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Mohen jo Daro By Aziz Sanghur

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Mohen jo Daro By Aziz Sanghur

Mohenjo-daro is an archeological site situated in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Built around 2600 BC, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world's earliest major urban settlements, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BC, and was not rediscovered until 1922. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980. Mohenjo-daro was built in the 26th century BC, and abandoned around 1800 BC. The ruins of the city were discovered in 1922 by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay, an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India. He was led to the mound by a Buddhist monk, who reportedly believed it to be a stupa. In the 1930s, major excavations were conducted at the site under the leadership of John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit and Ernest Mackay. Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler. The prehistoric Indus culture gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BC. The civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, but suddenly went into decline around 1900 BC. Indus Civilization settlements spread as far west as the Iranian border, with an outpost in Bactria, and as far south as the Arabian Sea coast of western India in Gujarat. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal. At its height, Mohenjo-daro was the most developed and advanced city in ancient South Asia, displaying remarkably sophisticated engineering and urban planning for its time. Mohenjo-daro has a planned layout based on a street grid of rectilinear buildings. Most were built of fired and mortared brick; some incorporated sun-dried mud-brick and wooden superstructures. The sheer size of the city, and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests a high level of social organization. At its peak of development, Mohenjo-daro could have housed around 35,000 residents. The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. The Citadel -- a mud-brick mound around 12 metres (39 ft) high -- is known to have supported public baths, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens, and two large assembly halls. The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well. Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells. Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major streets. Some houses, presumably those of wealthier inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and one building had an underground furnace (known as a hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing. Most houses had inner courtyards, with doors that opened onto side-lanes. Some buildings had two stories. In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler identified one large building in Mohenjo-daro as a Great Granary. Certain wall-divisions in its massive wooden superstructure appeared to be grain storage-bays, complete with air-ducts to dry the grain. According to Wheeler, carts would have brought grain from the countryside and unloaded them directly into the bays. However, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer noted the complete lack of evidence for grain at the granary, which, he argued, might therefore be better termed a Great Hall of uncertain function. Mohenjo-daro had no circuit of city walls, but was otherwise well fortified, with guard towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, it is postulated that Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites, that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, but the extent and functioning of an administrative center remains unclear. Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.
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Moen Jo Daro, Sindh Part 1 By Aziz Sanghur.flv

There is her little Baluchi-style face with pouting lips and insolent look in the eyes. She's about fifteen years old I should think, not more, but she stands there with bangles all the way up her arm and nothing else on. A girl perfectly, for the moment, perfectly confident of herself and the world. There's nothing like her, I think, in the world.
John Marshall, one of the excavators at Mohenjo-daro, described her as a vivid impression of the young ... girl, her hand on her hip in a half-impudent posture, and legs slightly forward as she beats time to the music with her legs and feet
The artistry of this statuette is recognizable today and tells of a strange, but at least fleetingly recognizable past. As the archaeologist Gregory Possehl says, We may not be certain that she was a dancer, but she was good at what she did and she knew it. The statue could well be of some queen or other important woman of the Indus Valley Civilization judging from the authority the figure commands.
A seated male sculpture is the so-called Priest King (even though there is no evidence that either priests or kings ruled the city). This 17.5 cm tall statue is another artifact which has become a symbol for the Indus valley civilization. Archaeologists discovered the sculpture in Lower town at Mohenjo-daro in 1927. It was found in an unusual house with ornamental brickwork and a wall niche and was lying between brick foundation walls which once held up a floor.
This bearded sculpture wears a fillet around the head, an armband, and a cloak decorated with trefoil patterns that were originally filled with red pigment.
The two ends of the fillet fall along the back and though the hair is carefully combed towards the back of the head, no bun is present. The flat back of the head may have held a separately carved bun as is traditional on the other seated figures, or it could have held a more elaborate horn and plumed headdress.
Two holes beneath the highly stylized ears suggest that a necklace or other head ornament was attached to the sculpture. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil, double circle and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the centre of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel. Eyes are deeply incised and may have held inlay. The upper lip is shaved and a short combed beard frames the face. The large crack in the face is the result of weathering or it may be due to original firing of this object.
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Moen Jo Daro, Sindh Part 2 By Aziz Sanghur.flv

