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How does an Induction Motor work ?


How does an Induction Motor work ?

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The invention of induction motors permanently altered the course of human civilization. This hundred-year-old motor—invented by the great scientist Nikola Tesla—is the most common motor type, even today. In fact, about 50 percent of global electric power consumption is due to induction motors. Let’s get into the workings of induction motors, or more specifically, into Nikola Tesla’s genius thinking.

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How does an Induction Motor work how it works 3 phase motor ac motor

In this video we take a look at the induction motor to understand how and why it works. We include animations and real world examples to help you learn the basics of induction motor working principles.



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How does an Induction Motor work ?

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Working of 3 Phase Induction motor is explained in this video with help of animation. They are the most commonly used electric motors. Here basic operation principle of an induction motor is introduced in a logical manner. Concepts of rotating magnetic field, synchronous speed and slip is well introduced in this video.

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What is an INDUCTION MOTOR and how it works? Rotating magnetic field - 3D animation

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An induction motor or asynchronous motor is an AC electric motor in which the electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained by electromagnetic induction from the magnetic field of the stator winding.

Since 1885 Italian inventor Galileo Ferraris had shown that two orthogonal coils, in which alternating currents out of phase by 120 degrees flow, generate a rotating magnetic field.
After years of study, Ferraris was able to publish the results of his experiments in 1888.

But it was already in the autumn of 1887, that Serbian physicist Nikola Tesla, after mastering his engineering work on the induction motor, yelds the first patent application.

Today, almost the 90% of industrial engines is represented by induction motors.

Induction motors can be considered among the most reliable electric machines since they keep unaltered their perfomances for many years, with very low maintenance operations.

Let’s try to see in detail the inner working principle of these engines.

The induction motor consists of two main elements: the stator, and the rotor:
The stator is basically a three-coil winding powered by three-phase alternating current.
Each winding passes through the slots of the stator, which are made by stacking thin layers of steel with high magnetic permeability inside a steel or cast iron structure.

The flow of a three-phase current through these windings causes the formation of what Galileo Ferraris had already discovered in 1885, namely, a rotating magnetic field.

It is precisely this rotating magnetic field, R-M-F, that causes the rotation of the rotor.

To better understand how the rotating magnetic field as well as its properties are generated, let us take as an example a simplified version of a stator winding.

As we can see, this winding consists of three coils, connected 120 degrees apart.

A current-carrying wire, generates a magnetic field around it.
If we apply a three-phase electric power to this coil arrangement, the magnetic field will be generated at a specific moment, as shown.
Following the variations of the alternating current as shown, the magnetic field will assume different orientations and form.

When we compare these three results, we can see that it is like the rotation sequences of a magnetic field of uniform strenght.

We can call synchronous speed the rotational speed of the magnetic field.

Let’s try now to place a closed conductor inside the rotating magnetic field.
Since there is a variable electromagnetic field in a closed circuit, an induced current will be created on the conductor. We can therefore say that the rotating magnetic field will induce a current in the loop.

So, the situation obtained is a loop subject to induced current, located in the magnetic field.
Like we’ve already seen in our last experiment, the Lorentz force was responsible for the rotation of the tin wire placed over a battery and a magnet. The wire was immersed in a magnetic field and while the electricity flowed into it, a perpendicular force acted on it letting the rotation happen.
Also in this case an electromagnetic force will be produced on the loop, allowing the rotation of the connected rotor.

This same phenomenon happens inside the induction motor, with the only difference that the loop is replaced by a squirrel cage rotor.

Also in this case, the three-phase alternating current, passing through the stator produces a rotating magnetic field.

This is why this engine is called an induction motor.
Electricity is induced on the rotor by electromagnetic induction, and NOT by direct electrical connection.

To facilitate this electromagnetic induction phenomenon, layers of iron sheets are enclosed within the rotor.

These thin ferromagnetic material layers favour the magnetic induction and minimize the eddy currents.

We can deduce that the induction motor is, by nature, self-starting. This means that: by varying its speed, It spontaneously and automatically develops a driving torque, able to counterbalance the resistant torque applied to the motor shaft, determining a stable operation.

As we can see in this animation, the magnetic field and the rotor are rotating, but how do we know the exact rotational speed of the rotor?

First of all, let’s suppose that the rotor is rotating at the same speed as that of the electromagnetic field.
The same rotational speed of both allows the magnetic field to never cross the loop, so the Lorentz force will be zero...

How induction motors work

How AC induction motors work.
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Induction Motor How it works

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This is the basic principle of how induction motors work.
There is a lot more to say about motors, as starter winding with steady capacitor, multiple pole windings, three phases motor, etc etc, but the basic theory is this one !

