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Syntax vs Semantics (Philosophical Distinctions)


Syntax vs Semantics (Philosophical Distinctions)

An explication of the difference between syntax and semantics in philosophy of language, linguistics, and computer science.

Information for this video gathered from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy and more!

Information for this video gathered from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy and more!
(#Syntax #Semantics)

Syntax Vs Semantics - Programming Languages

This video is part of an online course, Programming Languages. Check out the course here:

Programming Logic and Languages: Syntax and semantics | | UPV

Título: Programming Logic and Languages: Syntax and semantics

Autor/a: Vos Tanja Ernestina

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[Introduction to Linguistics] Ambiguity, Paraphrase, Entailment, Contradiction

Today we discuss lexical and syntactic ambiguity, entailment, paraphrasing and contradictions.


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Syntax Vs Semantics Solution - Programming Languages

This video is part of an online course, Programming Languages. Check out the course here:

What is SEMIOTICS? What does SEMIOTICS mean? SEMIOTICS meaning, definition & explanation

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What is SEMIOTICS? What does SEMIOTICS mean? SEMIOTICS meaning - SEMIOTICS definition - SEMIOTICS explanation.

Source: article, adapted under license.

Semiotics (also called semiotic studies; not to be confused with the Saussurean tradition called semiology which is a part of semiotics) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign processes and meaningful communication. This includes the study of signs and sign processes (semiosis), indication, designation, likeness, analogy, allegories, metonyms, metaphor, symbolism, signification, and communication.

Semiotics is closely related to the field of linguistics, which, for its part, studies the structure and meaning of language more specifically. The semiotic tradition explores the study of signs and symbols as a significant part of communications. As different from linguistics, however, semiotics also studies non-linguistic sign systems.

Semiotics is frequently seen as having important anthropological dimensions; for example, the late Italian semiotician and novelist Umberto Eco proposed that every cultural phenomenon may be studied as communication. Some semioticians focus on the logical dimensions of the science, however. They examine areas belonging also to the life sciences—such as how organisms make predictions about, and adapt to, their semiotic niche in the world (see semiosis). In general, semiotic theories take signs or sign systems as their object of study: the communication of information in living organisms is covered in biosemiotics (including zoosemiotics).

Semioticians classify signs or sign systems in relation to the way they are transmitted (see modality). This process of carrying meaning depends on the use of codes that may be the individual sounds or letters that humans use to form words, the body movements they make to show attitude or emotion, or even something as general as the clothes they wear. To coin a word to refer to a thing (see lexical words), the community must agree on a simple meaning (a denotative meaning) within their language, but that word can transmit that meaning only within the language's grammatical structures and codes (see syntax and semantics). Codes also represent the values of the culture, and are able to add new shades of connotation to every aspect of life.

To explain the relationship between semiotics and communication studies, communication is defined as the process of transferring data and-or meaning from a source to a receiver. Hence, communication theorists construct models based on codes, media, and contexts to explain the biology, psychology, and mechanics involved. Both disciplines recognize that the technical process cannot be separated from the fact that the receiver must decode the data, i.e., be able to distinguish the data as salient, and make meaning out of it. This implies that there is a necessary overlap between semiotics and communication. Indeed, many of the concepts are shared, although in each field the emphasis is different. In Messages and Meanings: An Introduction to Semiotics, Marcel Danesi (1994) suggested that semioticians' priorities were to study signification first, and communication second. A more extreme view is offered by Jean-Jacques Nattiez (1987; trans. 1990: 16), who, as a musicologist, considered the theoretical study of communication irrelevant to his application of semiotics.

Semiotics differs from linguistics in that it generalizes the definition of a sign to encompass signs in any medium or sensory modality. Thus it broadens the range of sign systems and sign relations, and extends the definition of language in what amounts to its widest analogical or metaphorical sense. Peirce's definition of the term semiotic as the study of necessary features of signs also has the effect of distinguishing the discipline from linguistics as the study of contingent features that the world's languages happen to have acquired in the course of their evolutions. From a subjective standpoint, perhaps more difficult is the distinction between semiotics and the philosophy of language. In a sense, the difference lies between separate traditions rather than subjects. Different authors have called themselves philosopher of language or semiotician. This difference does not match the separation between analytic and continental philosophy. On a closer look, there may be found some differences regarding subjects.

