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Inside the black hole image that made history | Sheperd Doeleman

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Inside the black hole image that made history | Sheperd Doeleman

At the center of a galaxy more than 55 million light-years away, there's a supermassive black hole with the mass of several billion suns. And now, for the first time ever, we can see it. Astrophysicist Sheperd Doeleman, head of the Event Horizon Telescope collaboration, speaks with TED's Chris Anderson about the iconic, first-ever image of a black hole -- and the epic, worldwide effort involved in capturing it.

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Shep Doeleman Photographs a Black Hole

A black hole is an object so dense that not even light can escape its gravitational pull. So how could you ever take a picture of one? It seemed impossible, but on April 10th, 2019, scientists from the Event Horizon Telescope, led by astronomer Shep Doeleman, announced that they'd done just that. Their image of the photons circling a supermassive black hole in the galaxy Messier 87 will revolutionize our understanding of the universe—and move the dial on what's considered impossible.

CREDITS:
- Produced by Brandon Royal and Mandi Gorenstein
- Edited by Josh Zimmerman
- Music by APM

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First Image of a Black Hole!

The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration observed the supermassive black hole at the center of M87, finding the dark central shadow in accordance with General Relativity, further demonstrating the power of this 100 year-old theory.

To understand more about why the shadows look the way they do, check out:

I will continue updating this description with more links.

Event Horizon Telescope collaboration:

Animations and simulations with English text:
L. R. Weih & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt)


Video of observation of M87 courtesy of:
C. M. Fromm, Y. Mizuno & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt)


Video of observation of SgrA* courtesy of
C. M. Fromm, Y. Mizuno & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt)
Z. Younsi (University College London)


Video of telescopes in the array 2017:
C. M. Fromm & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt)


Animations and simulations (no text):
L. R. Weih & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt)


Special thanks to Patreon supporters:
Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd, Penward Rhyme

Scale animation by Maria Raykova

How to take a picture of a black hole | Katie Bouman

At the heart of the Milky Way, there's a supermassive black hole that feeds off a spinning disk of hot gas, sucking up anything that ventures too close -- even light. We can't see it, but its event horizon casts a shadow, and an image of that shadow could help answer some important questions about the universe. Scientists used to think that making such an image would require a telescope the size of Earth -- until Katie Bouman and a team of astronomers came up with a clever alternative. Bouman explains how we can take a picture of the ultimate dark using the Event Horizon Telescope.

The TED Talks channel features the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world's leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design -- plus science, business, global issues, the arts and more.

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The Black Hole Picture, Explained By Astrophysicists | WIRED

Scientists captured and released the first-ever picture of a black hole. WIRED's Deputy Science Editor Adam Rogers spoke with Harvard's Michael Johnson and Andrew Chael, two of the members of the research team, to find out what the achievement means for science.

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The Black Hole Picture, Explained By Astrophysicists | WIRED

2020 Breakthrough Prize Winner Shep Doeleman—How EHT Imaged a Black Hole

Congratulations to Shep Doeleman and the the Event Horizon Telescope team, winners of the 2020 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics! At the 2019 World Science Festival, Shep presented the methods used by the EHT team to produce the first-ever photograph of a black hole. The image, released on April 10th, 2019, confirms (at least for the moment) Einstein’s theories at the boundary of a supermassive black hole, opening a new window into the study of these mysterious objects.

This program is part of the Big Ideas Series, made possible with support from the John Templeton Foundation.

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Taking a Photograph of a Black Hole

Shep Doeleman, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Astronomer & Director, Event Horizon Telescope Project

Black holes are the most exotic objects thought to exist in the universe, but no one has ever seen one. In this talk, Dr. Shep Doeleman, astronomer at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, will explore the evidence for black holes, and describe an effort to link radio dishes around the world to form an Earth-sized virtual telescope that can capture the first images of the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way.

Original music by Mark C. Petersen, Loch Ness Productions. Used with permission.