The public buildings of these cities also suggest a high degree of social organization. The so-called Great Granary at Mohenjo-daro as interpreted by Sir Mortimer Wheeler in 1950 is designed with bays to receive carts delivering crops from the countryside, and there are ducts for air to circulate beneath the stored grain to dry it. However, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer has noted that no record of grain exists at the granary. Thus Kenoyer suggests that a more appropriate title would be Great Hall.
Close to the granary, there is a building similarly civic in nature - a great public bath (sometimes called the Great Bath), with steps down to a brick-lined pool in a colonnaded courtyard. The elaborate bath area was very well built, with a layer of natural tar to keep it from leaking, and in the centre was the pool. Measuring 12m x 7m, with a depth of 2.4m, it may have been used for religious or spiritual ceremonies.
Within the city, individual homes or groups of homes obtained water from wells. Some of the houses included rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and waste water was directed to covered drains lining the major streets. Houses opened only to inner courtyards and smaller lanes. A variety of buildings were up to two stories high.
Being an agricultural city, it also featured a large well, and central marketplace. It also had a building with an underground furnace (hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing.
Mohenjo-daro was a well fortified city. Lacking actual city walls, it did have towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, lead to the question of whether Mohenjo-daro was an administrative centre. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites, that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, however the extent and functioning of an administrative centre remains unclear.
Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.
The city was divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. Most of the Lower City is yet to be uncovered, but the Citadel is known to have the public bath, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens and two large assembly halls.
Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and their civilization, vanished without trace from history until discovered in the 1920s. It was extensively excavated in the 1920s, but no in-depth excavations have been carried out since the 1960s.
The Dancing girl found in Mohenjo-daro is an artifact that is some 4500 years old. The 10.8 cm long bronze statue of the dancing girl was found in 1926 from a house in Mohenjo-daro. She was British archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler's favorite statuette, as he said in this quote from a 1973 television program:
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Moen Jo Daro, Sindh Part 3 By Aziz Sanghur.flv

Moen Jo Daro was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization, located in the province of Sindh Pakistan. Built around 2600 BCE, the city was one of the early urban settlements in the world, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and Crete. It was built around 2600 BCE and abandoned around 1900 BCE. It was rediscovered in 1922 by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay, an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India. He was led to the mound by a Buddhist monk, who believed it to be a stupa. In the 1930s, massive excavations were conducted under the leadership of John Marshall, K. N. Dikshit, Ernest Mackay, and others. John Marshall's car, which was used by the site directors, is still in the Mohenjo-daro museum, showing their struggle and dedication to Moen Jo Daro. Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler.
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Moen Jo Daro, Sindh Promo By Aziz Sanghur.flv

