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The Earth: Crash Course Astronomy #11

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The Earth: Crash Course Astronomy #11

Phil starts the planet-by-planet tour of the solar system right here at home, Earth.
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Table of Contents
Earth is a Planet 0:03
Layers of Earth 1:25
The Magnetic Field 5:10
Atmosphere and the Human Influence 6:14

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Planets:
Mercury:
Venus:
Earth:
Mars:
Jupiter:
Saturn: [credit: Photo by NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute/Gordan Ugarkovic]
Uranus:
Neptune:

Ulaan Tsutgalan waterfall:
Perspective on a cloudy day: [credit: Oleg Artemyev]
Rain droplets:
Yellowston Mud Pot:
Sea otters holding hands:
Continental Drift: [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio]
Mission to Bennu: [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Conceptual Image Lab]
[credit: San Diego Supercomputer Center / Nature]
Excerpt from Dynamic Earth [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center]
Clouds:
Aurora Borealis: [credit: Fotograf Göran Strand]
Waves On Rocky Shore 1080 (2011):
A Year In The Life Of Earth’s CO2: [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center]
NASA | 2014 Continues Long-Term Global Warming:
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The Moon: Crash Course Astronomy #12

Join Phil for a tour of our capital-M Moon, from surface features, inside to the core, and back in time to theories about its formation.

This episode is brought to you by Squarespace:
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Table of Contents
Many Millions of Moons 0:27
Big Impact on Little Earth 3:42
Craters and Maria 2:15
Water on the Moon? H2O Yeah! 8:06

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Moon Phase 47.7% [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio]
The Blue Marble [credit: Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Image by Reto Stöckli]
Dramatic Moonset [credit: G.Gillet/European Southern Observatory]
Structure of the Moon: [credit: Kelvin Song via WikiMedia Commons]
Crater Science Investigations: [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center]
Lunar crater Daealus [credit: NASA]
Mare Humorum [credit: NASA]
Luna 3: [credit: NASA]
Farside!: [credit: NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University]
Theia Earth Collision: [credit: Ron Miller, used with permission]
Earth Seen From Early Moon: [credit: Ron Miller, used with permission]
Moon Struck: [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center]
Tycho: [credit: NASA/Goddard/Arizona State University]
Double crater on the moon: [credit: ESA/SPACE-X (Space Exploration Institute)]
Stream of Craters: [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center/Arizona State University]
Full Moon: [credit: Gregory H. Revera]
Rille on the valley floor, photographic mosaic from Apollo 15: [credit: NASA]
New Views of Lunar Pits: [credit: NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University]
Crater Erlanger: [credit: NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University]
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The Sun: Crash Course Astronomy #10

Phil takes us for a closer (eye safe!) look at the two-octillion ton star that rules our solar system. We look at the sun's core, plasma, magnetic fields, sunspots, solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and what all of that means for our planet.

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The Sun is a Star 1:28
Plasma's Magnetic Fields 6:11
Sunspots, Solar Flares, and Coronal Mass Ejections 7:09
How the Earth Reacts 9:18

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PHOTO/VIDEO CREDITS
Hubble extrasolar planet search field in Sagittarius: [credit: NASA, ESA, K. Sahu (STScI) and the SWEEPS science team]
The Sun: [credit: SDO/HMI]
The Sun: [credit: NASA/SDO/AIA]
Earth: [credit: NASA's Earth Observatory]
Fusion in the Sun: [credit: Borb]
Empire State Building:
Sun Structure:
Photospheric granulation:
Corona: [credit: Phil Hart]
Magnet0873 by Newton Henry Black - Newton Henry Black, Harvey N. Davis (1913) Practical Physics, The MacMillan Co., USA, p. 242, fig. 200. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons -
Strange Days On The Sun: [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Images courtesy of NASA/SDO]
Under the Sunspots: [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Conceptual Image Lab]
Raining Loops: [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/SDO]
Coronal Mass Ejection: [credit: NASA]
Aurora:
Soloar Close-ups: [credit: NASA]
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Tides: Crash Course Astronomy #8

Today Phil explores the world of tides! What is the relationship between tides and gravity? How do planets and their moons become tidally locked? What would happen if you were 300km tall? Important questions.
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Gravity Over Distance 0:44
Tidal Force Parameters 1:35
Battle of the Bulges 2:55
Tidal Lock 6:17

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PHOTO/VIDEO CREDITS
Photo & video credit: NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio
Photo credit: NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio


The Hopewell Rocks -
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The Big Bang, Cosmology part 1: Crash Course Astronomy #42

Thanks to observations of galaxy redshifts, we can tell that the universe is EXPANDING! Knowing that the universe is expanding and how quickly its expanding also allows us to run the clock backwards 14 billion years to the way the universe began - with a bang.