Animations used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

How Astronomers Took The First Ever Image Of A Black Hole

The Event Horizon Telescope has become the first ever to take an image of a supermassive black hole. The black hole is located 55 million light-years away in the Messier 87 galaxy.

Following is a transcript of the video:

What you are seeing is the first ever image of a black hole. Maybe it doesn’t look spectacular at first. But consider this: Black holes by their very nature are invisible.

Because their gravitational pull is so strong that not even light can escape them. So for many years, astronomers thought that an image like this was impossible. How do you take a picture of something that does not emit light?

Well, it starts with a small team of innovators. And ends with a telescope that’s unlike anything the world has ever seen. Now, despite major advances in telescope technology there is no single telescope on Earth that can take a picture of a black hole.

They’re all too small. So, astronomers innovated.  If one telescope couldn’t do the job, then perhaps 8 would — and they were right. They used 8 radio telescopes stationed at different points across the world.  And kept them all in synch with powerful atomic clocks. They call the effort the Event Horizon Telescope.

This series of telescopes, combined, has about the same capabilities as a telescope as large as our entire planet. And for the first time in history, it has shown us what a black hole around 55 million light years away looks like. This black hole is actually a supermassive black hole.

It’s about 6.5 billion times as massive as our Sun — that’s enormous even compared to other supermassive black holes and lives in the center of the Messier 87 galaxy. And as far as experts can tell, it looks EXACTLY like what Einstein’s general theory of relativity predicted. Here’s a simulation of what the Event Horizon Team thought the black hole would look like.  And here’s the real image.

The light you see here is what’s called the accretion disk. It’s a disk of light that forms around the black hole when a star travels too close and is broken apart in the process. But the most important part of this photo is where there is no light. That dark circle in the center, which measures 25 billion miles across.

That right there, is proof that black holes look and behave how astronomers thought. More specifically, that they actually have an edge. It’s a place of no return, which astronomers call the event horizon. Once you cross the event horizon, the black hole’s gravity is so strong that you cannot escape it. Not you, nor the fastest spacecraft, not even the fastest thing in the universe: light.

That’s why the edge and everything beyond it are black. Trapped inside the black hole’s gravitational grip. And this image may be just the beginning.

The Event Horizons Telescope team has also turned its sights on another black hole. One that is closer to home, called Sagittarius A*. It’s the supermassive black hole at the center of our own galaxy, the Milky Way. But it’s significantly smaller than the one in Messier 87.

So it will be more difficult to image. And since it took astronomers two years to combine and analyze data for this first image it may be a while before we see what other black holes look like.

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#BlackHole #Astronomy #ScienceInsider

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How Astronomers Took The First Ever Image Of A Black Hole

Katie Bouman “Imaging a Black Hole with the Event Horizon Telescope”

Dr. Katie Bouman, who starts as assistant professor of computing and mathematical sciences at Caltech in June 2019, describes how the Event Horizon Telescope team captured the first-ever image of a black hole.

Why this black hole photo is such a big deal

What it took to collect these 54-million-year-old photons from a supermassive black hole.

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This is an updated version of a video we published in 2016 about the Event Horizon Telescope, an international collaboration to image a black hole for the first time in human history.

On April 10, 2019, the team announced their results: They had successfully imaged the supermassive black hole in the center of the galaxy m87, which is nearly 54 million light-years away from us. They were able to achieve unprecedented resolution using very long baseline interferometry, which combines the observations of multiple radio telescopes across the globe.

The team wanted to find out whether Einstein's Theory of General Relativity holds up in the extreme environment of black holes, and the results do, in fact, seem to be consistent with the predictions. In the future, we may see more and shaper images of black holes as the team targets smaller wavelengths of light and recruits more telescopes. Eventually, they may include an orbiting space telescope.

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Imaging the Unseen: Taking the First Picture of a Black Hole - Katie Bouman - 6/7/2019

Changing Directions & Changing the World: Celebrating the Carver Mead New Adventures Fund. June 7, 2019 in Beckman Institute Auditorium at Caltech.

