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How the Universe Works - Blow your Mind of the Universe Part 11 - Space Discovery Documentary

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Stephen Hawking's big ideas... made simple | Guardian Animations

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Michio Kaku forecasts the future of space travel

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The co-founder of Field String Theory explains why the universe has 11 dimensions rather than any other number.

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MICHIO KAKU

Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).

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TRANSCRIPT:

Question: Why are there only 11 dimensions in the universe rather than something higher? (Submitted by John Menon)


Michio Kaku: I work in something called String Theory, that’s what I do for a living. In fact, that’s my day job. I’m the co-founder of String Field Theory, one of the main branches of String Theory. The latest version of String Theory is called M-Theory, “M” for membrane. So we now realize that strings can coexist with membranes. So the subatomic particles we see in nature, the quartz, the electrons are nothing but musical notes on a tiny vibrating string.


What is physics? Physics is nothing but the laws of harmony that you can write on vibrating strings. What is chemistry? Chemistry is nothing but the melodies you can play on interacting vibrating strings. What is the universe? The universe is a symphony of vibrating strings. And then what is the mind of God that Albert Einstein eloquently wrote about for the last 30 years of his life? We now, for the first time in history have a candidate for the mind of God. It is, cosmic music resonating through 11 dimensional hyperspace.


So first of all, we are nothing but melodies. We are nothing but cosmic music played out on vibrating strings and membranes. Obeying the laws of physics, which is nothing but the laws of harmony of vibrating strings. But why 11? It turns out that if you write a theory in 15, 17, 18 dimensions, the theory is unstable. It has what are called, anomalies. It has singularities. It turns out that mathematics alone prefers the universe being 11 dimensions.


Now some people have toyed with 12 dimensions. At Harvard University, for example, some of the physicists there have shown that a 12-dimensional theory actually looks very similar to an 11-dimensional theory except it has two times, double times rather than one single time parameter. Now, what would it be like to live in a universe with double time? Well, I remember a movie with David Niven. David Niven played a pilot, who was shot down over the Pacific, but the angels made a mistake, he was not supposed to die that day. And so the angels brought him back to life and said, “Oh, sorry about that. We killed you off by accident; you were not supposed to die today.”


So in a great scene, David Niven then walks through a city where time has stopped. Everyone looks like this. And there’s David Niven just wandering around looking at all these people. That’s a world with double time. David Niven has one clock, but everyone else has a separate clock and these two clocks are perpendicular to each other. So if there’s a double time universe, you could walk right into a room, see people frozen in time, while you beat to a different clock. That’s a double time universe.


Now this is called F-Theory, “F” for father, the father of strings. It’s not known whether F-Theory will survive or not; however, M-Theory in 11 dimension is the mother of all strings. And that theory works perfectly fine. So to answer your question, in other dimensions, dimensions beyond 11, we have problems with stability, these theories are unstable, they decay back down to 11 dimensions, they have what are called anomalies, singularities, which kill an ordinary theory. So the mathematics itself forces you to 11 dimensions.


Also because this is a Theory of Everything, there’s more room in higher dimensions to put all the forces together. When you put gravity, electromagnetism and the nuclear force together, four dimensions is not big enough to accommodate all these forces. When you expand to 11 dimensions, bingo, everything forms perfectly well.
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The Real Meaning of E=mc²

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You’ve probably known OF E=mc² since you were born, and were also probably told that it meant that it proved Mass equaled Energy, or something along those lines. BUT WAIT. Was E=mc² explained to you properly? Mass equalling energy is mostly true, but E=mc² actually describes a much more interesting, and frankly mind-blowing aspect of reality that likely wasn’t covered in your high school physics class. Join Gabe on this week’s episode of PBS Space Time he discusses THE TRUE MEANING OF E=mc²

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Einstein's 1905 E=mc^2 paper (English translation):


(more modern notation)

Veritasium: Your Mass is NOT From the Higgs Boson

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How Fast Are You Moving Through The Universe?

Even when you are sitting completely still, you are still moving extremely fast! Trace thought it would be fun to figure out just how fast we are all moving!