Induction Motor - Explained

What is an induction motor? How do induction motors work? Induction motors induce a current into an electromagnetic rotor in order to create rotation. This is done by using alternating currents to create a rotating magnetic field. The number of alternating currents can vary. A three phase AC motor uses 3 alternating currents out of phase, to create rotating electromagnets.

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AC Motors: AC Motors:
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AC and induction motors explained

In this video I discuss AC motors, in particular, synchronous motors. I then lead on to the physics behind induction motors

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Working principle of AC motors

The working principle of AC motors is given here. The theory states using sinusoidal curves .The split facing technique of AC motors is given in this video. In this video we discussed about single phase AC motors

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How does a Single-Phase Induction Motor (Capacitor Induction Motor) or AC Motor work?

The Capacitor Motor, which belongs to the Single-phase Induction motor, is explained in this video.
From the content:
0:27 How a Rotating magnetic field RMF with only one Single Phase can be created
2:38 How torque of an AC Motor is created
3:55 Characteristic curve of this AC Motor
4:54 How to connect the capacitive motor and how to reverse the sense of rotation
5:21 Motor plate and calculation of a Capacitor Motor
7:34 Appliance and Summary Single-phase AC Motor

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How alternating current motors work?

In the third part we explain how AC motors work and the difference between synchronous and asynchronous induction motors.

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It is possible to achieve significant time and cost savings once you understand the factors that contribute to the total cost of ownership of electric machines. Our series of educational videos offers a “crash course” on all aspects of electric motors: from the basics of electromagnetic induction to motor selection criteria, through to maintaining your equipment to lower the lifetime cost of owning it. And when costs come down, productivity and profitability go up.

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AC motors are some of the best motors out there, used in electric cars, drones, etc... I LOVE'EM!
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Single Phase Induction Motor, How it works ?

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Working of Single phase induction motors is explained in this video with help of animation.
When only single power phase is available, single phase motors are the natural choice out of wide variety of electric motors. In this video concept of double revolving field theory, main winding, auxiliary winding, and the way motor is made self start is explained in detailed way.

How does an Electric Motor work? (DC Motor)

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Electric motors can seem very mysterious! How do they use electricity to start rotating? Let's break it down step by step to understand how it works. Topics covered in this video: circuits, current, magnets, electromagnets, armature, commutator, brushes, stator, and rotor. This video only covers DC motors.

00:00 - Intro
00:41 - Circuits
01:22 - Magnets
02:27 - Electromagets
04:28 - Improvements to Electric Motor
05:00 - Commutator and Brushes
07:19 - Improving Torque
08:20 - Devices with Motors
09:00 - Brilliant

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Internet Sources:

-- How DC Motors Work (National MagLab)
-- How DC motors and universal motors work (Matthias Wandel)
-- How does an Electromagnet work? (Science Buddies)
-- DC Motor Explained - Basic working principle how DC motor works (The Engineering Mindset)

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Schaum's Outline of Basic Electricity, Second Edition by Milton Gussow

How Things Work: The Physics of Everyday Life, 4th Edition by Louis A. Bloomfield

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How does a 3 Phase Induction Motor work? - Technical animation

In this video, we discuss the functioning of a 3 phase induction motor.
From the content:
0:00 Introduction – why a 3 phase induction motor is commonly used
0:15 Rotating magnetic field RMF as the base for the induction motor
0:30 How torque is built
1:10 Meaning of slip
1:34 The current characteristic curve
2:14 The torque characteristic curve
2:52 Motor name plate according IEC

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How Motors Work For Beginners: (Episode 4) Single Phase Induction and Shaded Pole Motors: 035

I explain how single phase motors work, the unique function of the shaded pole motor work, what the starter winding does, and capacitors for these motors.
This is a continuation of the How motors Work for beginners series.

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Technical Notes and Corrections
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Resources used in this series
Video references
AC Motors

Motor Basics (three phase)

AC Motors and Generators

DC Motors and Generators

Brushless DC Motors and Brushed DC Motors Explained

What is Ground

What is electricity

How to read a schematic



Induction motor as a Generator

Single -Phase Motor series number 723 by Edward Amrein
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Induction Motor - Funny scene | 3 Idiots | Aamir Khan | R Madhavan | Sharman Joshi

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The hilarious scene from the All time blockbuster comedy film - 3 Idiots.

This is the scene where a furious Virus enters the classroom looking for Raju Rastogi and asks him about how an induction motor works.

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Slip ring Induction Motor, How it works ?

Induction motors have been ruling the industrial world for many decades. In the induction motors used in lift and hoists, you will see a type of rotor called a slip ring rotor, whereas in most of the other applications you will see a simpler, squirrel cage type of rotor. Why are there two different designs of rotor construction for induction motors? We will explore this in the video.

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How Does an AC Motor Work? From Tesla

Nikola Tesla's AC motor was a game-changer. But how does it work?



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