The symposium features technical talks from Carver Mead New Adventures Fund recipients, alumni, and Carver Mead himself! Since 2014, this Fund has championed exceptional projects in their earliest stage of development – too early to attract industry or government support. This characteristic embodies Carver’s approaches and practices, with a continued goal to expand Carver’s daring approach to research and innovation throughout the Caltech campus.

Learn more about:
- Carver Mead New Adventures Fund:
- The Symposium:

Produced in association with Caltech Academic Media Technologies. ©2019 California Institute of Technology.

How Do You Observe a Black Hole?

Black holes may hold the key to understanding the most fundamental truths of the universe, but how do you see something that’s, well, black? Astronomers think they have the answer. Thanks to a global array of radio telescopes that turn the Earth into a giant receiver, we've imaged one black hole (Messier 87) and may soon have the first picture of the event horizon of Sagittarius A*, the black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy.

PARTICIPANTS: Shep Doeleman, Andrea Ghez

MODERATOR: Brian Greene

MORE INFO ABOUT THE PROGRAM AND PARTICIPANTS:

This program is part of the BIG IDEAS SERIES, made possible with support from the JOHN TEMPLETON FOUNDATION.

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TOPICS:
0:04 - Understanding escape velocity and black holes
9:25 - Panelist introductions
10:41 - Are black holes really out there?
12:06 - What resides in the center of our galaxy?
13:45 - Evidence of black holes
20:26 - Kek telescope experiment
24:43 - Event Horizon Telescope
32:21 - Simulating a black hole
34:27 - Will we find a deviation from Einstein’s theory?
36:24 - What's the next phase of our understanding of gravity?

PROGRAM CREDITS:

- Produced by John Plummer
- Associate Produced by Laura Dattaro
- Animation/Editing by Josh Zimmerman
- Music provided by APM
- Additional images and footage provided by: Getty Images, Shutterstock, Videoblocks

This program was recorded live at the 2018 World Science Festival and has been edited and condensed for YouTube.

Watch the full unedited program here:
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What If You Fell Into a Black Hole?

What If You Fell Into a Black Hole?
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Black holes are one of the most mysterious and awe-inspiring objects out there in the universe. Their existence has fascinated physicists’ and astronomers for decades. They may hold answers to some of astrology’s greatest theories ranging from the very nature of our universe to the possibility of a multiverse and beyond. Black holes have long been the things of science-fiction, with many incredible movies and stories built around their foreboding yet intriguing existence. Despite these many stories and theories developed over the years, scientists have recently gathered much new information on black holes that is turning the scientific community on its head. But if there’s one thing people want to know when it comes to a black hole is…what happens if you fall into one?

#black #hole #holes #blackhole #hawking #steven #einstein #theory

Shep Doeleman Presents the EHT at "Exploring Infinity" (April 2018)

In this short talk, Sheperd Doeleman describes the Event Horizon Telescope project at a Smithsonian Institution gathering in Washington, DC (April 8th, 2018). Find out what is a black hole, and how do you take a picture of it? Aren't we trying to see the invisible? Was Einstein right? The Event Horizon Telescope could tell!

Credit: Smithsonian Institution

In the Shadow of the Black Hole

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) — a planet-scale array of eight ground-based radio telescopes forged through international collaboration — was designed to capture images of a black hole. In coordinated press conferences across the globe, EHT researchers revealed that they succeeded, unveiling the first direct visual evidence of a supermassive black hole and its shadow.

This 17-minute film explores the efforts that led to this historic image, from the science of Einstein and Schwarzschild to the struggles and successes of the EHT collaboration.

