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Mastering Rh Blood Group System

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Mastering Rh Blood Group System

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ABO Blood Group System - Blood Types & ABO Antigens

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ABO incompatibility vs. Rh incompatibility

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Rh blood group system

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Blood 8, Blood groups, Genetics of Rhesus factor

How the Rhesus (D) factor is inherited from parents.You can support the work of campbellteaching, at no cost whatsoever to yourself, if you use the link below as your bookmark to access Amazon. Thank you.
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Rh Blood Group System (FL-Immuno/62)

In this video lecture, we will study in detail..
Rh Blood Group System
8 blood types

References for this video lecture:
Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens, Laura Dean (NCBI)

Blood Groups (HD)

Topics:
- Introduction to Blood Groups
- Definition of Blood Groups
- Various Blood Group Systems
- The ABO Blood Group System
- Antibodies to Red Cell Antigens
- The Rh (Rhesus) Blood Group System

More videos of this series will be uploaded next week!
Hope it is helpful. Take care & stay blessed.

Blood Types Explained | Blood Groups (ABO) and Rh Factor Nursing Transfusions Compatibility

Blood typing made easy with explanation on ABO blood groups and Rh factor for nurses (blood transfusions).

There are 8 total blood types from four blood groups (A, B, AB, O). In nursing we transfuse blood, but before we do this we have to collect blood from the patient who will be receiving the blood transfusion. The patient's blood will be typed and crossmatched with a donor. The donor’s blood must be compatible with our patient to prevent a transfusion reaction.

To understand blood typing, you have to understand the relationship between antigens and antibodies.

What are red blood cell antigens? They are either present or absent on the surface of RBC. All red blood cells have them EXCEPT Type O RBCs. Antigens are proteins that can elicit an immune response when they come into contact with its corresponding antibodies. Therefore, they stimulate antibodies to defend the body.

So, when the same red blood cell antigens and antibodies get together it will cause an IMMUNE RESPONSE called agglutination. This is where the RBCs will glue together, hence clump together. Therefore, it is VERY important a person is not transfused with the wrong blood type.

Blood Types: Recipient and Donor

A blood type: has only A antigens on its surface with B antibodies in the plasma.

Type A: donates to A and AB and recipient of O and A

B blood type: has only B antigens on its surface with A antibodies in the plasma.

Type B: donates to B and AB and recipient of O and B

AB blood type: has both A and B antigens on its surface with NO antibodies in it plasma.

Type AB: donates to only other ABs but recipient of O, A, B, and AB...known as the UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT

O blood type: has NO antigens on its surface with A and B antibodies in its plasma.

Type O: donates to all types but only recipient of other O....known as the UNIVERSAL DONOR.

Rh factors: either present or absent on the red blood cells surface.

If these factors are present on the RBC the patient is Rh POSTIVIE, but if these factors are absent the patient is Rh NEGATIVE.

If a patient is Rh positive they can receive either Rh+ or RH- blood. While Rh negative patients can receive only Rh- blood.

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Blood Types (ABO system)

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(Disclaimer: The medical information contained herein is intended for educational purposes only, and are not intended for diagnosis of any illness. If you think you may be suffering from any medical condition, you should consult your physician or seek immediate medical attention.)

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Blood Types: ABO and Rh (with donuts and sprinkles!)

All about blood types - ABO and Rh blood groups. Who donates to whom? How are blood types inherited? What are the medical issues involved with transfusions? DON'T memorize that donor / recipient table - watch this video instead!

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VIDEO DETAILS:

Blood Groups: ABO and Rh
Blood Group Systems
32 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion
The most important of these: ABO blood group system and Rh blood group system

Discovery of ABO Blood Types
ABO blood types were discovered in 1900 by Dr. Karl Landsteiner at the University of Vienna
He wondered why some patients died as a result of blood transfusions and others did not
Inheritance

Blood types are inherited genetic traits (like eye color, hair color, etc.)

ABO Analogy: Donuts and Sprinkles
donut = red blood cell
A sprinkles = A antigens
B sprinkles = B antigens
no sprinkles = no antigens (plain donut)

What are the antigens chemically?