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When, after a long day of running around, you finally find the time to relax in your favorite armchair, nothing seems easier than just sitting still. But have you ever considered how fast you are really moving when it seems you are not moving at all?

Good question - How fast are you moving through the universe right now?

Chances are that you are sitting in a chair right now, so it seems like you are stationary.

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As we all know, a galaxy is a massive ensemble of hundreds of millions of stars.

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A Competition To Make Space More Accessible (Part 2) | Mindfield | Spark

Imagine if you were able to spend a few days with Edison, or Einstein or Da Vinci. What would you find out about people who lived at the frontier of discovery? Were they all consumed by the riddles of science and technology set before them? What experiences did they have that have them to them becoming leaders in their field? Mindfield will pull back the curtain to reveal the new wizards behind science and technology discoveries in Canada. We will explore many disciplines within this genre; ag-bio research, medicine, academic research, alternative energy and the frontiers of research in commercially viable inventions: Canadian innovators on the global stage.

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How the Milky Way Got Its Stars

Do black holes create stars? There’s direct evidence that the ravenous appetite of a black hole sparks stars into life. | For more How the Universe Works, visit

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Inside The Mind Of Jaxon Cota An 11-Year-Old Kid Genius | NBC Nightly News

At age nine, Jaxon Cota was accepted into Mensa, a society for geniuses. His IQ puts him in the top two percent of the world, but despite his smarts, Jaxon isn’t rushing ahead.
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Inside The Mind Of Jaxon Cota An 11-Year-Old Kid Genius | NBC Nightly News

Hubble Legacy Field Zoom-Out

Astronomers have put together the largest and most comprehensive history book of galaxies into one single image, using 16 years' worth of observations from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

The deep-sky mosaic, created from nearly 7,500 individual exposures, provides a wide portrait of the distant universe, containing 265,000 galaxies that stretch back through 13.3 billion years of time to just 500 million years after the big bang. The faintest and farthest galaxies are just one ten-billionth the brightness of what the human eye can see. The universe's evolutionary history is also chronicled in this one sweeping view. The portrait shows how galaxies change over time, building themselves up to become the giant galaxies seen in the nearby universe.

This ambitious endeavor, called the Hubble Legacy Field, also combines observations taken by several Hubble deep-field surveys, including the eXtreme Deep Field (XDF), the deepest view of the universe. The wavelength range stretches from ultraviolet to near-infrared light, capturing the key features of galaxy assembly over time.

The video begins with a view of the thousands of galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and slowly zooms out to reveal the larger Hubble Legacy Field, containing 265,000 galaxies.

Credits: NASA, ESA, G. Illingworth (University of California, Santa Cruz) and G. Bacon (STScI)

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How black holes swallow space (and blow your mind) | Watch This Space

Scientists have captured the first image of a black hole, but how can we see something that swallows all light? Claire Reilly takes a look at the mind-warping science behind black holes, why they're so mysterious and how a picture of one could change the world.

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Star Size Comparison

With more stars than there are grains of sand on Earth it's difficult to imagine that some are as big as a billion times the size of our sun.

How big is the universe ... compared with a grain of sand?

How big is the universe ... compared with a grain of sand?

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'You'll never get your head around how big the universe is,' warns astronomer Pete Edwards of the University of Durham in this film about measuring astronomical distances. 'There are as many stars in the universe as there are grains of sand on the Earth.' So how far is a light year? And supposing our galaxy were the size of a grain of sand, how big would the universe be?

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How the Universe Works Blow your Mind of the Universe Part 1 Space Discovery Documentary

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Big Stars | How the Universe Works

The sun has been lighting our planet for 4.6 billion years and dominates all life on Earth -- but it's a speck in comparison to the other stars in the universe. | For more How the Universe Works, visit

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How the Universe Works Blow your Mind of the Universe Part 10 Space Discovery Documentary

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How the Universe Works Blow your Mind of the Universe Part 12 Space Discovery Documentary

How the Universe Works Blow your Mind of the Universe Part 12 Space Discovery Documentary

How the Universe Works Blow your Mind of the Universe Part 11 Space Discovery Documentary

How the Universe Works Blow your Mind of the Universe Part 11 Space Discovery Documentary

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