More information and download options:

Credit:
ESO

Directed by: Lars Lindberg Christensen
Art Direction, Production Design: Martin Kornmesser
Written by: Sarah Leach, Laura Hiscott, Lars Lindberg Christensen and Calum Turner
3D animations and graphics: Martin Kornmesser and Luis Calçada
Editing: Martin Kornmesser
Producer: Herbert Zodet
Music: Johan B. Monell – Shadow of the Universe Part I-Shadow Of The Universe (parts 1-5) ( and Stellardrone – Galaxies.
Footage and photos: ESO, Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration, ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), IRAM/Diverticimes/Cinedia, Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, BlackHoleCam/Radboud University/Cristian Afker/Cafker Productions, Digitized Sky Survey 2, De Gasperin et al., Kim et al.,  mediomix, ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/General Dynamics C4 Systems, Nicolle R. Fuller/NSF, Jordy Davelaar et al., B. Tafreshi (twanight.org), C. Malin (christophmalin.com), Glen Petitpas/SMA,P. Horálek, James Lowenthal (Dept. of Astronomy, Smith College), J. Weintroub, SMT/Used with permission from University of Arizona, David Harvey, photographer, William Montgomerie/JCMT/EAO,LMT/INAOE Archive, M. Druckmüller, P. Aniol SMT/University of Arizona by Bob Demers /©2019 Arizona Board of Regents, Junhan Kim (Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona), Spaceengine.org, L. Calçada, Y. Beletsky (LCO), M. Kornmesser, H. Zodet, ESA/Hubble,Onsala Space Observatory, Historische Museum Bern/Albert-Einstein-Archiv, Jerusalem, Ferdinand Schmutzer, Royal Observatory, Greenwich, Jonathan Riley,Luca Micheli, Karl Schwarzschild image courtesy AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, Afshin Darian/The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Submillimeter Array, Thalia Traianou (Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy), Steven H. Keys and and Robert Schwarz (
Scientific consultants: Paola Amico and Mariya Lyubenova. 
Web and technical support: Mathias André and Raquel Yumi Shida.
Executive producer: Lars Lindberg Christensen.
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What Happens If 1 mm Black Hole Appears On Earth?

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The most detailed map of galaxies, black holes and stars ever made | Juna Kollmeier

Humans have been studying the stars for thousands of years, but astrophysicist Juna Kollmeier is on a special mission: creating the most detailed 3-D maps of the universe ever made. Journey across the cosmos as she shares her team's work on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, imaging millions of stars, black holes and galaxies in unprecedented detail. If we maintain our pace, she says, we can map every large galaxy in the observable universe by 2060. We've gone from arranging clamshells to general relativity in a few thousand years, she says. If we hang on 40 more, we can map all the galaxies.

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Birth of a Black Hole 4K

This show was converted to 4K/UHD using an AI program. What do you think? For the best collection of 4k Space-Science content, go to...



This SpaceRip classic explores one of the greatest mysteries in modern science: a series of brief but extremely bright flashes of ultra-high energy light coming from somewhere out in space. These gamma ray bursts were first spotted by spy satellites in the 1960s. It took three decades and a revolution in high-energy astronomy for scientists to figure out what they were: black holes at the moment of their birth.

Far out in space, in the center of a seething cosmic maelstrom. Extreme heat. High velocities. Atoms tear, and space literally buckles. Photons fly out across the universe, energized to the limits found in nature. Billions of years later, they enter the detectors of spacecraft stationed above our atmosphere. Our ability to record them is part of a new age of high-energy astronomy, and a new age of insights into nature at its most extreme. What can we learn by witnessing the violent birth of a black hole?

The outer limits of a black hole, call the event horizon, is subject to what Albert Einstein called frame dragging, in which space and time are pulled along on a path that leads into the black hole. As gas, dust, stars or planets fall into the hole, they form into a disk that spirals in with the flow of space time, reaching the speed of light just as it hits the event horizon. The spinning motion of this so-called accretion disk can channel some of the inflowing matter out into a pair of high-energy beams, or jets.

