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In Da Club - Membranes & Transport: Crash Course Biology #5

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In Da Club - Membranes & Transport: Crash Course Biology #5

Hank describes how cells regulate their contents and communicate with one another via mechanisms within the cell membrane.

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Table of Contents time codes:
1) Passive Transport - 1:17
2) Diffusion - 1:25
3) Osmosis - 2:12
4) Channel Proteins- 4:37
5) Active Transport - 4:58
6) ATP - 5:37
7) Transport Proteins - 6:19
8) Biolography - 6:37
9) Vesicular Transport - 9:02
10) Exocytosis - 9:21
11) Endocytosis - 9:50
12) Phagocytosis - 9:57
13) Pinocytosis - 10:29
14) Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis - 10:48

TAGS: crashcourse, hank green, biology, chemistry, cell, cell membrane, selective permeability, selectively permeable, active transport, passive transport, solution, concentration, concentration gradient, atp, adenosine tri-phosphate, jens christian skou, vesicular transport, phagocytosis, endocytosis Support CrashCourse on Patreon:

Cell Transport

Explore the types of passive and active cell transport with the Amoeba Sisters! This video has a handout here: Expand video details for table of contents 👇

Table of Contents:
Importance of Cell Membrane for Homeostasis 0:41
Cell Membrane Structure 1:07
Simple Diffusion 1:45
What does it mean to go with the concentration gradient? 2:20
Facilitated Diffusion 2:38
Active Transport 4:53 (including endocytosis 5:36 exocytosis 6:36)

Transport types covered include simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, endocytosis, and exocytosis. ATP discussed at 4:35.

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#31 Biochemistry Membrane Transport Lecture for Kevin Ahern's BB 451/551

1. Contact me at kgahern@davincipress.com / Friend me on Facebook (kevin.g.ahern)
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1. Cellular membranes are fluid in nature. Shorter, more unsaturated fatty acids make for membranes that retain fluidity at lower temperatures compared to longer, saturated fatty acids. Fish membranes are full of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which makes them fluid at fairly low temperatures.

2. The midpoint of the conversion between the solid and the fluid state is referred to as the Tm. Cholesterol is often found in membranes. Though it does not change the Tm of a membrane it does widen the range of the transition temperature.

3. Not all molecules move into a cell through specific protein receptors. An example is cholesterol, which enters cells via LDLs that attach to a receptor on the cell's surface. The entire LDL with the cholesterol is taken into the cell in a process called endocytosis.

Highlights of Membrane Transport

1. Diffusion is a process in solutions where molecules move from a high concentration to a low concentration. Active transport occurs when a least one molecule is moved across a membrane from a low to a higher concentration. This takes energy.

2. We break transport across membranes into two main categories - 1) passive transport (diffusion driven), and 2) active transport (an energy-requiring process).

3. Active transport moves at least one molecule in the opposite direction of where diffusion would operate.

4. ATP is a primary energy source for active transport, but there are other sources, as well. Pumps that move two molecules in the same direction across a membrane are called symports, whereas pumps that move two molecules in opposite directions across a membrane are called antiports. Pumps are called electroneutral if their action does not result in a net change in charge and electrogenic if their action changes the charge across the membrane as a result of their action.

5. An example of a passive transport system is a glucose transporter in blood cells that simply lets glucose diffuse into cells. No energy is required for that particular transporter. Other glucose transporters in other cells are active in that they use energy to move glucose against a concentration gradient.

6. P-type ATP-using transport systems use phosphoaspartate as a covalent intermediate in their mechanism of action.

7. The mechanism of transport of the Ca/ATPase pump includes binding of ATP and the relevant ions, transfer of phosphate from the ATP to the protein, conformational change in the protein causing movement of the ions across the membrane, hydrolysis of the phosphate from aspartate in the protein, a second conformational change to bring the protein back to its original state.

8. The Na/K ATPase transports three sodiums out of the cell and two potassiums in for each cycle. Movement of Na and K is essential for the cell being able to maintain osmotic balance. The Na/K ATPase is called an antiport because it moves molecules in opposite directions.

