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Is Earth Actually Flat?


Is Earth Actually Flat?

Flat Earth gravity simulation by Yeti Dynamics:

Kansas flatness study: (the pancakes used in the study were from IHOP):

the flatness of other states:

The Meaning Of It All by Richard Feynman:

“The Pig That Wants to Be Eaten”:

related Vsauce video, “Is Anything Real?”

Minutphysics “TOP 10 REASONS Why We Know the Earth is Round”

Good satirical series about how the Earth IS flat:

What if Earth was a cube?

MYTH of the round Earth:

Earth is round:

Varrazano bridge:

Varrazano spelling controversy:

Flat Earth Society:

Wilbur Glen Voliva:

Flat earth map (one theory):

Poe’s Law:

Science is always provisional and theories are never conclusively proven:

Asimov on being “more wrong”:

Occam’s Razor:

Newton’s flaming laser sword:

Other razors:

relativistic length contractions:

I really liked this one:

Earth and cosmic ray perspective:

wolfram contraction simulator:

Susan Haack:

1996 election NYT crossword:

Man flies rocket to 'prove' Earth is flat - BBC News

Mad Mike Hughes wants to prove thousands of years of human knowledge wrong.

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An Astronomer Responds To Flat Earth Theory

Business Insider UK sat down with Dr Stuart Clark, who spoke to us about a range of subjects regarding astronomy and astrophysics. We asked him what he thought of flat earth theory, a school of thought which believes that the earth is not spherical but flat.

All our physics is constructed now, the physics of orbits of things going around the earth is all constructed with this three dimensional world. And the pictures from space show our world as a globe and yet somehow there are some people that still seem to believe the earth is flat.

My own pet theory is that they’re doing it for comic effect.

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The Flat Earth Theory Explained

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Flat Earth rising: meet the people casting aside 2,500 years of science

Though not a new phenomenon, flat Earth theory has enjoyed a huge resurgence recently. A YouGov poll indicated that a third of Americans aged 18 to 24 were unsure of the shape of our planet, in spite of scientific proofs from Pythagoras to Nasa. Why has this happened now, and what does it tell us about society today?
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Why Do Flat Earth Believers Still Exist? | Ars Technica

Ars Technica's senior science editor John Timmer explains why, despite centuries of evidence, some people will still argue that the Earth is flat.

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Why Do Flat Earth Believers Still Exist? | Ars Technica

Chris Hadfield: The astronaut's guide to flat Earth theory

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To the average person, there appears to be a growing number of people who believe — somehow — that the world is actually flat and that we are all being lied to by world governments. Canadian astronaut Chris Hadfield has actually been to space and has seen that the world is round, but is unphased by these so-called flat-earthers.


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When the very first balloon was launched that could carry people it was in Paris in the late 1700s and it was Montgolfier the brothers, they had hydrogen balloons and hot air balloons and it was the cutting edge of science. It was the cutting edge of technology. We just learned how to capture a gas like hydrogen that would be lighter than air as you could take a balloon and the first balloon rose and Ben Franklin was there and it was huge and magnificent, all of those scientists. And it rose but it got out of control and it went and landed out in the countryside 15 miles away from Paris and the peasants there attacked it with pitchforks because they thought it was an alien coming from space. The schism between learned understanding and scientific pursuit and the common perception of what was normal was that close just 15 miles away. It was an enormous gap between what we knew and what we were doing and what a lot of folks knew yet or what had become part of common knowledge. So there's nothing new about the speed with which we're inventing things and the ability for people to understand what's going on. There's a recent populous sort of wave of anti-science as if that's something new. It's mostly because social media has given everybody what appears to be an equal voice. On the corner of Hyde Park in London there's Speakers Corner and that used to be the Internet where you could go stand there and yell any stupid thing you wanted and if people wanted to gather around and listen that was their choice, but if you weren't interested in whatever that person was spouting then you didn't need to listen. But now the Internet has sort of turned everything into the Speakers Corner so you really have to just decide what are you going to listen to and what aren't you. And if someone decides to put forward some stupid idea that is patently false like if somebody says the sky is orange, you can have an argument about it if you want, but it's obviously not true so there's really no point in even engaging in conversation. Or if somebody says the world is flat, it's patently untrue so there's no point in engaging in conversation because all you're doing is giving that person credibility for something that we've known for thousands of years to not be truth. I don't even worry about it. The world is full of fascinating interesting new discoveries and we're pushing the very boundaries of what we know. Stephen Hawking, who just recently died, the work that he did in trying to understand how the universe works the original thinking there's so many brilliant motivated people around that's why would you engage with someone who is being deliberately ignorant? I don't mind people that just don't know when they're just in the process of learning, but if someone has chosen to take the facts and be deliberately stupid about them then I think they've discounted themselves from rational conversation so I don't bother. If you wrestle with a pig the best you can be is a pig wrestler; I want to do better than that. So just because somebody says something, no matter how big their megaphone is, it doesn't mean that they deserve conversation. Just use your own brain, that's why we each have one, and choose who you're going to disregard.