How a jet can form was shown in a supercomputer simulation of a short gamma ray burst. It was based on a 40-millisecond long burst recorded by Swift on May 9, 2005. It took five minutes for the afterglow to fade, but that was enough for astronomers to capture crucial details. It had come from a giant galaxy 2.6 billion light years away, filled with old stars.

Scientists suspected that this was a case of two dead stars falling into a catastrophic embrace. Orbiting each other, they moved ever closer, gradually gaining speed. At the end of the line, they began tearing each other apart, until they finally merged. NASA scientists simulated the final 35 thousandths of a second, when a black hole forms.

Chaos reigns. But the new structure becomes steadily more organized, and a magnetic field takes on the character of a jet. Within less than a second after the black hole is born, it launches a jet of particles to a speed approaching light.

A similar chain of events, in the death of a large star, is responsible for longer gamma ray bursts. Stars resist gravity by generating photons that push outward on their enormous mass. But the weight of a large star's core increases from the accumulation of heavy elements produced in nuclear fusion. In time, its outer layers cannot resist the inward pull... and the star collapses. The crash produces a shock wave that races through the star and obliterates it.

In the largest of these dying stars, known as collapsars or hypernovae, a black hole forms in the collapse. Matter flowing in forms a disk. Charged particles create magnetic fields that twist off this disk, sending a portion out in high-speed jets.

Simulations show that the jet is powerful enough to plow its way through the star. In so doing, it may help trigger the explosion. The birth of a black hole does not simply light up the universe. It is a crucial event in the spread of heavy elements that seed the birth of new solar systems and planets.

But the black hole birth cries that we can now register with a fleet of high-energy telescopes are part of wider response to gravity's convulsive power.

What is Inside a Black Hole? Beyond the Event Horizon: Another Universe?

What is inside a Black Hole? A black hole is really not a celestial body like a planet or a star. There is really no substance there other than a severely curved space-time. It’a a region in space where matter is condensed to a theoretical infinitely small point – so small in fact that this point effectively disappears from our universe. This is called the gravitational singularity.

So if there is nothing there, what does it mean when we talk about different size black holes? When we talk about the size of a black hole, we are really talking about the size of its event horizon.

The radius of this event horizon is called the Schwarzschild radius. What happens beyond the event horizon can be ascertained by general relativity, but what happens at the singularity is anyone’s guess. The more massive a black hole is, the less its “density” and the less dangerous it is. Very large black holes like the one at the center of the milky way called Sagittarius A* has about the same density as that of water. You could likely go deep inside Sagittarius A*’s event horizon before tidal forces eventually tore you apart near the singularity.

As Adam gets closer to the event horizon, we notice that he speeds up, then he slows down and his space suit appears to get redder and fainter until he disappears from our view. He is still there, but the light reflecting off of him is so red shifted that it is invisible even to our infrared cameras.

He would appear to be completely stationary. This is because at the event horizon, from the perspective of the ship, time stops completely.
From Adam’s perspective his time is running just fine. Spacetime curves more and more severely as he gets close to the black hole. Looking back, all the light reaching him is being blue shifted. Light that was infra red, not visible to him before, is now in the visible spectrum. And light that was visible before has blue shifted to x-rays, and even gamma rays.

Would he be able to see the entire future history of the universe just before he enters the event horizon? He could view this. But it would only be viewable as a small dot of light directly overhead. How is it possible that the people on the ship see Adam as not moving, but Adam is moving and doing just fine? Both perspectives are correct.

This is because the laws of quantum mechanics requires that Adam remains on the outside of the event horizon because otherwise it would violate the conservation laws – that information can never be lost. Einstein’s theory however requires that relative to Adam, nothing is different. Time for him ticks normally.

Adam is now inside the event horizon. But not much changes for him. But he cannot see the light that fell before him, and he can never actually sees the singularity because all light is headed towards it, no light is headed away from it. He still has a sense of upness and downness inside the black hole, but every direction feels downwards.

