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PLUTO AND BEYOND - A Traveler's Guide to the Planets | Full Documentary

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PLUTO AND BEYOND - A Traveler's Guide to the Planets | Full Documentary

Pluto is so far away from Earth that it is a mere pinprick of light in our powerful telescopes. Learn what it would take for humans to journey to the uncharted limits of our solar neighborhood and what NASA scientists think we'll find when we get there.

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PLUTO AND BEYOND A Traveler's Guide to the Planets | Full Documentary

Pluto is so far away from Earth that it is a mere pinprick of light in our powerful telescopes. Learn what it would take for humans to journey to the uncharted limits of our solar neighborhood.

For more than 70 years Pluto was counted as the ninth planet, an isolated but sentimental favorite at the end of the Solar System. But in recent years this little world has been at the center.

Take a trip to the planetary pin-up boy Saturn, and get a ringside seat to the greatest spectacle in the solar system, and a close encounter with two extraordinary moons. ---- This channel.
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NEPTUNE & URANUS - A Traveler's Guide to the Planets | Full Documentary

Got time for a 24 year vacation? Then consider a journey to our most distant planets, the ice giants Uranus and Neptune.

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VENUS & MERCURY - A Traveler's Guide to the Planets | Full Documentary

While tiny Mercury blisters in the roasting glare of the Sun, cross over to the dark side and you’ll find the temperature plummets over 600 degrees Celsius. Back away from the Sun to cool off and we encounter Venus, our nearest neighbor.

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SATURN - A Traveler's Guide to the Planets | Full Documentary

Take a trip to the planetary pin-up boy Saturn, and get a ringside seat to the greatest spectacle in the solar system, and a close encounter with two extraordinary moons.

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Neptune & Uranus, A Traveler's Guide to the Planets Season - Documentary

Neptune & Uranus, A Traveler's Guide to the Planets Season - Documentary.
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JUPITER - A Travelers' Guide to the Planets | Full Documentary

Welcome to Jupiter, a world so roomy that it could swallow every planet and moon in the solar system and still have room for more. Yet for all its bulk there is nowhere to land, just an infernal drop into a bottomless sky.

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MARS - A Traveller's Guide to the Planets | Full Documentary

Mars is the ruby jewel in our night sky and arguably the hottest travel destination in the Solar System. Here, on the fourth rock from the Sun, is our best chance to step into the rest of the Universe and the most likely place we know to encounter the alien life-forms we might share it with.

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New Horizons Space Mission Documentary: Pluto, the Kuiper Belt and Beyond

New Horizons was the first mission NASA launched specifically to explore Pluto and its Moon and the mysterious region known as the Kuiper Belt.

New Horizons launched on Jan. 19, 2006; it swung past Jupiter for a gravity boost and scientific studies in February 2007, and conducted a six-month-long reconnaissance flyby study of Pluto and its moons that started in early 2015. Pluto closest approach
occurs on July 14, 2015. And then it went into the region called the Kuiper Belt to conduct further studies.

Generally, New Horizons seeks to understand where Pluto and its moons “fit in” with the other objects in the solar system, such as the inner rocky planets (Earth, Mars, Venus and Mercury) and the outer
gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune).

Pluto and its largest moon, Charon, belong to a third category known as “ice dwarfs.” They have solid surfaces but, unlike the terrestrial planets, a significant portion of their mass is icy material.

Using Hubble Space Telescope images, New Horizons team members have discovered four previously unknown moons of Pluto: Nix, Hydra, Styx and Kerberos.

A close-up look at these worlds from a spacecraft promises to tell an incredible story about the origins and outskirts of our solar system. New Horizons also will explore – for the first time – how ice dwarf planets like Pluto and Kuiper Belt bodies have evolved.

New Horizons Science Payload
• Ralph: Visible and infrared imager/spectrometer; provides color, composition and thermal maps.
• Alice: Ultraviolet imaging spectrometer; analyzes composition and structure of Pluto’s atmosphere and looks for atmospheres around Charon and Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs).
• REX (Radio Science EXperiment): Measures atmospheric composition and temperature; passive radiometer.
• LORRI (Long Range Reconnaissance Imager): Telescopic camera; obtains encounter data at long distances, maps Pluto’s far side and provides high resolution geologic data.
• SWAP (Solar Wind Around Pluto): Solar wind and plasma spectrometer; measures atmospheric “escape rate” and observes Pluto’s interaction with solar wind.
• PEPSSI (Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation): Energetic particle spectrometer; measures the composition and density of plasma (ions) escaping from Pluto’s atmosphere.
• VBSDC (Venetia Burney Student Dust Counter): Built and operated by students at University of Colorado; measures the space dust peppering New Horizons during its voyage across the solar system.