Alleles in the ABO System
i = base (plain donut)
IA = encodes A antigens
IB = encodes B antigens

Allele Combinations
ii
IAIA or IAi
IBIB or IBi
IAIB

Antigens and Antibodies
The antigens you have on your blood cells are recognized by your immune system as SELF antigens
If foreign antigens are discovered in your body, antibodies (or immunoglobulins) will be made by B cells of the immune system

Antibody Structure

Antigen + Antibody = agglutination reaction
Agglutination = the clumping of particles
Latin: agglutinare meaning 'to glue'

Mixing of all blood groups and the result

KEY: CANNOT transfuse if foreign antigens are introduced!!!

The Rh Antigen
Inherited in Mendelian fashion!
Medical issue: Rh- mother and Rh+ fetus
Good News...
Rho(D) Globulin Treatment
(RhoGAM)
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AB and Rh Blood Types

What's the difference between ABO and Rh Blood Types? Are these related to each other? The same thing? This quick video breaks it down. Questions? I'd love to hear from you.

Mastering red blood cell compatibility

In this video, you'll understand the decision-making process behind choosing an RBC product that is compatible with your patient's blood type. Confidently choose the right blood product for your patient at the right time with our Transfusion Essentials course. You'll master the administration of blood products and understand how blood typing works. You'll learn when it's ok to skip some parts of the testing, how to deal with complications, and how to apply your knowledge to real-life patient cases.
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Rhesus factor

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The second common blood grouping uses the Rhesus factor (Rh factor), so called because it was first discovered in Rhesus monkeys. Rhesus factor is in addition to the ABO groups. This factor is simply present or absent on the redcells. Unlike the ABO system there are no naturally occurring antibodies in the plasma, but antibodies may develop in a Rhesus negative individual if they are exposed to Rhesus positive blood.
Recipients who are Rhesus negative should therefore only receive Rhesus negative blood. If they were to be given Rhesus positive blood there would beno reaction on the first occasion, but the introduction of Rhesus antigens would cause the recipient to produce Rhesus factor antibodies. This means if the patient were to be given Rhesus positive blood on a second occasion, the new Rhesus factor antibodies would bind to the donated Rhesus factor antigen, leading to agglutination. Therefore Rhesus negative recipients may only receive Rhesus negative blood. However, in theory, Rhesus positive patients may receive Rhesus negative blood, as the red cells contain no antigens.
Once the Rhesus factor is taken into account it means that O negative is the universal donor and AB positive the universal recipient. The Rhesus factor is sometimes referred to as the D factor. This is because the most active component of the Rhesus factor antigen is termed the D factor.

Hemolytic disease of the newborn

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This problem arises as a result of the genetic transmission of Rhesus factor from parents to children. When a mother is Rh negative and the father is Rh positive there is a chance the baby will be Rhesus positive. There will be a 50% or a 100% chance of a baby being Rhesus positive depending on the genetic makeup of the father.
In Rh incompatibility the mother will develop Rh antibodies if there is blood to blood contact with her Rh positive baby. Mixing of maternal and baby blood may occur during birth. The rhesus factor in the baby’s blood will act as an antigen in the circulation of the mother, causing her to produce Rh factor antibodies. This does not usually affect the baby during the first pregnancy, however during subsequent pregnancies she will already possess antibodies to the Rh factor. This can result in the mother’s antibodies crossing the placenta and attacking the baby’s blood, leading to a condition called haemolytic disease of the newborn. Affected babies have a reduced oxygen carrying capacity of the blood and are jaundiced due to the presence of red cell breakdown products such as bilirubin.
This complication should now be prevented by the administration of an Anti D injection, given to the mother after the birth of every baby. These injected D antibodies quickly destroy (mop up) any Rh-positive baby cells in the mother’s blood. The result of this intervention is Rh-positive cells are not present in the maternal circulation for long enough to stimulate the mother’s immune system to produce antibodies to the Rhesus factor.

Blood Types - An Introduction to the ABO and Rh Systems

An introduction to the biology and genetics of the blood types, focusing on the ABO and Rh systems. Also included is a brief history of blood transfusions, and an overview of hemolytic transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the newborn.
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Rh incompatibility and Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)

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►????‍????????Antibiotics Lectures: ... Check out my brand new Electrolytes course at and use the PROMO code: ELECTROLYTES50 to get a 50% discount. Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is a very important topic...It could happen due to ABO incompatibility (discussed before), or Rh incompatibility.
Rh incompatibility happens when the mom is Rh negative, while her baby is Rh positive...Mum becomes sensitized and attacks the baby (especially the 2nd and subsequent pregnancies).
These antibodies are anti-Rh IgG agglutinins (anti-D antibodies).
Clinical symptoms include severe anemia (hydrops fetalis), jaundice, splenomegaly, ...etc.

