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The Advantages of Floating Gate Technology | Intel


The Advantages of Floating Gate Technology | Intel

Intel's 3D NAND technology uses a floating gate technology, creating a data-centric design for high reliability and good user experience. Intel Fellow, Pranav Kalavade explains why Intel believes floating gate technology is crucial for successful scaling of 3D NAND now into the future.

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About Intel:
Intel, the world leader in silicon innovation, develops technologies, products and initiatives to continually advance how people work and live. Founded in 1968 to build semiconductor memory products, Intel introduced the world's first microprocessor in 1971. This decade, our mission is to create and extend computing technology to connect and enrich the lives of every person on earth.

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The Advantages of Floating Gate Technology | Intel

Flash vs SuperFlash® Flash Memory Technology Explained Webinar

This is a transistor-level memory cell description of programming, reading, and erasing both Flash and SuperFlash(R) Flash memory bits. The SuperFlash advantages are detailed by explaining the improvements in each of these three memory bit functions.


SuperFlash® Flash Memory Technology Advantages Webinar

Using a transistor-level memory cell description, this video explains the technical details behind SuperFlash(R) memory's advantages over conventional NOR Flash memory. Better endurance, lower cell power, and 1000x better erase times are justified by comparing how the Flash and SuperFlash memory cells function differently.


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Source: article, adapted under license.

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The floating body effect is the effect of dependence of the body potential of a transistor realized by the silicon on insulator (SOI) technology on the history of its biasing and the carrier recombination processes. The transistor's body forms a capacitor against the insulated substrate. The charge accumulates on this capacitor and may cause adverse effects, for example, opening of parasitic transistors in the structure and causing off-state leakages, resulting in higher current consumption and in case of DRAM in loss of information from the memory cells. It also causes the history effect, the dependence of the threshold voltage of the transistor on its previous states. In analog devices, the floating body effect is known as the kink effect.

One countermeasure to floating body effect involves use of fully depleted devices. The insulator layer in FD devices is significantly thinner than the channel depletion width. The charge and thus also the body potential of the transistors is therefore fixed. However, the short-channel effect is worsened in the FD devices, the body may still charge up if both source and drain are high, and the architecture is unsuitable for some analog devices that require contact with the body. Hybrid trench isolation is another approach.

While floating body effect presents a problem in SOI DRAM chips, it is exploited as the underlying principle for Z-RAM and T-RAM technologies. For this reason, the effect is sometimes called the Cinderella effect in the context of these technologies, because it transforms a disadvantage into an advantage. AMD and Hynix licensed Z-RAM, but as of 2008 had not put it into production. Another similar technology (and Z-RAM competitor) developed at Toshiba and refined at Intel is Floating Body Cell (FBC).

Stellar: first Automotive MCUs introducing Phase Change Memory (PCM)

Find out more information:

We asked Carsten the following questions:

Why is ST investing in Phase Change Memory?
What are the advantages of Phase Change Memory over floating gate embedded NVM?
Which products will integrate the new FD-SOI plus PCM technology?
What are the cornerstones of the Stellar family?

Arria 10 Hard Floating Point DSP Demonstration

Presentation and Demonstration on Altera Generation 10 FPGAs with Hard Floating Point DSP Blocks. This video presents the architecture, capabilities and advantages of designing with hard floating point DSP blocks. The demonstration uses DSP Builder to show how a soft floating point design can migrate to Arria 10 using hard floating point blocks. It also compares the utilization pointing out significant logic savings when using hard floating point blocks. Follow Intel FPGA to see how we’re programmed for success and can help you tackle your FPGA problems with comprehensive solutions.
For technical questions, contact the Intel Community:

How SSDs work

Have you ever wondered how SSDs work? How NAND Flash works? What type of transistor can store data? Well, all of that (and more) is answered in this Tech Explained video on how SSDs work! Come take a look.
NAND Flash Circuit Diagram:
NAND Flash:
Floating Gate Mosfet:
Hot Carrier Injection:
Charge traps:
Charge trap gate:
By ​wikipedia user Cyferz, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By JimHandy - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
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TechteamGB assumes no liability for damage, misuse or misunderstanding of the information contained in this video. Use this information at your own risk. TechteamGB cannot guarantee any particular result from the information contained in this video, and all information was presented as correct as of filming. TechteamGB accepts no liability for information being proven incorrect after the creation of the video, and all information should be taken as opinion and guidance, not fact. This video was not sponsored by anyone, and TechteamGB does not accept monetary - or non-monetary - benefits to alter opinions or results.

