Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Immunity Explained
The immune system (or immunity) can be divided into two types - innate and adaptive immunity. This video has an immune system animation. The innate immune system consists of defenses against infection that are activated instantly as a pathogen attacks. Adaptive immunity (or acquired immunity) is a subsystem of the immune system that contains highly specialised systemic cells and processes that kill pathogens and prevent their growth in the body. Innate vs adaptive immunity: it’s important to realize that innate and adaptive immunity are different. Their differences are explained in the video in layman terms.
Our immune system is a fascinating entity, that functions in quite a unique and efficient manner. Comprising of various types of cells, it is prepared for any kind of breach in the fortress of our body, and is equipped to fight off a staggering number of intruders.
In this video, we give you a brief overview of the immune system, and the basic types of cells involved, along with the function they carry out.
Each cell if the immune system carries out various roles, depending on the kind of threat the body is facing. However, they have certain basic roles which have been explained here.
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0:00 - Introduction
0:46 - Innate Immunity
1:53 - Inflammation
2:35 - Types of Immune cells
4:20 - Adaptive Immunity
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IMMUNE SYSTEM MADE EASY- IMMUNOLOGY INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY SIMPLE ANIMATION
The immune system is the basic defence system of the body that protects us from harmful pathogens and diseases.
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The immune system consists of various types of cells and different proteins that kill the harmful invading micro-organisms and protect our body from disease.
In this video we will discuss about the human immune system. What is the basic structure of the Human Immune system and how it functions
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Pathogens can rapidly evolve and adapt, and thereby avoid detection and neutralization by the immune system; however, multiple defense mechanisms have also evolved to recognize and neutralize pathogens. Even simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess a rudimentary immune system in the form of enzymes that protect against bacteriophage infections. Other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient eukaryotes and remain in their modern descendants, such as plants and invertebrates. These mechanisms include phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptides called defensins, and the complement system. Jawed vertebrates, including humans, have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms,[1including the ability to adapt over time to recognize specific pathogens more efficiently. Adaptive (or acquired) immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination.
The immune system protects organisms from infection with layered defenses of increasing specificity. In simple terms, physical barriers prevent pathogens such as bacteria and viruses from entering the organism. If a pathogen breaches these barriers, the innate immune system provides an immediate, but non-specific response. Innate immune systems are found in all plants and animals. If pathogens successfully evade the innate response, vertebrates possess a second layer of protection, the adaptive immune system, which is activated by the innate response. Here, the immune system adapts its response during an infection to improve its recognition of the pathogen. This improved response is then retained after the pathogen has been eliminated, in the form of an immunological memory, and allows the adaptive immune system to mount faster and stronger attacks each time this pathogen is encountered.
The complement system is a biochemical cascade that attacks the surfaces of foreign cells. It contains over 20 different proteins and is named for its ability to complement the killing of pathogens by antibodies. Complement is the major humoral component of the innate immune response. Many species have complement systems, including non-mammals like plants, fish, and some invertebrates.
In humans, this response is activated by complement binding to antibodies that have attached to these microbes or the binding of complement proteins to carbohydrates on the surfaces of microbes. This recognition signal triggers a rapid killing response. The speed of the response is a result of signal amplification that occurs after sequential proteolytic activation of complement molecules, which are also proteases. After complement proteins initially bind to the microbe, they activate their protease activity, which in turn activates other complement proteases, and so on. This produces a catalytic cascade that amplifies the initial signal by controlled positive feedback. The cascade results in the production of peptides that attract immune cells, increase vascular permeability, and opsonize (coat) the surface of a pathogen, marking it for destruction. This deposition of complement can also kill cells directly by disrupting their plasma membrane
immune - immune system made easy- immunology innate and adaptive immunity simple animation
immune - The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease
Innate and adaptive immune system
This comprehensive video covers in 5 minutes general aspects of immune system. It goes rapidly through both innate and adaptive immune systems and the interaction between them.
Innate immunity system components are physical barriers, cellular components and non cellular components
Adaptive immune system include both antibody mediated and cell mediated immunity.
Immunology General Review: innate and adaptive immunity
This comprehensive animated video covers in 20 minutes most aspects of immune system. It goes through both innate and adaptive immune systems and the interaction between them.
Innate immunity system components are physical barriers, cellular components and non cellular components
Adaptive immune system include both antibody mediated and cell mediated immunity.
Innate Immunity and Acquired immunity | Adaptive Immunity | Immune System | Don't Memorise
Did you know that our bodies know to fight off certain infections right since birth? Yes! There are certain invaders which can be fought off without prior encounters. It is known as Innate immunity. Our Immune system also adapts itself according to the environmental changes. And this type of immunity is known as Acquired immunity or Adaptive Immunity.