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Disclaimer: The medical information contained herein is intended for educational purposes only, and are not intended for diagnosis of any illness. If you think you may be suffering from any medical condition, you should consult your physician or seek immediate medical attention.

Disclaimer: these links are affiliate links so that I get paid a percentage of the sale, to support the channel, however, the customer is not affected as they pay the same price.

► To watch all my Hematology & Oncology videos, my best playlist ever, click here:

► Like my page on Facebook where I post many questions and answers regularly. Also, you can leave me a message.


► My Twitter:

► Listen to soundtracks on Sound Cloud:

Follow us on Instagram here:


► To help support the channel and get notes and 50 hematology cases, go to Patreon,

► The funniest thing is that I have a playlist containing only “mnemonics, yes, MEDICAL MNEMONICS, here:

Whether you’re studying for the USMLE, shelf exam, NCLEX, COMLEX, PLEB, MCCEE, AMC_CAT, PANCE,…etc., these videos will help! Take it to the bank :) If you like my videos, please consider leaving a tip at
► Visit my website: My Favorite Productivity App:

Biochemistry of ABO Antigens

The ABO blood group system is used to denote the presence of one, both, or neither of the A and B antigens on erythrocytes.
Blood groups are inherited from both parents. The ABO blood type is controlled by a single gene (the ABO gene) with three types of alleles inferred from classical genetics: i, IA, and IB. The I designation stands for isoagglutinogen, another term for antigen. The gene encodes a glycosyltransferase—that is, an enzyme that modifies the carbohydrate content of the red blood cell antigens. The gene is located on the long arm of the ninth chromosome (9q34).
Source :

Erythroblastosis fetalis | Rh Incompatibility

#hussainbiology #apbiology #csirnet

ABO Antigens :

In this video we will be discussing about the Rh disease also termed as Erythroblastosis fetalis.
Hemolytic disease of the newborn, also known as hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, HDN, HDFN, or erythroblastosis fetalis,is an alloimmune condition that develops in a peripartum fetus, when the IgG molecules (one of the five main types of antibodies) produced by the mother pass through the placenta. Among these antibodies are some which attack antigens on the R.B.Cs in the fetal circulation, breaking down and destroying the cells (hemolysis). The fetus can develop reticulocytosis and anemia. This fetal disease ranges from mild to very severe, and fetal death from heart failure (hydrops fetalis) can occur. When the disease is moderate or severe, many erythroblasts (immature red blood cells) are present in the fetal blood, and so these forms of the disease can be called erythroblastosis fetalis (or erythroblastosis foetalis).

Antibodies are produced when the body is exposed to an antigen foreign to the make-up of the body. If a mother is exposed to a foreign antigen and produces IgG (as opposed to IgM which does not cross the placenta), the IgG will target the antigen, if present in the fetus, and may affect it in utero and persist after delivery. The three most common models in which a woman becomes sensitized toward (i.e., produces IgG antibodies against) a particular antigen are hemorrhage, blood transfusion, and ABO incompatibility.

ABO blood type and Bombay blood type

ABO blood type and Bombay blood type - This lecture explains about the ABO blood type and Bombay blood type. This lecture also explains the genetics of ABO blood type and Bombay blood group. Keep watching this lecture to know more about the Bombay blood group and ABO blood group.
Bombay blood type is a very rare blood group that is found in one in a million individual in the world.
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Thank you for watching the video lecture on ABO blood group and Bombay blood group.

Blood Groups Overview

Download the handout at

NOTE: There is an inadvertent typographical error in the description of the H antigen and the ABO chains, first seen at 15:55 of this video but repeated multiple times. The subterminal GalNAc should be GlcNAc. I regret the error and will correct in future updates.

This Blood Bank Guy video, recorded in December 2011, contains lots of information about the major blood group systems. It is, in fact, a modified and updated version of the blood groups lecture (Blood Bank 1) that I used to give when I taught for the Osler Institute Pathology Review Course.

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