Moen Jo Daro was one of the largest city-settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization, which thrived in ancient times along the Indus River. There are various spellings for the site with different meanings. Moen Jo Daro itself is located in Larkana District in the modern-day province of Sindh, Pakistan. Built before 2600 BCE, the city was one of the early urban settlements in the world, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and Crete. The archaeological remains of the city are designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It has been referred to as an ancient Indus Valley metropolis.
Mohenjo-daro was built around 2600 BCE and abandoned around 1500 BCE. The Indus culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, but suddenly went into decline around 1900 BCE.
Mohenjo-daro is a remarkable construction, considering its antiquity. It has a planned layout based on a grid of streets, which were laid out in perfect patterns. At its height the city probably had around 35,000 residents. The buildings of the city were particularly advanced, with structures constructed of same-sized sun dried bricks of baked mud and burned wood.
The public buildings of these cities also suggest a high degree of social organization. Close to the granary, there is a building similarly civic in nature: a great public bath (sometimes called the Great Bath, with steps down to a brick-lined pool in a colonnaded courtyard. The elaborate bath area was very well built, with a layer of natural tar to keep it from leaking, and in the center was the pool. Measuring 12m x 7m, with a depth of 2.4m, it may have been used for religious or spiritual ceremonies.
Within the city, individual homes or groups of homes obtained water from wells. Some of the houses included rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and waste water was directed to covered drains lining the major streets. Houses opened only to inner courtyards and smaller lanes. A variety of buildings were up to two stories high.
Being an agricultural city, it also featured a large well, and central marketplace. It also had a building with an underground furnace, possibly for heated bathing.
Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.
The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. Most of the Lower City is yet to be uncovered, but the Citadel is known to have the public bath, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens and two large assembly halls.
The Dancing girl found in Mohenjo-daro is an artifact that is some 4500 years old. The 10.8 cm long bronze statue of the dancing girl was found in 1926 from a house in Mohenjo-daro.
A seated male sculpture is the so-called Priest King (even though there is no evidence that either priest or kings ruled the city). This 17.5 cm tall statue is another artifact which has become a symbol for the Indus valley civilization.
Two holes beneath the highly stylized ears suggest that a necklace or other head ornament was attached to the sculpture. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil, double circle and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the center of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel. Eyes are deeply incised and may have held inlay. The upper lip is shaved and a short combed beard frames the face. The large crack in the face is the result of weathering or it may be due to original firing of this object.
Moen Jo Daro is located in Sindh Pakistan on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River. The ridge is now buried by the flooding of the plains, but was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization. The ridge allowed the city to stand above the surrounding plain. The site occupies a central position between the Indus River valley on the west and the Ghaggar-Hakra on the east. The Indus still flows to the east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed is now dry.

In Search of Meluhha: The Story of Mohenjodaro

In Search of Meluhha frames the Indus Valley Civilization within the current context of South Asia. Recent Indus floods have highlighted the precarious nature of the Indus River Delta. New research has shown that the Indus Civilization existed at a ‘Goldilocks moment’. With the thawing of tensions between India and Pakistan, In Search of Meluhha is the kind of a Goldilocks project that presents a view of pre-history irrespective of nationalist or religious identity.
The filmmakers begin the Story of Mohenjodaro with breathtaking visuals that take the viewers to the flood plains of Indus River. The subsequent narrative is driven by insightful interviews that articulate subject’s relation to Indus valley civilization and the inspiring effect it has had on their identity as artists, artisans and activists. As a short form documentary, In Search of Meluhha presents a rare opportunity to experience the remnants of a unique civilization and to learn from our combined human experience.

Documentary on Mohenjodaro (Sir John Hubert Marshall to Sardar Ali Shah)

This documentary is produced by National Fund for Mohenjodaro, Ministry of Culture, Tourism & Antiquities – Government of Sindh for awareness of Mohenjodaro development and history after first excavation by Sir John Hubert Marshall. There are rare video clips in this short documentary.

For details please visit:

