way up or they will just be normal stat upgrades like any other inform card. EA Sports have tried a new way to create hype for a promo starting on Monday and revealing small pieces of information that will all be explained and revealed on Friday with the full promo release. This Future Stars promo has created lots of hype already which is a great example of this working.
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How Wolf-Rayet Stars Work - Ask a Spaceman!
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K-Pop Stars Vs. Google Translate (Ft. Stray Kids)
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K-Pop Stars Vs. Google Translate (Ft. Stray Kids)
Child Stars Who Are So Rich They Never Have To Work Again
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Who among us didn't dream of skipping middle school for a chance at fame and fortune? Many of today's richest stars actually started acting as kids — and they kept that cash flow going with long-lasting careers. From hit sitcoms to major movie franchises, these child stars have amassed millions upon millions of dollars. So which celebs are going to make you rethink your life choices — or possibly sign your kids up for acting classes? See for yourself...
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Pawn Stars: Astronomical Price for Rare 1889 Clinometer (Season 13) | History
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Rick appraises an old tool called a Clinometer and tries to talk down the asking price in this scene from Season 13 Death and Taxidermy. #PawnStars #RickHarrison
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Apple's Official iOS Screen Recorder: Does New Supercell Game Brawl Stars Work on iOS 11 Recorder?
Exciting times ahead. Apple devices will soon have their own native screen recorder thanks to iOS 11 and Supercell (the makers of Clash Royale and Clash of Clans) are releasing a new game called Brawl Stars.
So I thought I would combine the two and find out whether Brawl Stars works on iOS 11 and whether or not the built in screen recorder can handle it.
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