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Dissecting the Biblical Text: Words, Semantics, Grammar and Syntax

The third in a series of lessons in Exegetical Method, offered by Maranatha Baptist University.

23- Difference Between Syntax And Semantics In Programming Languages In HINDI | Syntax And Semantics

What is the Difference Between Syntax And Semantics In Programming Languages In HINDI : The Syntax of a (programming) language is a set of rules that define what sequences of symbols are considered to be valid expression (programs) in the language.

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21-Scalar Data Type- Booleans

22-Scalar Data Types-Character

23-Syntax and Semantics

24-General Problem Of Describing Syntax

25-Formal Method Of Describing Syntax

26-Formal Method Of Describing Syntax-2-CFG-BNF

27-Grammar Derivation

28-Parse Tree And Ambiguity


21- Boolean Data Types | Scalar Data Type - Boolean in Programming Languages

22- Characters in Programming Languages | Scalar Data Type- Characters in Programming Languages



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Syntax, Semantics, Form, Meaning, Mind and the Chinese Room

Continuing with a series of reflections on issues in philosophy of mind, we consider how the distinction between syntax and semantic content, or form and meaning stands in the way of both reductive strategies around consciousness, and specifically computational theories of mind. The thread of the reflection begins with a recap of previous conversations, and then turns to draw on John Searle's famous Chinese Room argument as found in his book, Minds, Brains, and Science, specifically in the chapter, Can Computers Think? We conclude with suggestions as to the relevance of phenomenology, and the moral and by extension political ramifications of how these matters are unfolded.

Relevant Links:

Other overviews of the Chinese Room Argument:

More on John Searle:

Books Cited:

Analytic Philosophy - An Anthology (containing the Chapter, Can Computers Think?):

John Searle's Mind, Brains, and Science, the locus classicus of the Chinese Room Argument:

David Chalmer's The Conscious Mind, a key work detailing arguments around supervenience:

Philosophy of Mind - Classical and Contemporary Readings (containing a reflection by Jaegwon Kim on mental causation):

Philosophy of Mind (Jaegwon Kim's excellent introduction to issues in philosophy of mind):


SEMANTICS-1: What is Semantics?

Syntax vs. Semantics - Q&A

Semantic and Syntactic Ambiguity

Intensional vs Extensional Contexts (Philosophical Distinctions)

An explication of the difference between an intensional context and an extensional context.

Information for this video gathered from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy and more!

Information for this video gathered from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy and more!

Semantics and its Relationship with Pragmatics (ENG)

Paper: Introduction to Linguistics & Phonetics

Lesson 1.5: Syntax and Semantics

A video segment from the Coursera MOOC on introductory computer programming with MATLAB by Vanderbilt. Lead instructor: Mike Fitzpatrick.
Check out the companion website and textbook:


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Source: article, adapted under license.

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Situation semantics, pioneered by Jon Barwise and John Perry in the early 1980s, attempts to provide a solid theoretical foundation for reasoning about common-sense and real world situations, typically in the context of theoretical linguistics, philosophy, or applied natural language processing.

Situations, unlike worlds, are not complete in the sense that every proposition or its negation holds in a world. According to Situations and Attitudes, meaning is a relation between a discourse situation, a connective situation and a described situation. The original theory of Situations and Attitudes soon ran into foundational difficulties. A reformulation based on Peter Aczel's non-well-founded set theory was proposed by Barwise before this approach to the subject petered out in the early 1990s.

Situation semantics is the first semantic theory that was used in Head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG).