Flash Basics (Part 1)

25 years of NAND flash. NAND and NOR architecture. NAND cell operation.

Stanford University's class on nanomanufacturing, led by Aneesh Nainani.

Oct 15, 2012
Week 4, Lecture 7, Part 1

Areal Density Is Key to Intel® 3D NAND SSD Success | Intel

The combination of Intel's floating gate and CuA technologies means that Intel is able to deliver areal density leadership in Intel® 3D NAND SSD technology. Intel Fellow, Pranav Kalavade explains why these technologies are so important.

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About Intel:
Intel, the world leader in silicon innovation, develops technologies, products and initiatives to continually advance how people work and live. Founded in 1968 to build semiconductor memory products, Intel introduced the world's first microprocessor in 1971. This decade, our mission is to create and extend computing technology to connect and enrich the lives of every person on earth.

Connect with Intel:
Visit Intel WEBSITE:
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Areal Density Is Key to Intel® 3D NAND SSD Success | Intel

SuperFlash® Flash Memory Explained

We all use NOR Flash to load simple boot code, but Flash has one big problem… ERASE time. If you are reflashing the system in the field or running a few system tests on the floor, erasing a whole NOR Flash IC can take… MINUTES…even erasing a few sectors can take 10’s of seconds. That’s why Microchip offers SuperFlash.


MOSFET working animation | MOSFET explained | MOSFET transistor animation

MOSFET working animation | MOSFET explained | MOSFET transistor animation
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MOSFET transistor? MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistoris semiconducter device). It is used as a switch and amplifier of signals in electronic circuits. It is widely used as discrete component and in integrated circuits.
How MOSFET transistor works! MOSFET is unipolar transistor - uses only one type of charge carriers. The main advantage of over a regular - bipolar transistor is that requires very little current to turn on and delivering much higher current load.
MOSFET four terminal devica with S (source), G (gate), D (drain) and B (body)
There are to main type of MOSFET n-channel and p-channel

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Hrvoje Čočić
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How Ball Valves Work

This 3D animated video explains how a ball valve works, its main components, advantages, disadvantages and its applications. We use animation to show the valve moving from the open to close position and vice versa.


Ultimate Valve Playlist with detailed video tutorials of each valve type!

Or watch each video separately!

Valve Construction and Components Explained

How Globe Valves Work

How Ball Valves Work

How Gate Valves Work

How Butterfly Valves Work

How Diaphragm Valves Work

How Plug Valves Work

How Pinch Valves Work

How Pneumatic Valves Work

How Swing Check Valves Work


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Ball valves obtain their name from the type of valve disc used. Ball valves are ¼ turn valves and are suitable for stopping and starting flow. Ball valves are not suitable for throttling/regulating flow.

The ball of the valve has a hole drilled through the middle. When the hole is in line with the valve body and connected piping, the valve is in the open position. When the hole is perpendicular with the valve body, the valve is in the closed position. The handle (actuator) indicates the position of the valve (in-line = open, perpendicular = closed).

The pressure drop through the ball valve is vey low.
The ball valve is fast acting.
The seat to disc fit is tight and thus the chances of leakage/passing are reduced.
The valve is cheap to manufacture and maintain.
Ball valves require no lubrication.
Only a small amount of torque is required to actuate the valve and gearboxes can be used to make actuation of larger valves easier (lower torque on the primary side required).

The ball valve is poorly suited to throttling applications.
The ball valve seat is often constructed from plastic or polymer materials, this makes the valve ill suited to high temperature applications.

