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How to sequence the human genome - Mark J. Kiel

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How to sequence the human genome - Mark J. Kiel

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Your genome, every human's genome, consists of a unique DNA sequence of A's, T's, C's and G's that tell your cells how to operate. Thanks to technological advances, scientists are now able to know the sequence of letters that makes up an individual genome relatively quickly and inexpensively. Mark J. Kiel takes an in-depth look at the science behind the sequence.

Lesson by Mark J. Kiel, animation by Marc Christoforidis.
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How to sequence the human genome Mark J Kiel

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How the Human Genome was sequenced

The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an immense international enterprise: probably the biggest biological experiment yet attempted. Researchers worked together to read the entire sequence of the DNA letters (bases) in the human genome - more than 3,000,000,000 of them. The 'gold standard' sequence was announced in 2003 and published in 2004.

Yourgenome.org presents an animation of how the human genome was sequenced during the publicly-funded Human Genome Project.

Please note: this animation has no sound
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DNA Sequencing - 3D

This 3D animation shows the basic steps in the method of DNA sequencing that was used during the Human Genome Project.

For more information, please view the video and explore related resources on our site:


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Animated by Polymime Animation Company Ltd.

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How to read the genome and build a human being | Riccardo Sabatini

Secrets, disease and beauty are all written in the human genome, the complete set of genetic instructions needed to build a human being. Now, as scientist and entrepreneur Riccardo Sabatini shows us, we have the power to read this complex code, predicting things like height, eye color, age and even facial structure — all from a vial of blood. And soon, Sabatini says, our new understanding of the genome will allow us to personalize treatments for diseases like cancer. We have the power to change life as we know it. How will we use it?

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Lessons from the Human Genome Project

Prominent scientists involved in the Human Genome Project reflect on the lessons learned.

This video was shared as a part of the 2018 National DNA Day '15 for 15' celebration:

Video production by 42 Degrees North Media for the National Human Genome Research Institute.

What is Genomic Sequencing?

Genomic sequencing is a process for analyzing a sample of DNA taken from your blood. In the lab, technicians extract DNA and prepare it for sequencing. To learn more, visit

The race to sequence the human genome - Tien Nguyen

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This video was created with support from the U.S. Office of Research Integrity:

In 1990, The Human Genome Project proposed to sequence the entire human genome over 15 years with $3 billion of public funds. Then, seven years before its scheduled completion, a private company called Celera announced that they could accomplish the same goal in just three years at a fraction of the cost. Tien Nguyen details the history of this race to sequence the human genome.

Lesson by Tien Nguyen, animation by Boico Visual House.

How to Sequence a Genome: 10. Assembling the Results

Animated and narrated segments presenting all the essential steps in sequencing a genome. From the NHGRI's Online Education Kit: Understanding the Human Genome Project.

How to Sequence a Genome: 6. Sequencing Reactions

Animated and narrated segments presenting all the essential steps in sequencing a genome. From the NHGRI's Online Education Kit: Understanding the Human Genome Project.
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How to Sequence a Genome: 9. Reading the Sequencing Products

Animated and narrated segments presenting all the essential steps in sequencing a genome. From the NHGRI's Online Education Kit: Understanding the Human Genome Project.

Whole Genome Sequencing and You

This video is about whole genome sequencing. What is a genome? What are the basics of how whole genome sequencing works? What can you find out about yourself from getting your genome sequenced? And what are the potential benefits and risks? You might be considering getting your genome sequenced for clinical, research or personal reasons. Or you might just be curious and want to learn a bit more about this technology. This video was developed to help you understand a bit more about what whole genome sequencing is, and what it could mean for you. It was developed by researchers at Mount Sinai's Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences and Department of Emergency Medicine with funding from the Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, with valuable input from several community consultants, patients and others from around the Mount Sinai community.
• Visit the Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences:
• Visit the Department of Emergency Medicine:
• Visit the Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine:

The Human Genome Project | Genetics | Biology | FuseSchool

The human genome project was an enormous project that saw scientists around the world collaborate to work out the sequence of bases in the human genome. The project started in 1990 and was completed in 2003, 2 years ahead of schedule.

CREDITS
Animation & Design: Bing Rijper
Narration: Dale Bennett
Script: Gemma Young

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This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC. You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: info@fuseschool.org

How to Sequence a Genome: 1. Mapping

Animated and narrated segments presenting all the essential steps in sequencing a genome. From the NHGRI's Online Education Kit: Understanding the Human Genome Project.

History® - Sequencing the first Human Genome

As public and private sectors raced to sequence the human genome, their work was accelerated by the International Human Genome Project’s commitment to share data freely every day. In June 2000, President Clinton recognized the first draft of the human genome sequence as “the most important, most wondrous map ever producedby humankind.” Please Visit:
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Human Genome Timeline Animation

An animation of the interactive timeline found on Genome: Unlocking Life's Code (
View major milestones in the history of the human genome in this animation.

More:

What does it mean to sequence a genome?

Dr. Rob Edwards from San Diego State University wonders what it means to sequence a genome!

For an overview of genome sequencing, see the course manual:

What Is Genome Sequencing?

How Do We Assemble Genomes? (Part 2/12)

The Human Pangenome

In 2003, biologists created the first ever human genome sequence. The 3 billion DNA letter sequence, called the reference genome, was mostly made up of DNA donated from people in the city of Buffalo, New York. So far, when clinicians and researchers study an individual’s genome, they compare it to the reference genome to identify differences. But can you compare all of humanity to one genome? No, because one reference genome does not convey the genomic diversity of the human species. We need many reference genomes--a pangenome. This monumental undertaking is already taking place and is poised to redefine the future of genomic research and human health. Watch “The Human Pangenome,” a collaboration between The National Human Genome Research Institute and the science media company Massive Science, stemming from a shared belief in showcasing an emerging and vital effort in genomics--one that will impact every one of us.

Further reading:

Advancing the reference sequence of the human genome

NHGRI researchers generate complete human X chromosome sequence


A co-production of Massive Science ( and NIH/NHGRI (

Presented by the National Human Genome Research Institute
Direction and Animation by Rosanna Wan
Narration by Dr. Shawntel Okonkwo
Sound + Music by Skillbard
Script by Harriet Bailey and Prabarna Ganguly
Producer Harriet Bailey
Senior Producer Nadja Oertelt
Executive Producer Prabarna Ganguly
Produced for and supported by the National Human Genome Research Institute

How to Sequence a Genome: 7. Products of Sequencing Reactions

Animated and narrated segments presenting all the essential steps in sequencing a genome. From the NHGRI's Online Education Kit: Understanding the Human Genome Project.

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