Mohenjo Daro - the world history

Umar Kot By Aziz Sanghur

The ancient Umerkot Fort was built by Rana Amar Singh in 1020. The fort is located the middle of Umarkot city in Sindh Pakistan. Formerly known as Amarkot, it was the capital of Greater Sindh Province, including some parts of present Rajasthan state of India.
Another significant story relating to Umarkot is that of Umar Marvi. Marvi was a young Thari girl abducted by Umar, then-ruler, who wanted to marry because of her beauty. Upon her refusal she was being imprisoned in the historic Umer Kot Fort for many years until her ultimate release. Because of her courage, Marvi is an ideal for the local people. The fort is roughly rectangular in plan measuring 292m x 228m. The fortification wall, 3m in width, gives a tapered look both on the exterior and interior. It has four semi-circular bastions at the corners. At present one of the bastions has completely vanished while still another reduced to shambles. The walls and bastions have burnt-brick facing with the filling of sun-dried bricks or simple mud and earth.
The main gate, also known as Shahi darwaza, is situated roughly in the middle of the eastern wall. In plan, it is a crooked type of entrance, with an arched opening and a couple of bastions, all built in sand stone. The parapet, which seems to be of later period, is built in burnt-bricks and has musketry holes. The bastions are also provided with machicolations for pouring hot water or molten lead or oil on the advancing army frying to force their way through the entrance. Such machicolations are also found provided in the brick-wall around the fort. Close to one of the bastions, on the bricks making the facing of the Gate there seem impressions of hoofs of a horse, locally attributed to those of Rai Rattan Singh's, which had tried to cross over when its master was about to be hanged in the fort by the British.
Near the northern entrance there is a brick-built pond-like depression, which opens to an arched-shaped tunnel made to discharge the water collected inside the fort. A chhatri-like structure in sang-e-khattu, yellow sand stone, supported on eight pillars, stands in northwestern side of the fort, near the above-mentioned drain. Here in the shape of a cross is the grave of Herbert Edward Watson, Ex-Deputy Commissioner of Thar and Parkar. There are three inscriptions in English:

H.E. Watson Sindh Commission: for many years Deputy Commissioner of this district, born 23rd November 1846, died 26th February 1894. This memorial was erected by the subordinate officials and zamindar of Thar and Parkar in Remembrance of his good qualities and in token of their affection for him. In loving memory of Herbert Edward Watson, Deputy Commissioner Thar and Parkar. Died Feb, 27th 1894 aged 47.
Well done thou good and faithful servant Entre thou into the ion of the God.
There are some other buildings, though not of any historical or architectural consequence, in the fort. Near to the northwestern gate are some residential quarters for the staff of the Umerkot Museum. In the southeastern portion are the buildings housing provincial government offices while on the other side in the northeastern corner is the newly built, 'gymkhana'. On the western side of this building is the new museum building. The old museum, lying immediately west of it, is set in a single hall of considerable dimensions. It was inaugurated in 1968. Still serving well the scholars and general visitors alike it was conceived keeping in view the importance of Umerkot as birth-place of Emperor Akbar the Great. On display are some of the rare manuscripts, framin, specimens of calligraphy, miniature paintings, coins and armory. Some cannon balls and stone carvings retrieved from random excavations in the fort are displayed in the open outside the museum.

Pakistanis are the converted Muslims they has nothing to do with Indus Valley Civilization

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Mohenjo-Daro Archeology

What can Pakistan can do to generate historical tourism? VOA's Abdul Aziz Khan talks to an archeologist about how Pakistan can attract visitors to the Mohenjo-Daro.

Mohenjo Daro (City of Dead) museum

Mohenjo Daro (City of Dead) museum

Mohenjo daro-The City of Deads,Indus Valley Civilization

Produced and Directed by well renowned Pakistan Televison documentary producer Nazimuddin Nazim who won Asia Pacific Union Award in 1988 and received Special Appreciation letter by the International Archeology Film Festival held in Tipaza, Algeria in 1989 under the auspices of International Radio and Television University of Paris and also nominated for t the Ptix De-Urti Festival, Monte Carlo

Mohenjodaro

This was a project video for Social Sciences course during my Bachelors. I hope you like it. I shot some on location videos, and pieced together this video for our presentation in a matter of 12 hours. It highlights one of the greatest civilizations in the world; Mohenjodaro.
Please provide your comments, let them be approvals or criticism :)