3 proofs that debunk flat-Earth theory | NASA's Michelle Thaller

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Hey flat Earthers, it's time to put your theory to bed once and for all! A curious stargazer by the name of Oscar has submitted a question to Big Think's 'Ask an astronomer' series with NASA's Michelle Thaller. Oscar wants to know: What would be the easiest proof that the Earth isn’t flat, that I could come back with whenever I get challenged on this issue? Thaller sets the record straight.


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So, Oscar, you asked the question, “What are some of the easiest ways that you can prove that the Earth is round?” Because apparently, this is something that we’re debating—I have no idea why.

That’s a hard thing for me to even start talking about because there are so many proofs that the Earth is round, it’s difficult to know where to start. And it’s not okay to think that the Earth is flat. This is not a viable argument.

I have friends who have been on the International Space Station, they have orbited the Earth once every 90 minutes; I've had personal experience with people who have been up in space and can see with their own eyes that the Earth is round. And of course, we‘ve taken all of these amazing pictures from space; they’re so beautiful, all those pictures of the Earth.

So I don’t really know what’s going on right now with this 'Earth is flat' thing, but I will tell you that this is one of the things I really enjoyed teaching my own astronomy class about because there are proofs all around you. It is not difficult to know that the Earth is round. In fact, people have known of this for way more than 2,000 years. The ancient Greeks actually had a number of really elegant, wonderful proofs that the earth was a sphere.

So let’s start from the simple to the slightly more complicated. One of the things you can see yourself, with a pair of binoculars, is if you actually go out to a lake and there are boats on that lake, the farther away a boat is the more the bottom of the boat will disappear, and you’ll basically just see the mast of the boat. And as a boat goes farther and farther away the last thing you will see is the very top of the mast of that boat, and that’s because the boat is actually going over the horizon that’s curved—and that means that as it goes farther and farther away you see less and less of the bottom of it, and more of the top of that. You can see that with binoculars by an ocean, by a lake, it’s really easy. That wouldn’t happen if the Earth were flat—you would simply see the boat getting smaller and smaller and smaller as it went farther away, but you’d be able to see the whole thing with the same proportions.

Now, another way that you can tell that we’re on a sphere is to think about how there’s something called the tropics on the Earth, and the tropics are places near the equator of the earth were sometimes the sun is overhead in the sky. This was actually something that the Greeks used, not only to prove that the Earth was round about 2000 years ago, but they actually measured the circumference of the Earth, accurate to within just a couple percent. 2,000 years ago we’ve known that the Earth was round.

There was a really brilliant Greek scientist called Eratosthenes, and Eratosthenes noticed that there was a town called Syene, and on a certain date the sun would actually shine straight down to the bottom of a well. That meant the sun was directly overhead; you could look down a well and see the sun shining back at you.

And on the very same date, farther away in the city of Alexandria, that didn’t happen. The sun was not directly overhead, it was a slight angle, and all that Eratosthenes did was he measured the difference in the angle of the sun. It was straight overhead in Syene; in Alexandria it was a little bit less than overhead, and he rationed that that change in angle from one city to another was probably indicative of us being on a curved surface, and you could make all kinds of measurements even between those two cities and see that the angles were different—the sun was at a different place in the sky. Using this, he actually measured the circumference of the Earth, and he got it right 2,000 years ago.

So another really simple proof is that on any given date, at different cities and different places around the world, the sun is at different angles in the sky. That wouldn’t happen if the Earth wasn’t round.

Flat Earth puzzle finally solved, 100% PROOF!!!!! (Flat earthers in turmoil)

Books about The Flat Earth theory-
Earth stickers for twisty puzzles -
A shorter version of this video is available for license here-
Message to the flatards-
You claim the boat and wind turbines should be leaning away yet the angle would be less than 1% (Ask a 10 year old to work it out for you).
You claim the distortion and perspective means this video does not disprove a flat earth. Not only is this a lie but isn't it an amazing coincidence that the only easily checkable thing just happens to look identical on a flat earth and also a globe?
Do you really think that a multitude of ever changing Govts around the world with diverse leaders such as Trump, Obama, Putin, Kim Jong-un, Xi Jinping etc would all agree to keep up the same lie? Not to mention thousands of highly respected scientists, astronauts, military personnel, pilots, technology experts etc etc.

B.o.B's Flat Earth Conspiracy Explained (And Obviously Debunked)

There has been a lot of talk about Flat Earth Theory recently due to the beef between Neil Degrasse Tyson and rapper B.o.B., but what do Flat Earthers actually believe?
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Flat Earth Clues Introduction:
Flat Earth Theory Explained Documentary:

Neil Tyson Demonstrates Absurdity of "Flat Earth"

Neil deGrasse Tyson takes on the subject of our spherical world, and this time he has not only science but history on his side. If you want to follow along and then test your knowledge, enroll in this Brilliant course:

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Note: In illustrating a total lunar eclipse we used a bit of animation that didn’t portray Earth’s umbra and penumbra accurately. To see a graphic that accurately depicts both portions of Earth's shadow in space, visit

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How Average People Fall For The Flat-Earth Conspiracy

This is how people become flat-eathers - and why they stick with their beliefs, despite the intense ridicule it brings.