This video lesson is part of our Introduction to Valves course:

You can read more about ball valves in our technical encyclopaedia:

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Need a custom product configurator similar to that shown in the video? Get in touch!


Benefits of Dual Configuration Flash based FPGAs

Get a virtual tour inside Altera’s new MAX 10 FPGA and see how the on-die flash memory supports dual-configuration, for true fail-safe upgrades. For more information visit the Altera MAX 10 FPGA web page: Follow Intel FPGA to see how we’re programmed for success and can help you tackle your FPGA problems with comprehensive solutions.
For technical questions, contact the Intel Community:

Using Lasers to Create Super-hydrophobic Materials

Scientists at the University of Rochester have used lasers to transform metals into extremely water repellent, or super-hydrophobic, materials without the need for temporary coatings.

Super-hydrophobic materials are desirable for a number of applications such as rust prevention, anti-icing, or even in sanitation uses. However, as Rochester’s Chunlei Guo explains, most current hydrophobic materials rely on chemical coatings.

In a paper ( published today in Journal of Applied Physics, Guo and his colleague at the University’s Institute of Optics, Anatoliy Vorobyev, describe a powerful and precise laser-patterning technique that creates an intricate pattern of micro- and nanoscale structures to give the metals their new properties. This work builds on earlier research by the team in which they used a similar laser-patterning technique that turned metals black ( Guo states that using this technique they can create multifunctional surfaces that are not only super-hydrophobic but also highly-absorbent optically.

Guo adds that one of the big advantages of his team’s process is that “the structures created by our laser on the metals are intrinsically part of the material surface.” That means they won’t rub off. And it is these patterns that make the metals repel water.

“The material is so strongly water-repellent, the water actually gets bounced off. Then it lands on the surface again, gets bounced off again, and then it will just roll off from the surface,” said Guo, professor of optics at the University of Rochester. That whole process takes less than a second.

The materials Guo has created are much more slippery than Teflon—a common hydrophobic material that often coats nonstick frying pans. Unlike Guo’s laser-treated metals, the Teflon kitchen tools are not super-hydrophobic. The difference is that to make water to roll-off a Teflon coated material, you need to tilt the surface to nearly a 70-degree angle before the water begins to slide off. You can make water roll off Guo’s metals by tilting them less than five degrees.

As the water bounces off the super-hydrophobic surfaces, it also collects dust particles and takes them along for the ride. To test this self-cleaning property, Guo and his team took ordinary dust from a vacuum cleaner and dumped it onto the treated surface. Roughly half of the dust particles were removed with just three drops of water. It took only a dozen drops to leave the surface spotless. Better yet, it remains completely dry.

Guo is excited by potential applications of super-hydrophobic materials in developing countries. It is this potential that has piqued the interest of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, which has supported the work.

“In these regions, collecting rain water is vital and using super-hydrophobic materials could increase the efficiency without the need to use large funnels with high-pitched angles to prevent water from sticking to the surface,” says Guo. “A second application could be creating latrines that are cleaner and healthier to use.”

Latrines are a challenge to keep clean in places with little water. By incorporating super-hydrophobic materials, a latrine could remain clean without the need for water flushing.
But challenges still remain to be addressed before these applications can become a reality, Guo states. It currently takes an hour to pattern a 1 inch by 1 inch metal sample, and scaling up this process would be necessary before it can be deployed in developing countries. The researchers are also looking into ways of applying the technique to other, non-metal materials.

Guo and Vorobyev use extremely powerful, but ultra-short, laser pulses to change the surface of the metals. A femtosecond laser pulse lasts on the order of a quadrillionth of a second but reaches a peak power equivalent to that of the entire power grid of North America during its short burst.

Guo is keen to stress that this same technique can give rise to multifunctional metals. Metals are naturally excellent reflectors of light. That’s why they appear to have a shiny luster. Turning them black can therefore make them very efficient at absorbing light. The combination of light-absorbing properties with making metals water repellent could lead to more efficient solar absorbers – solar absorbers that don’t rust and do not need much cleaning.