Barwise and Perry's system was a top-down approach which foundered on practical issues which were early identified by Angelika Kratzer and others. She subsequently developed a considerable body of theory bottom-up by addressing a variety of issues in the areas of context dependency in discourse and the syntax-semantics interface. Because of its practical nature and ongoing development this body of work with possible situations as parts of possible worlds, now has much more influence than Barwise and Perry’s ideas.

How Can One Greek Letter Help Us Understand Language? Lambda Calculus

How can we capture the meanings of transitive sentences? How do we match our syntax trees to our semantics? In this week's episode, we talk about lambda calculus: why we need it to explain what our other semantic machinery can't, how to work out its math, and what it can show us about how words move around in sentences.

This is Topic #69!

This week's tag language: Lakota!

Related episodes:
Meaning Predicated on Logic: What Makes a Sentence True or False? -
Let's Talk About Sets: How Do We Build Meaning with Math? -
Quantifying Sets and Toasters: What Does Most Even Mean? -

Last episode:
Watch What You Say: What Makes Bad Words Bad? -

Other of our semantics and pragmatics videos:
Operation Relevance: How Do We Decide What's Relevant in Conversations? -
Building Common Ground: How Do We Create a Shared World in Conversation? -
Logical Connections: How Logical is Language? -

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You can also find our store at the website,

Our website also has extra content about this week's topic at

We also have forums to discuss this episode, and linguistics more generally.

Most of the information for this episode came from Irene Heim and Angelika Kratzer's 1998 book, Semantics in Generative Grammar. Also, the Wikipedia page on Lambda Calculus is pretty good:

We also recommend Anders Schoubye's lecture notes, Formal Semantics for Philosophers:

Looking forward to next week!


O livro deverá ser publicado pela Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2017/2, se tudo der certo! O título desse livro foi pensado 30 anos atrás.

CppCon 2015: John Lakos “Value Semantics: It ain't about the syntax!, Part I

Presentation Slides, PDFs, Source Code and other presenter materials are available at:

When people talk about a type as having *value* *semantics*, they are often thinking about its ability to be passed to (or returned from) a function by value. In order to do that, the C++ language requires that the type implement a copy constructor, and so people routinely implement copy constructors on their classes, which begs the question, Should an object of that type be copyable at all? If so, what should be true about the copy? Should it have the same state as the original object? Same behavior? What does copying an object mean?! By *value* *type*, most people assume that the type is specifically intended to represent a member of some set (of values). A *value-semantic* *type*, however, is one that strives to approximate an abstract *mathematical* type (e.g., integer, character set, complex-number sequence), which comprises operations as well as values. When we copy an object of a value-semantic type, the new object might not have the same state, or even the same behavior as the original object; for proper value-semantic types, however, the new object will have the same *value*. In this talk, we begin by gaining an intuitive feel for what we mean by *value* by identifying *salient* *attributes*, i.e., those that contribute to value, and by contrasting types whose objects naturally represent values with those that don't. After quickly reviewing the syntactic properties common to typical value types, we dive into the much deeper issues that *value* *semantics* entail. In particular, we explore the subtle *Essential* *Property* *of* *Value*, which applies to every *salient* mutating operation on a value-semantic object, and then profitably apply this property to realize a correct design for each of a variety of increasingly interesting (value-semantic) classes.

John Lakos, author of Large Scale C++ Software Design., serves at Bloomberg LP in New York City as a senior architect and mentor for C++ Software Development world-wide. He is also an active voting member of the C++ Standards Committee, Library Working Group. Previously, Dr. Lakos directed the design and development of infrastructure libraries for proprietary analytic financial applications at Bear Stearns. For 12 years prior, Dr. Lakos developed large frameworks and advanced ICCAD applications at Mentor Graphics, for which he holds multiple software patents. His academic credentials include a Ph.D. in Computer Science ('97) and an Sc.D. in Electrical Engineering ('89) from Columbia University. Dr. Lakos received his undergraduate degrees from MIT in Mathematics ('82) and Computer Science ('81). His next book, entitled Large-Scale C++, Volume I: Process and Architecture, is anticipated in 2014.

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