Flat Earth The Truth You Need To Know - Flat Earth Theory Easily Debunked

What evidence exists for a flat earth? What proof is out there?

We debunk the myths around a flat earth one by one

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Flat Earth... The DUMBEST People on the Planet?

RAGE WARNING: Those with heart conditions should not watch this video.
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*This video is just meant to be entertaining, and of course involves a lot of exaggeration and over-animation. Do not go witch-hunting anyone, that's not the point. We can all believe whatever we want, and just because I make a funny video about it doesn't mean I have any personal vendetta or ill will against them.

Flat Earth: What Makes REAL Science? – Wisecrack Edition

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How do we know what we know? Join us as we get nerdy about the philosophy of science and how it relates to the rotundity of the Earth.

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What If The Earth Were Flat?

Today, it's nearly impossible to believe the Earth is anything but round. But for most of our history, humans have thought Earth was flat.

The one concept our ancient ancestors were missing was gravity. Gravity's effects are the key to determining whether the Earth is actually flat, or not.

On a sphere, gravity pulls in the same direction everywhere on the surface. But on a disc, gravity changes direction as you move toward the edge.

At the center, you feel a downward pull just like on spherical Earth. But as you move out, gravity starts pulling sideways as well as a downwards.

This would wreak havoc on sports played in different parts of the world. A ball thrown straight up in the air mid-way out, would curve down and backward toward the disc's center. Plus, a ball thrown mid-way out wouldn't go nearly as high or far as a ball thrown up at the edge where gravity's downward pull is practically zero.

But sports are just the beginning. Since plant stems grow opposite to the direction of gravity, an effect called negative gravitropism, you'll see forests grow at an increasingly sharp angle the farther you are from the center.

Continue toward the edge and you feel like you're climbing a hill that's growing steeper with each step as the backward pull of gravity takes over. At Earth’s end, that hill will feel like a 90-degree cliff, pulling you back to the center. But if you could make it over the edge, and stand on the thin outer part of the disc, you'll feel downward pull just like on spherical Earth.

However, living here would be like living in a desert. Gravity's backward effects pull on the oceans too, making it impossible for any water to reach the edge. Instead, sea levels will gradually rise as you travel in, making the world's center an aquatic metropolis.

So, the next time you see an apple fall straight to the ground, thank your lucky stars that Earth is round. Because if it were flat, that apple might actually hit you in the face.

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What If the Earth Really Was Flat? | Unveiled

The flat Earth theory is one of the most infamous (and ridiculous) theories out there, and every aspect of science says that it's completely false. But, what if a flat Earth wasn't just an outlandish concept, but an actual, scientific fact?

How would our daily lives change? Would the evolution of life have played out differently? And could we realistically expect to survive? In this video, Unveiled discovers how a flat Earth would change absolutely everything.

This is Unveiled, giving you incredible answers to extraordinary questions!

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Michio Kaku: Why flat-Earth theory and anti-vax conspiracies exist

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- If you see animals when you look at clouds or see faces in pieces of wood, that's called pareidolia: the phenomenon of making familiar objects from vague stimuli.

- Humans evolved to be superstitious, and Michio Kaku posits that there is a gene for superstition and magical thinking. Nine times out of 10, your beliefs can be wrong, but one time out of 10 it saved your ancestors' butts, says Kaku.

-Flat Earthers and anti-vaccination conspiracy theorists exist now, and they will still exist in 1,000 years, says Kaku. It's natural. Humans evolved to believe in nonsense, but it's by becoming good at something totally unnatural to us – science – that reason can prevail.

Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of string field theory, and is one of the most widely recognized scientists in the world today. He has written 4 New York Times Best Sellers, is the science correspondent for CBS This Morning and has hosted numerous science specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery/Science Channel. His radio show broadcasts to 100 radio stations every week. Dr. Kaku holds the Henry Semat Chair and Professorship in theoretical physics at the City College of New York (CUNY), where he has taught for over 25 years. He has also been a visiting professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, as well as New York University (NYU).

He is the author of The Future of Humanity: Terraforming Mars, Interstellar Travel, Immortality, and Our Destiny Beyond Earth (


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The Earth is Definitely Not Flat

Anti-science mentality is rampant in this day and age, and one of the more peculiar aspects of this trend is the current fad that is the Flat Earth model. There exists a group of people who believe that against everything we have come to learn throughout the scientific revolution, the world is actually flat, and the center of the universe. That's not all, there's a big cover up, with NASA, and all the governments, like some real sci-fi stuff. Let's go through some of the talking points of this model and see if we can deconstruct it, shall we?

Want to see dozens more Flat Earth takedowns? Visit SciManDan's YouTube channel:

And also try Conspiracy Catz for Flat Earth videos and much more:


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This Is How We Know Earth Isn't Flat

Some conspiracy theorists think the Earth is actually flat. How can we prove that this theory is incorrect?
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