Time becomes space inside the black hole. Once Adam reaches the singularity, will be ripped to shreds. Is there any way that Adam can escape this grim fate? There are two theoretical scenarios in which he may actually survive. First, if this black hole is charged, called a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole, the singularity singularity creates such a high centrifugal force, that space near it becomes gravitationally repulsive instead of attractive. And this spinning singularity creates an inner horizon that is a worm hole or an Einstein-Rosen bridge. Then he would be catapulted out through a white hole.

And in the second case, if the theory of Loop Quantum Gravity is correct, then there would be no singularity in a black hole at all. This case would be very similar to the rotating black hole, except there would be no infinitely bright light.

And how long would yours or Adam’s trip inside the black hole last? Well in all scenarios it will take only about 16 seconds. So not much time for sight-seeing. The black hole is where quantum mechanics and Relativity collide. Gravity becomes a dominant force at the quantum scale at the singularity.

The great secret that black holes may reveal to us is that there is no objective reality. Reality depends on whom you ask. It seems to be observer dependent. Ultimately Einstein’s equations may lead us to an understanding that not only is time relative, but reality itself may be relative.

#blackhole #arvinash

Many thanks to Dr. Andrew Hamilton, Professor of Astorphysics, University of Colorado

A Mysterious Object Punched a Hole in the Milky Way, Scientists Are Confused

Space is full of mysteries that have remained unsolved for centuries. But recently, the cosmos has baffled the world with a new, scary abnormality. Apparently, something is tearing holes in the Milky Way, the galaxy that contains our Solar System! 😮 What if the hole in the Milky Way was torn by a supermassive black hole like the one that dwells in the center of our galaxy? If it was, it’d be a pretty scary scenario.

If these two black holes got too close, they wouldn't be able to escape each other's gravity, and a collision might be inevitable. And it would be an extremely violent event. But the thing is that the telescopes failed to find the source of the damage. So what could this unseen bullet be? Scientists have several theories.

Other videos you might like:
Stephen Hawking’s 7 Predictions of Earth’s Demise in the Next 200 Years
13 Scariest Theories That'll Make Your Blood Run Cold
What If The Sun Went Out for Just One Day

TIMESTAMPS:
The gap in the stellar stream 0:29
Is it a stray star? 1:39
Or is it a supermassive black hole? 1:59
And then what? 2:29
What baffles astronomers 3:35
What if it was dark matter that harmed our galaxy? 4:48
The intruder might be hiding somewhere in the galaxy 6:12
The ghost galaxy 7:10

#outerspace #milkyway #blackhole

Music by Epidemic Sound

SUMMARY:
- This year, Harvard scientist Dr. Ana Bonaca noticed a weird disturbance in our galaxy's stellar streams. A stellar stream is a line of stars that are moving together through galaxies.
- One day, Dr. Bonaca noticed a gap in the stream, and this gap had a strange ragged edge.
- One theory suggests that the intruder is a stray star. However, the hole is too enormous for this idea to sound plausible.
- Luckily for us, there aren’t any supermassive black holes in the vicinity, so this theory fails to explain the mysterious bullet-hole phenomenon.
- Naturally, astronomers have continued their observations. But what baffles them is that there’s no large object made from ordinary, light-reflecting matter moving away from the bullet-hole.
- What if it was dark matter that harmed our galaxy, and what if it reached Earth? Unlike a stream of regular matter, dark matter wouldn't see the Earth as an obstacle. It would just pass through. But that's not the most amazing part!
- However, Dr. Bonaca still doesn't rule out the possibility that the intruder is a luminous object that, after tearing a hole in the Milky Way, is hiding somewhere in the galaxy.
- The intruder could’ve been moving at an incredibly high speed, and wouldn’t have to be very massive to tear a hole in the stellar stream.
- The edge of the galaxy can even contain traces of a ghost galaxy - one that's older than our Milky Way!
- Curiously, the astronomers who discovered the ghost galaxy, which is a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, can’t explain its origin and nature. Named Ant 2, the galaxy was dubbed ghost because it's weirdly dim.

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