9. Another class of transporter proteins that use ATP to move molecules are the ABC transporters. An example is the Multidrug Resistance Protein that is involved in the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy agents. They act by binding the compound first. This causes a conformational change in the protein that allows ATP to bind. Binding of ATP causes the protein to 'evert' (move its opening from one side of the membrane to the other). This has the effect of moving the bound compound to the outside of the cell. After this happens, ATP is hydrolyzed to change the protein to evert again and change back to its original conformation (opening facing inwards).

10. The Na+/Ca++ exchange pump is a secondary transporter. It uses movement of Na+ in to cells to be a driving force for pumping Ca++ out. If Ca+ is not pumped OUT, its concentration in muscle cells remains high, stimulating contraction. Digitoxigenin is a compound from foxglove that binds the Na+/K+ ATPase, preventing development of a Na+ gradient. As a consequence, digitoxigenin increases Ca++ concentration. Digitoxigenin is used as a heart stimulant.

Vascular Plants = Winning! - Crash Course Biology #37

Hank introduces us to one of the most diverse and important families in the tree of life - the vascular plants. These plants have found tremendous success and the their secret is also their defining trait: conductive tissues that can take food and water from one part of a plant to another part. Though it sounds simple, the ability to move nutrients and water from one part of an organism to another was a evolutionary breakthrough for vascular plants, allowing them to grow exponentially larger, store food for lean times, and develop features that allowed them to spread farther and faster. Plants dominated the earth long before animals even showed up, and even today hold the world records for the largest, most massive, and oldest organisms on the planet.

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Table of Contents
1) 3 Tissue Types 02:37
2) Primary Growth 03:04
3) Secondary Growth 03:28
4) Dermal Tissue 04:47
a) Epidermis 04:54
5) Parenchyma Cells 05:39
6) Vascular Tissue 05:58
7) Xylem 05:58
8) Collenchyma 07:10
9) Sclerenchyma 07:35
10) Ground Tissue 08:25
a) Mesophyll 08:17
b) Photosynthesis 08:47
11) Phloem 09:54

References





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Facilitated diffusion | Membranes and transport | Biology | Khan Academy

Understanding how channel proteins and carrier proteins can facilitate diffusion across a cell membrane (passive transport).

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Cell Membranes

015 - Cell Membranes

Paul Andersen explains how cells are selectively permeable with the help of their cell membrane. The main constituents of the cell membrane, including cholesterol, glycolipids, glycoproteins, phospholipids, and proteins are included. The fluid mosaic model is also illustrated. The cell wall in plants, bacteria, and fungi is also discussed.

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Exocytosis | Membranes and transport | Biology | Khan Academy

Introduction to exocytosis!

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Structure Of The Cell Membrane - Active and Passive Transport

What is it that separates what's inside a cell from what's outside of a cell? Why, that's the cell membrane. What's it made out of? How does it work? How do molecules get in and out of the cell? These are super-important concepts! Let's take a look.

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Passive transport and selective permeability | Biology | Khan Academy

Passive transport and selective permeability. Passive transport through diffusion.

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Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course.

About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content.

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The Cell Membrane

Paul Andersen gives you a brief introduction to the cell membrane. He starts by describing amphipathic nature of a phospholipid and how it assembles into a membrane. He gives an overview of the fluid mosaic model inside cells. He also discusses the movement of material across a membrane and the role of proteins in movement and function.

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Intro to Cell Signaling

Explore cell signaling with the Amoeba Sisters! This introductory video describes vocabulary such as ligand and receptor. It includes the stages of cell signaling (reception, transduction, and response) and different types of signaling including autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine. This is just an introduction to a series on signaling that we hope to expand on in the future!

Factual References:

OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Jun 1, 2018

Reece, J. B., & Campbell, N. A. (2011). Campbell biology. Boston: Benjamin Cummings / Pearson.

Further Reading Suggestion:
Want to learn more about autocrine signaling in cancer cells?


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The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit:


We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook:

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End music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library

We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines and YouTube's policy center We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language.

We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages, and we are thankful for those that contribute different languages! YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are not affiliated with any of the translated subtitle credits that YouTube may place below. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.