The Year of Pluto - NASA New Horizons is a one hour documentary which takes on the hard science and gives us answers to how the mission came about and why it matters. Interviews with Dr. James Green, John Spencer, Fran Bagenal, Mark Showalter and others share how New Horizons will answer many questions. New Horizons is part of the New Frontiers Program, managed by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

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The Mysteries of Pluto (Documentary)

The Mysteries of Pluto
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20 A Traveler's Guide to the Planets Season 1 Episode 6 Pluto & Beyond

A Traveller's Guide To The Planets 2010-Episode 01-Mars

Pluto and its Moons - Space Documentary 2019 [HD]

In 2006, the International Astronomical Union, a global group of astronomy experts, established a definition of a planet that required it to clear its orbit, or in other words, be the largest gravitational force in its orbit.

Since Neptune's gravity influences its neighboring planet Pluto, and Pluto shares its orbit with frozen gases and objects in the Kuiper belt, that meant Pluto was out of planet status. However, in a new study published online Wednesday in the journal Icarus, UCF planetary scientist Philip Metzger, who is with the university's Florida Space Institute, reported that this standard for classifying planets is not supported in the research literature.

Metzger, who is lead author on the study, reviewed scientific literature from the past 200 years and found only one publication -- from 1802 -- that used the clearing-orbit requirement to classify planets, and it was based on since-disproven reasoning.

He said moons such as Saturn's Titan and Jupiter's Europa have been routinely called planets by planetary scientists since the time of Galileo.

The IAU definition would say that the fundamental object of planetary science, the planet, is supposed to be a defined on the basis of a concept that nobody uses in their research, Metzger said. And it would leave out the second-most complex, interesting planet in our solar system. We now have a list of well over 100 recent examples of planetary scientists using the word planet in a way that violates the IAU definition, but they are doing it because it's functionally useful, he said. It's a sloppy definition, Metzger said of the IAU's definition. They didn't say what they meant by clearing their orbit. If you take that literally, then there are no planets, because no planet clears its orbit.

The planetary scientist said that the literature review showed that the real division between planets and other celestial bodies, such as asteroids, occurred in the early 1950s when Gerard Kuiper published a paper that made the distinction based on how they were formed.

However, even this reason is no longer considered a factor that determines if a celestial body is a planet, Metzger said.

Study co-author Kirby Runyon, with Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, said the IAU's definition was erroneous since the literature review showed that clearing orbit is not a standard that is used for distinguishing asteroids from planets, as the IAU claimed when crafting the 2006 definition of planets.

We showed that this is a false historical claim, Runyon said. It is therefore fallacious to apply the same reasoning to Pluto, he said. Metzger said that the definition of a planet should be based on its intrinsic properties, rather than ones that can change, such as the dynamics of a planet's orbit. Dynamics are not constant, they are constantly changing, Metzger said. So, they are not the fundamental description of a body, they are just the occupation of a body at a current era.

Instead, Metzger recommends classifying a planet based on if it is large enough that its gravity allows it to become spherical in shape.

And that's not just an arbitrary definition, Metzger said. It turns out this is an important milestone in the evolution of a planetary body, because apparently when it happens, it initiates active geology in the body.

Pluto, for instance, has an underground ocean, a multilayer atmosphere, organic compounds, evidence of ancient lakes and multiple moons, he said.

It's more dynamic and alive than Mars, Metzger said. The only planet that has more complex geology is the Earth.

A True Story About Planet Pluto: | Passport to Pluto and Beyond

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A True Story About Planet Pluto

Pluto (minor-planet designation 134340 Pluto) is the largest object in the Kuiper belt, and the tenth-most-massive body observed directly orbiting the Sun. It is the second-most-massive known dwarf planet, after Eris. Like other Kuiper-belt objects, Pluto is composed primarily of rock and ice and is relatively small, approximately one-sixth the mass of the Moon and one-third its volume. It has an eccentric and highly inclined orbit that takes it from 30 to 49 AU (4.4--7.4 billion km) from the Sun. This causes Pluto to periodically come closer to the Sun than Neptune, but an orbital resonance with Neptune prevents the bodies from colliding. In 2014 it was 32.6 AU from the Sun.