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IMMUNOLOGY- Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity (FL-Immuno/01)
Topics covered in this video lecture are:
0:49 Immune System
1:22 Immune Response
Types of Immunity:
2:57 Innate Immunity,
8:04 Adaptive Immunity
12:31 What if Immunity fails?
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Immune System, Part 1: Crash Course A&P #45
Our final episodes of Anatomy & Physiology explore the way your body keeps all that complex, intricate stuff alive and healthy -- your immune system. The immune system’s responses begin with physical barriers like skin and mucous membranes, and when they’re not enough, there are phagocytes -- the neutrophils and macrophages. It also features the awesomely named natural killer cells and the inflammatory response, and we'll explain how all of these elements work together to save the day if you happen to slip on a banana peel.
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Physical Barriers Like Skin and Mucous Membranes 2:01
Phagocytes: Neutrophils and Macrophages 3:17
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Explore the basics about the immune system with The Amoeba Sisters! This video talks about the three lines of defense and also compares cell-mediated response with the humoral response.
Clark, M. A., Douglas, M., & Choi, J. (2018). Biology 2e. Houston, TX: Biology Stax.
Reece, J. B., & Campbell, N. A. (2011). Campbell biology. Boston: Benjamin Cummings / Pearson.
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Innate and adaptive immunity | immune system of human body lecture
Immune system of human body | innate and adaptive immunity lecture - this immunology lecture explains about the innate and adaptive immunity in human body and the role of innate and adaptive immune response to fight against infections and pathogens.
Innate immunity is the fast response against pathogen with cell mediated immunity and it's less specific. While adaptive immunity takes some time to develop but it is more effective and much more specific.
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Thank you for watching the immunology lecture on innate and adaptive immunity.
Understanding the Immune System in One Video
This video provides a visual overview of the immune system.
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Immunology - Adaptive Immune System
The Immune System Overview, Animation
(USMLE topics) What happens during an infection? Surface barriers, innate and adaptive immune response. This video is available for instant download licensing here
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The immune system is the body’s defense system. It protects the body from disease-causing organisms, called pathogens. Surface barriers: physical, chemical, and biological obstacles. The primary physical barrier is the skin. Body systems that are open to outside environment, such as the respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive system, each have their own mechanisms to prevent entrance of microbes: mucous membranes trap them, sneezing or coughing reflex expels them, while urine mechanically flushes them out. Chemical barriers include stomach acid and various antimicrobial substances in sweat, saliva, tears. The body’s normal flora competes with pathogens for nutrition and space, providing biological barriers.
If an organism manages to get past the surface barriers, it will meet with the innate component of the immune system, which mounts an immediate, but non-specific response. If this fails to contain the infection, another layer of defense, called the adaptive, or acquired, immune response comes into play. The adaptive response takes longer to be activated, but is more effective as it specifically targets the invading pathogen. It also leaves the body with a “memory” of the pathogen, so it can react faster the next time the same pathogen attacks.
The major players of the immune system are the white blood cells, or leukocytes. All leukocytes derive from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Each of them has different roles in the immune response.
The first response of the innate immune system is inflammation. Resident macrophages, which constantly patrol body tissues, ingest the pathogen and release inflammatory chemicals, called cytokines, which attract other immune cells to the site of injury. Basophils, eosinophils and mast cells release their own cytokines, amplifying inflammation. Cytokines dilate blood vessels, increasing blood flow and are responsible for clinical signs of inflammation such as redness and swelling. They act on endothelial cells of blood vessels and serve as chemical cues for migration of neutrophils – the major phagocytes involved in first-line defense. Activated endothelial cells attach to neutrophils in the flow, slowing them down, before getting them to squeeze through the vessel wall. Neutrophils engulf bacteria and destroy them with enzymes or toxic peroxides. They may also release highly reactive oxygen species in a phenomenon known as oxidative burst, which kills pathogens faster and more efficiently. The neutrophils themselves, however, also die in the process, their debris forming pus on the injury site.
The adaptive immune response starts with the so-called “antigen-presenting cells”, of which dendritic cells are most effective. Resident dendritic cells on the site of infection swallow up pathogens, cut them into pieces, called antigens, and display them on their surface. These dendritic cells are then picked up by lymphatic capillaries and travel to lymph nodes, where they present the antigens to a matching T-cell. The pathogen itself may also travel to a lymph node where it may encounter a matching B-cell. The match-finding process underlies the specificity of adaptive immune response. T-cells and B-cells exist in billions of variations, each carries a unique surface protein, which acts like a key. Among these billions of keys, only the ones that can bind to, or unlock, the invading pathogen, are activated. Activated T-cells and B-cells undergo differentiation and proliferation, called clonal expansion. This process produces memory cells, ready for future infections by the same pathogen; and effector cells, which include activated cytotoxic T-cells and plasma B cells producing antibodies; both of these are specific to the pathogen. Antibodies and cytotoxic T-cells then leave the lymph node for the bloodstream to be delivered to the site of infection. Antibodies attach to pathogens and either target them for destruction or neutralize them. Cytotoxic T-cells release toxins to kill infected host cells.
The Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems - Vaccine Makers Project
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The Immune System: Innate Defenses and Adaptive Defenses
There are so many critters out there, bacteria and viruses that want to wreak havoc in our bodies. How do we defend ourselves against such tiny threats? The immune system! This is quite possibly the most profoundly remarkable aspect of the human body. It almost defies comprehension, the resourcefulness and efficiency of this system. An in-depth analysis will require an entire separate immunology course which will come in the future, let's just get our feet wet for the moment!
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Join us in this overview on the immune system where we have a brief discussion on the inflammatory process and adaptive immunity.
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The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's plasma membrane. It is part of the innate immune system, which is not adaptable and does not change over the course of an individual's lifetime. It can be recruited and brought into action by the adaptive immune system.
The complement system consists of a number of small proteins found in the blood, in general synthesized by the liver, and normally circulating as inactive precursors (pro-proteins). When stimulated by one of several triggers, proteases in the system cleave specific proteins to release cytokines and initiate an amplifying cascade of further cleavages. The end result of this complement activation or complement fixation cascade is stimulation of phagocytes to clear foreign and damaged material, proxy inflammation to attract additional phagocytes, and activation of the cell-killing membrane attack complex. Over 30 proteins and protein fragments make up the complement system, including serum proteins, serosal proteins, and cell membrane receptors. They account for about 10% of the globulin fraction of blood serum and can serve as opsonins.
Three biochemical pathways activate the complement system: the classical complement pathway, the alternative complement pathway, and the lectin pathway.
Most of the proteins and glycoproteins that constitute the complement system are synthesized by hepatocytes. But significant amounts are also produced by tissue macrophages, blood monocytes, and epithelial cells of the genitourinal tract and gastrointestinal tract. The three pathways of activation all generate homologous variants of the protease C3-convertase. The classical complement pathway typically requires antigen—antibody complexes (immune complexes) for activation (specific immune response), whereas the alternative pathway can be activated by C3 hydrolysis, foreign material, pathogens, or damaged cells. The mannose-binding lectin pathway can be activated by C3 hydrolysis or antigens without the presence of antibodies (non-specific immune response). In all three pathways, C3-convertase cleaves and activates component C3, creating C3a and C3b, and causes a cascade of further cleavage and activation events. C3b binds to the surface of pathogens, leading to greater internalization by phagocytic cells by opsonization.
In the alternative pathway, C3b binds to Factor B. Factor D releases Factor Ba from Factor B bound to C3b. The complex of C3b(2)Bb is a protease which cleaves C5 into C5b and C5a. C5 convertase is also formed by the Classical Pathway when C3b binds C4b and C2a. C5a is an important chemotactic protein, helping recruit inflammatory cells. C3a is the precursor of an important cytokine (adipokine) named ASP (although this is not universally accepted ) and is usually rapidly cleaved by carboxypeptidase B. Both C3a and C5a have anaphylatoxin activity, directly triggering degranulation of mast cells as well as increasing vascular permeability and smooth muscle contraction. C5b initiates the membrane attack pathway, which results in the membrane attack complex (MAC), consisting of C5b, C6, C7, C8, and polymeric C9. MAC is the cytolytic endproduct of the complement cascade; it forms a transmembrane channel, which causes osmotic lysis of the target cell. Kupffer cells and other macrophage cell types help clear complement-coated pathogens. As part of the innate immune system, elements of the complement cascade can be found in species earlier than vertebrates; most recently in the protostome horseshoe crab species, putting the origins of the system back further than was previously thought.
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We all know little about what happens in our bodies when we have an open injury. A paper cut at work, a mosquito bite. How is it possible that open injuries do not harm our body? Thanks to our Immunsystem! With the help of different cells, like the Leukocytes, which consist of phagocytes and lymphocytes, and the further components, the B-lymphocytes and the T-lymphocytes, they fight against germs and bacteria. Immunology helps us humans to maintain our health and strength. The Immunsystem is a great response of the human body to fight against unwanted bacteria and germs.
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Cells of the Immune System (Brittany Anderton)
Brittany Anderton provides an overview of the major cells of the human immune system.
The immune system is responsible for fighting infection and disease. It is comprised of many specialized cell types, all which work together to keep people healthy. In this short video, Dr. Brittany Anderton introduces the cells of the immune system. She compares and contrasts innate and adaptive immunity, and lays out the molecular interactions required to activate each type of response.
Dr. Brittany Anderton obtained her PhD in biomedicine from UCSF in 2015. After that, she did a non-traditional postdoc at UC Davis where she studied the teaching and communication of biotechnology. Brittany has served as adjunct faculty at UC Davis and CSU Sacramento, where she taught introductory biology courses. At iBiology, she seeks to improve the teaching and communication of science using evidence from the learning and social sciences.