Cell Transports

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Membrane Transport Cell Biology

Membrane transport lecture | transport across the membrane

Transport across the membrane - This video lecture about membrane transport explains about the basics of transport across the membrane. It explains different types of membrane transport mechanisms such as passive transport including facilitated diffusion and the active transport mechanism. It also explains about the role of membrane proteins both channel proteins and carrier proteins in process of cell membrane transport mechanism.
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Diffusion and Osmosis

Diffusion and Osmosis, on crack.

Have to shorten my script, AND add examples and credits? No problem!

MATERIALS USED:
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In Da Club - Membranes & Transport: Crash Course Biology #5 by CrashCourse


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APPS USED:

Lightworks


Autodesk Sketchbook


Open Broadcaster Software


Inkscape
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Your Immune System: Natural Born Killer - Crash Course Biology #32

Hank tells us about the team of deadly ninja assassins that is tasked with protecting our bodies from all the bad guys that want to kill us - also known as our immune system.

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Table of Contents
1) Innate Immune System 1:45
a) Mucous Membranes 2:54
b) Inflammatory Response 3:44
c) Leukocytes 4:45

2) Open Letter 6:33
a) Natural Killer Cells 6:56
b) Dendritic Cells 7:57

3) Acquired Immune System 8:36
a) Antibodies 9:08
b) Lymphocytes 9:48
c) Cell-Mediated Response 10:17
d) Humoral Response 13:00

References
Campbell Biology, 9th ed.



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Plant Cells: Crash Course Biology #6

Hank describes why plants are so freaking amazing - discussing their evolution, and how their cells are both similar to & different from animal cells.

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This video uses sounds from Freesound.org, a list of which can be found, along with the CITATIONS for this video, in the Google Document here:

Table of Contents annotations:

1. Re-watch the whole video 0:00
2. Introduction 0:00
3. Plant Evolution 0:56
4. Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic Cells 2:33
5. Cellulose and Lignin 3:58
6. Plastids and Chloroplasts 7:05
7. Central Vacuole 8:10

TAGS: crashcourse, biology, hank green, plants, plantae, chemistry, energy, learn, course, lycophyte, scale tree, carboniferous, angiosperm, eukaryotic, nucleus, prokaryotic, membrane, cytoplasm, organelle, cellulose, lignin, energy, photosynthesis, plastid, chloroplast, central vacuole, turgor pressure Support CrashCourse on Patreon:

Eukaryopolis - The City of Animal Cells: Crash Course Biology #4

Hank tells us about the city of Eukaryopolis - the animal cell that is responsible for all the cool things that happen in our bodies.

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More info. on the structures described in this video linked to in the Google Document here:

Table of Contents time codes
1) Robert Hooke 1:59
2) Cilia/Flagella 2:52
3) Cell Membrane 3:32
4) Cytoplasm/Cytoskeleton/Centrosomes 3:58
5) Endoplasmic Reticulum 4:41
6) Ribosomes 5:45
7) Golgi Apparatus 6:00
8) Lysosomes 6:47
9) Nucleus 7:06
10) Mitochondria 9:14

TAGS: crashcourse, biology, animal cells, cell membrane, eukaryote, eukaryotic, organelle, organ, tissue, muscle, nerve, animalia, robert hooke, cilia, flagella, microtubules, cytoplasm, ctyoskeleton, centrosome, nucleus, nucleoplasm, nucleolus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, amino acid, polypeptide, golgi apparatus, golgi, lysosomes, DNA, chromatin, rRNA, mRNA, mitochondria Support CrashCourse on Patreon:

ATP and respiration | Crash Course biology| Khan Academy

In which Hank does some push-ups for science and describes the economy of cellular respiration and the various processes whereby our bodies store energy in the form of ATP. Created by Crash Course.

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About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything.

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Plant cells | Crash Course biology| Khan Academy

Hank describes why plants are so freaking amazing - discussing their evolution, and how their cells are both similar to & different from animal cells. Created by Crash Course.

Watch the next lesson:

Missed the previous lesson?

About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything.

For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything

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