Discovered in 1930, Pluto was originally classified as the ninth planet from the Sun. Its status as a major planet fell into question following further study of it and the outer Solar System over the ensuing 75 years. Starting in 1977 with the discovery of the minor planet 2060 Chiron, numerous icy objects similar to Pluto with eccentric orbits were found. The most notable of these was the scattered disc object Eris, discovered in 2005, which is 27% more massive than Pluto. The understanding that Pluto is only one of several large icy bodies in the outer Solar System prompted the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to define formally in 2006 what it means to be a planet. This definition excluded Pluto and reclassified it as a member of the new dwarf planet category (and specifically as a plutoid). A few astronomers hold that Pluto should have remained classified as a planet, and that other dwarf planets and even moons should be added to the roster of planets along with Pluto.

Pluto has five known moons: Charon (the largest, with a diameter just over half that of Pluto), Nix, Hydra, Kerberos, and Styx. Pluto and Charon are sometimes described as a binary system because the barycenter of their orbits does not lie within either body. The IAU has yet to formalise a definition for binary dwarf planets, and Charon is officially classified as a moon of Pluto.

On July 14, 2015, the Pluto system is due to be visited by spacecraft for the first time. The New Horizons probe will perform a flyby during which it will attempt to take detailed measurements and images of the Plutoid and its moons.

A traveler's guide to the planets || Venus&Mercury (S01-E03)

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ᴴᴰ [Documentary] Destination: Titan

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It's a voyage of exploration like no other - to Titan, Saturn's largest moon and thought to resemble our own early Earth. For a small team of British scientists this would be the culmination of a lifetime's endeavour - the flight alone, some 2 billion miles, would take a full seven years. This is the story of the space probe they built, the sacrifices they made and their hopes for the landing. Would their ambitions survive the descent into the unknown on Titan's surface?

** I do not own nor claim copyright on this material. This is just for education purposes.

The Road To Pluto - Space Documentary

A direct airplane flight might be the quickest way across the country, but the fastest route to Pluto requires a trip past Jupiter. The giant planet's gravity can actually slingshot a spacecraft toward the outer solar system.

Credit: NASA

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Chasing New Horizons - First Mission To Pluto - HD Documentary 2018

On July 14, 2015, something amazing happened. More than 3 billion miles from Earth, a small NASA spacecraft called New Horizons screamed past Pluto at more than 32,000 miles per hour, focusing its instruments on the long mysterious icy worlds of the Pluto system, and then, just as quickly, continued on its journey out into the beyond.Nothing like this has occurred in a generation―a raw exploration of new worlds unparalleled since NASA’s Voyager missions to Uranus and Neptune―and nothing quite like it is planned to happen ever again. The photos that New Horizons sent back to Earth graced the front pages of newspapers on all 7 continents, and NASA’s website for the mission received more than 2 billion hits in the days surrounding the flyby. At a time when so many think that our most historic achievements are in the past, the most distant planetary exploration ever attempted not only succeeded in 2015 but made history and captured the world’s imagination. How did this happen? Chasing New Horizons is the story of the men and women behind this amazing mission: of their decades-long commitment and persistence; of the political fights within and outside of NASA; of the sheer human ingenuity it took to design, build, and fly the mission; and of the plans for New Horizons’ next encounter, 1 billion miles past Pluto in 2019. Told from the insider’s perspective of mission leader Dr. Alan Stern and others on New Horizons, and including two stunning 16-page full-color inserts of images, Chasing New Horizons is a riveting account of scientific discovery, and of how much we humans can achieve when people focused on a dream work together toward their incredible goal.

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Special Session: Planet 9 from Outer Space - Pluto Geology and Geochemistry

The Pluto system was recently explored by NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft, which made its closest approach to the dwarf planet on July 14, 2015. Pluto’s surface is found to be remarkably diverse, and its wide range of surface expressions and long-term activity raises fundamental questions about how small planets can have active processes billions of years after their formation. The geology of Pluto’s large moon Charon is also surprisingly diverse, displaying tectonics and evidence for a heterogeneous crustal composition, and its small satellites Hydra and Nix have higher albedos than expected. Presented in this session will be an overview of the New Horizons flyby, payload, and results.

Meeting the Locals on Neptune

Some scientists believe that there might be life on Neptune, but even if there isn't there's plenty to see. Triton, Neptune's biggest moon, and its ice volcanos are definitely worth a visit.

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