Crash Course Astronomy Poster:

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Table of Contents
Distant Galaxies Show a Red Shift in Their Spectra 2:07
The Universe is Expanding 2:51
This Model is Called “The Big Bang” 5:12
The Universe is Almost 14 Billion Years Old 11:43


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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Hubble Goes to the eXtreme to Assemble Farthest-Ever View of the Universe [credit: NASA; ESA; G. Illingworth, D. Magee, and P. Oesch, University of California, Santa Cruz; R. Bouwens, Leiden University; and the HUDF09 Team]
Out of this whirl: The Whirlpool Galaxy (M51) and companion galaxy [credit: NASA, ESA, S. Beckwith (STScI), and The Hubble Heritage Team STScI/AURA)]
Red-Shifts in the Spectra of Extra-glactic Nebuale [credit: American Astronomical Society, NASA Astrophysics Data System]
Andromeda [credit: Bill Schoening, Vanessa Harvey/REU program/NOAO/AURA/NSF]
The Big Bang (video) [credit: NASA]
The Sun [credit: NASA/SDO]
Alpha Centauri [credit: ESO/Digitized Sky Survey 2, Acknowledgement: Davide De Martin]
Andromeda [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech]
Friedmann Universes
Friedmann Equation
Penzias and Wilson stand at the 15 meter Holmdel Horn Antenna that brought their most notable discovery. [credit: NASA]
Planck CMB [credit: ESA and the Planck Collaboration]
Galaxy Superclusters [credit: Marenostrum Numerical Cosmology Project]

Everything, The Universe...And Life: Crash Course Astronomy #46

Here it is, folks: the end. In our final episode of Crash Course Astronomy, Phil gives the course a send off with a look at some of his favorite topics and the big questions that Astronomy allows us to ask.

Thank you for watching.

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Exoplanet, thick atmosphere - Artist’s Impression [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle]
Exoplanet, Earth-like - Artist’s Impression [credit: NASA Ames/SETI Institute/JPL-CalTech]
James Webb Space Telescope [credit: Northrop Grumman Space Technology]
Hubble's High-Definition Panoramic View of the Andromeda Galaxy [credit: NASA, ESA, J. Dalcanton, B.F. Williams, and L.C. Johnson (University of Washington), the PHAT team, and R. Gendler]
Bennu's Journey [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Conceptual Image Lab]
Wedding Lanterns [credit: Jirka Matousek]
Balloon [credit: NASA]
Naked-eye Venus photo taken by Phil Plait
Cygnus Reentry [credit: ESA/NASA]
Moon [credit: G. Gillet/ESO]
Progress M-10M reentry plasma trail [credit: NASA]
Alien Worlds [credit: David Aguilar / CfA]
Beyond the Visible: The Story of the Very Large Array [credit: NRAO]
Barred spiral bares all [credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA]
Hi hello [credit: Ben Canales,

Introduction to Astronomy: Crash Course Astronomy #1

Welcome to the first episode of Crash Course Astronomy. Your host for this intergalactic adventure is the Bad Astronomer himself, Phil Plait. We begin with answering a question: What is astronomy?

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Table of Contents:
What is Astronomy? 3:00
Who Studies Astronomy? 3:50
Origins & Developments 6:52

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A Brief History of the Universe: Crash Course Astronomy #44

Thanks to the wonders of physics, astronomers can map a timeline of the universe’s history. Today, Phil’s going to give you an overview of those first few minutes (yes, MINUTES) of the universe’s life. It started with a Big Bang, when the Universe was incredibly dense and hot. It expanded and cooled, going through multiple stages where different kinds of matter could form. It underwent a phenomenally rapid expansion called inflation, which smoothed out much of the lumpiness in the matter. Normal matter formed atoms between 3 and 20 minutes after the bang, and the lumps left over from inflation formed the galaxies and larger structures we see today.

Crash Course Astronomy Poster:

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Table of Contents
Mapping the History of the Universe Using Math and Observations 00:41
It Started With A Bang! 1:58
Rapid Expansion Smoothed Out Matter 4:55
Normal Matter Formed After 3-20 Minutes 5:12

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Proton Collision Event with Boosters and LHC [credit: ATLAS]
Melting Snowball video courtesy of Phil Plait
Big Bang to Hubble [credit: ESA/Hubble (M. Kornmesser & L. L. Christensen)]
Journey to the centre of the Sun [credit: ESA/Hubble (M. Kornmesser & L. L. Christensen)]
PIA16873: Best Map Ever of the Universe [credit: ESA and the Planck Collaboration]
A high resolution foreground cleaned CMB map from WMAP [credit: Tegmark et al.]
Planck comb rbcol scaled [credit: Chris North, Cardiff University]
WMAP's Portrait of the Early Universe [credit: NASA]

Outtakes #2: Crash Course Astronomy

Time for another Bad Astronomy break.