Guo’s team had previously blasted materials with the lasers and turned them hydrophilic, meaning they attract water. In fact, the materials were so hydrophilic that putting them in contact with a drop of water made water run “uphill” (

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Floating Point Binary Basics

OCR A Level Computer Science

Nuclear Power Plants Are Floating on Water…Wait What?

Both Russia and China are developing floating nuclear reactors. Although critics have dubbed it Chernobyl on ice, it might have many benefits.
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Floating nuclear power plants are self-contained, low-capacity nuclear power reactors that are mass produced at shipbuilding facilities. They can be towed to ports or power towns that are experiencing power deficiencies.

Russia is building a fleet of floating nuclear plants and China is reportedly starting to build a floating nuclear power station set to be seaworthy by 2021 to provide power for its artificial islands

Nuclear power is one option to free humanity from our dependence on fossil fuels for energy.

Unlike oil, coal, or gas, generating nuclear power emits no carbon dioxide, though it does create radioactive waste, some of which has to be stored securely for thousands of years.

And unlike wind energy or solar energy, it can produce energy on demand. So a few countries are aggressively pursuing nuclear power, and some have even designed ships with reactors to serve as mobile power plants.

So is this idea ingenious or a disaster waiting to happen? Learn more on this episode of Elements.

#NuclearPower #Energy #PowerPlant #Science #Seeker #Elements

How This Rare Natural Fission Reactor Could Solve Our Nuclear Waste Problem

Read More:
World's first floating nuclear barge to power Russia's Arctic oil drive

Built in Saint Petersburg, the Akademik Lomonosov is currently moored in Murmansk where it is being loaded with nuclear fuel before heading to eastern Siberia.

China Is Building up to 20 Floating Nuclear Power Plants

Floating nuclear reactors sound perilous, but the China National Nuclear Corp plans to develop them as a cheaper alternative to transmitting power from mainland China.

Chernobyl disaster

Chernobyl disaster, accident in 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union, the worst disaster in the history of nuclear power generation.


Elements is more than just a science show. It’s your science-loving best friend, tasked with keeping you updated and interested on all the compelling, innovative and groundbreaking science happening all around us. Join our passionate hosts as they help break down and present fascinating science, from quarks to quantum theory and beyond.

Seeker explains every aspect of our world through a lens of science, inspiring a new generation of curious minds who want to know how today’s discoveries in science, math, engineering and technology are impacting our lives, and shaping our future. Our stories parse meaning from the noise in a world of rapidly changing information.

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Floating Point Numbers (Part2: Fp Addition) - Computerphile

Continuation of Dr Bagley's explanation of Floating Point Numbers:

This video was filmed and edited by Sean Riley.

Computer Science at the University of Nottingham:

Computerphile is a sister project to Brady Haran's Numberphile. More at

STGAP: Isolated Gate Drivers for MOSFETs and IGBTs

Find out more information:

ST offers the STGAP series of isolated gate drivers for MOSFETs and IGBTs that provide galvanic isolation between the input section, which connects to the control part of the system, and the MOSFET or IGBT being driven. Galvanic isolation is attained using a high-voltage, on-chip, micro transformer that ensures commands and diagnostic information are reliably transferred to and from the floating – with respect to ground – section of the circuit.

STGAP isolated gate drivers are extremely flexible as they provide a large number of parameters that can be adjusted to best match the selected MOSFET or IGBT and system requirements. They also provide extensive diagnostic features to help enhance system robustness and reliability. Evaluation hardware, software and technical documentation are available to help minimize time to market.

22nm FinFET Video Project - SEMulator3D

Using Coventor's software, SEMulator3D, we have reconstructed our version of the Intel Ivy Bridge 22nm FinFET structure up to M10. This software allows for some pretty amazing ways to examine these structures in an accurate environment.

Check out our website!

And don't forget to have a look at Coventor's page:

dissecting a NAND flash array

cross section of a NAND flash array and how does it look like along different directions



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