Manchar Lake By Aziz Sanghur

Lake Manchar is the largest freshwater lake in Pakistan and one of Asia's largest. It is located west of the Indus River, in Jamshoro and Dadu District, Sindh. The area of the lake fluctuates with the seasons from as little as 350 km² to as much as 520 km². The lake collects water from numerous small streams in the Kirthar Mountains and empties into the Indus River. The lake was created in the 1930s when the Sukkur Barrage was constructed on the river Indus. The lake is fed by two canals, the Aral and the Danister from the river Indus. Until recently the lake supported thousands of fisherfolk, near village Kot Lashari Bobak railway station, who depended on the freshwater fish they caught in the lake. However, the lake is now undergoing environmental degradation resulting in the water becoming saline and killing off the fish and forcing the fisherfolk to look elsewhere for employment. The degradation has been occurring for a long time but only recently have the effects been felt. The diversion of water from the Indus and a diminished storm runoff from the Kirthar mountains have contributed to the reduction in fresh water supplies. At the same time, saline drainage water from agricultural fields in surrounding areas has started to flow into Lake Manchar. However between 16 August and 23. The lake was a stop-off on the Indus flyway for Siberian migratory birds, but recently the numbers have fallen from 25,000 birds counted in 1988 to just 2,800 bird counted in 2002, because the lake no longer provides the birds' main food, the lake fish. In the place of the birds, the lake now hosts a saline water reed. The lake also provided large volumes of water for irrigation but this has also been reduced and has resulted in a great reduction in the area irrigated by the lake. Manchar Lake one of the largest lake of Asia is polluted due to salinity and water logging, which is a threat to the livelihood of about 25, 000 population, who depends on are fishing. The marine life is badly destroyed. The catch is decreasing day by day. The affected fishermen community forced to migrate from the Lake, leaving their ancestral profession, fishing. Manchar Lake is located in Jamshoro and Dadu Districts, about I8 kms from Sehwan Sharif. It is a vast natural depression flanked by the Khirthar hills in the west, the Laki hills in the south and the river Indus in the east. Manchar Lake has been supporting various economic activities. It provided livelihood for a large number of fishermen, irrigation water for various crops and aquatic plants. The lake could also have supported the tourism industry if its beauty had been maintained. The lake is spread over 64,800 acres, having 25, 000 populations that live on their boats. It is unique in the world where fishermen community lives in the lake. Their children are unfamiliar about the land traditions. They have their own traditions to celebrate. They also arrange their marriage ceremony in the boats. They serve their guest in the lake over the boats, and decorate their boats during the marriage ceremony. A twelve-member family including children and wives live only on 19 feet squares long and 14 feet squares wide boats. The fisherwomen produce their children on the boats. During the birthing the untrained midwives perform their services, which is risky for the women. It is reported that several women were died during the childbirth. Prevalence of tuberculoses TB, anemia, malnutrition, skin disease, gastroenteritis and water bone disease is widely reported. More than 80% of the women and children are sick.
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Pak Demands Mohenjodaro's 'Dancing Girl' From India, Says Indus Valley 'Our Heritage'

This video shows you that Pak Demands Mohenjodaro's 'Dancing Girl' From India, Says Indus Valley 'Our Heritage'

A Pakistani lawyer has filed a petition to ask the government to claim a 5,000-year-old bronze statue called 'Dancing Girl' from India.

Barrister Javed Iqbal Jaffrey filed the petition in the Lahore High Court on Monday.

The 10.5-centimetre-high statue, dating back to around 2500 BC, was discovered in 1926 from Mohenjodaro - the ancient city of the Indus Valley Civilisation in Sindh.

The petitioner claimed that the statue is the property of the Lahore Museum.

It was taken to India around 60 years ago at the request of the National Arts Council, Delhi, and was never brought back, a report in Pakistani newspaper Dawn claimed.

Jamal Shah, director general of the Pakistan National Museum of Arts, in a statement said that a letter would be written to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) to bring the statue back.

This is important if we want to protect our heritage, Mr Shah said.

Mr Jaffrey says the statue has the same historic importance as Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa in Europe. He calls it a marker of Pakistan's cultural heritage which needs to be protected.

Some of the most famous archaeologists in the world have described it as one of the most captivating pieces of art from the Indus Valley site.

The tiny bronze statue of a young woman is suggestive of two breakthroughs - that Indus artists knew metal blending and casting and that the well developed Indus society had innovated dance and other performing arts, India's National Museum said in its description of the Dancing Girl.
Mohenjodaro, Dancing Girl, Indus Valley, Heritage,Indian Heritage, Pakistani Heritage, bronze statue, Lahore High Court, Lahore Museum, Indus Valley Civilisation, Indus Valley, Civilisation, Sindh, Dawn, National Arts Council, UNESCO, Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, Europe, Pakistan's cultural, Pakistan's cultural heritage, cultural heritage, india’s cultural heritage, captivating pieces of art, India's National Museum, india, pakistan


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Mohenjo Daro Travel VLOG | 4700 Years Old Indus Valley Civilization

Mohenjo Daro is the site of ancient Indus Valley civilization that existed from 2500 BCE till 1900 BCE. a Bollywood movie called Mohenjo Daro in which Hrithik Roshan is the main character was also filmed on this historical place. Mohenjo Daro is located in Larkana district of Pakistan's southern Sindh province. there is an airport as well near the site.

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At Rest - Romance by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution licence

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Amar Jaleel at Mohenjo Daro

Mohenjo Daro a simply means 'The Mound of the Dead' was the first planned city in the world.
This 5000 years old site settlement is a testament to the great Indus Valley Civilization and one of the oldest and best preserved urban ruin on the Indian subcontinent. It is located in Sindh, about 440 km away from Karachi.
This wonderful historical site remains to show that this was a very planned city with a grid-like design, sophisticated sewer system and diversified economy.
You can not find any other ancient planned city in the whole world like the 'Mohenjo-Daro', not even in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, or even China, until the 2000 years later the Greek era.
But now one of the world's earliest civilisations has been slowly crumbling do dust.
Sadly, the erosion is damaging this unesco world heritage site very rapidly.
On this video the living legend of Sindh 'Amar jaleel' is showing us this unique ancient site. Also I am so thankful to all my friends who helped me during my time at Mohenjo Daro earlier this year, and for the background music a big thanks to Sambox.

Indus Valley Civilization موئن جو دڙو, (Mohenjo-daro) Animated Model By Chachar Zac

Mohenjo-daro (lit. Mound of the Dead, Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, pronounced [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ]), situated in the modern-day province of Sindh, Pakistan, was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Built around 2600 BC, it was one of the world's earliest major urban settlements, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Crete. It was abandoned in the 19th century BC, and was not rediscovered until 1922. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300--1300 BCE; mature period 2600--1900 BCE) that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan and northwest India. Flourishing around the Indus River basin, the civilization primarily centered along the Indus and the Punjab region, extending into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab. Geographically, the civilization was spread over an area of some 1,260,000 km², making it the largest ancient civilization in the world.
The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of well over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley, developed new techniques in metallurgy and handicraft (carneol products, seal carving), and produced copper, bronze, lead, and tin. The civilization is noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multistoried houses.
The mature phase of this civilization is known as the Harappan Civilization, as the first of its cities to be unearthed was located at Harappa, excavated in the 1920s in what was at the time the Punjab province of British India (now in Pakistan). Excavation of Harappan sites have been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra river and its tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa, Lothal, Mohenjo-daro (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Dholavira, Kalibanga, and Rakhigarhi.
The civilization is sometimes referred to as the Indus Ghaggar-Hakra civilization or the Indus-Sarasvati civilization. The appellation Indus-Sarasvati is based on the possible identification of the Ghaggar-Hakra River with the Sarasvati River of the Nadistuti sukta in the Rig Veda, but this usage is disputed on linguistic and geographical grounds. The Harappan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is unknown, a plausible relation would be to Proto-Dravidian or Elamo-Dravidian

Saving Pakistan's lost city of Mohenjo Daro

Unknown to the world, the ancient and mighty city of Mohenjo Daro in Pakistan, is getting attention from a team of international archaeologists, determined to protect its ruins.

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