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Uranus & Neptune: Crash Course Astronomy #19

Today we’re rounding out our planetary tour with ice giants Uranus and Neptune. Both have small rocky cores, thick mantles of ammonia, water, and methane, and atmospheres that make them look greenish and blue. Uranus has a truly weird rotation and relatively dull weather, while Neptune has clouds and storms whipped by tremendous winds. Both have rings and moons, with Neptune’s Triton probably being a captured iceball that has active geology.

This episode was brought to you by Squarespace
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Table of Contents
Ice Giants With Small Rocky Cores 2:18
Thick Mantles of Ammonia, Water, and Methane 1:53
Atmospheres Makes Them Look Green And Blue 2:53
Uranus Has Dull Weather 3:35
Neptune Has Active Weather 7:19
Both Have Rings And Moons 5:12

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Uranus [credit: NASA/JPL/Voyager mission]
Neptune [credit: NASA]
King George III
Uranus from Earth picture by Phil Plait
Uranus, Earth size comparison [credit: NASA]
Uranus core, reconstructed from [credit: Wikimedia Commons]
Uranus [credit: NASA, ESA, L. Sromovsky and P. Fry (University of Wisconsin), H. Hammel (Space Science Institute), and K. Rages (SETI Institute)]
Uranus storms [credit: Imke de Pater (UC–Berkeley)/Keck Observatory]
Uranus and rings (tilt demonstration) [credit: Hubble Space Telescope - NASA Marshall Space Flight Center]
Uranus with rings and moons [credit: ESO]
Miranda [credit: NASA]
Verona Rupes [credit: NASA]
Neptune’s Interior [credit: Lunar and Planetary Institute]
Neptune clouds [credit: NASA]
Neptune’s Great Dark Spot [credit: NASA / Jet Propulsion Lab]
Neptune’s Rings [credit: Rolf Wahl Olsen / NASA/JPL (Voyager 2, NASA Planetary Data System)]
Triton [credit: NASA / Jet Propulsion Lab / U.S. Geological Survey]
Triton flipped [credit: NASA/JPL]
Triton Nitrogen Geysers NASA]
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Light: Crash Course Astronomy #24

In order to understand how we study the universe, we need to talk a little bit about light. Light is a form of energy. Its wavelength tells us its energy and color. Spectroscopy allows us to analyze those colors and determine an object’s temperature, density, spin, motion, and chemical composition.

Crash Course Chemistry posters are available at DFTBA.com


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Table of Contents
Light is a Form of Energy 0:39
Wavelength Tells Us Its Energy and Color 0:59
Spectroscopy 7:28

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Wavelengths [credit: Imagine the Universe! / NASA]
Observatories across spectrum [credit: Imagine the Universe! / NASA]
Red hot spiral hotplate [credit: freefoodphotos.com]
The Crab Nebula [credit: NASA, ESA, J. Hester and A. Loll (Arizona State University)]
Building the Space Telescope Imaging Spectograph [credit: NASA]
VST images the Lagoon Nebula [credit: ESO/VPHAS+ team]
Jupiter [credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute]
Venus [credit: NASA - NSSDC Photo Gallery Venus]
Ring Around SN 1987a, image 1 [credit: Jason Pun (NOAO) and SINS Collaboration]
Ring Around SN 1987a, image 2 [credit: George Sonneborn (GSFC) and NASA/ESA]

Saturn: Crash Course Astronomy #18

Saturn is the crown jewel of the solar system, beautiful and fascinating. It is a gas giant, and has a broad set of rings made of ice particles. Moons create gaps in the rings via their gravity. Saturn has dozens of moons, including Titan, which is as big as Mercury and has a thick atmosphere and lakes of methane; and Enceladus which has an undersurface ocean and eruptions of water geysers. While we are still uncertain, it is entirely possible that either or both moons may support life.

This episode was brought to you by Squarespace
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Table of Contents
Saturn is a Gas Giant 0:33
Moons Create Gaps in the Ice Rings 5:17
Dozens of Moons 6:18
Titan’s Methane Lakes 7:56
Enceladus’s Water Geysers 8:33
Life Potential 9:30

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Saturn [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute/G. Ugarkovic]
Interiors [credit: Lunar and Planetary Institute]
Saturn Ring Plane Crossing [credit: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona Lunar & Planetary Lab) and NASA/ESA]
Translucent Rings [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute]
Catching its Tail [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute]
Enter the Vortex [credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute]
The Rose [credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute]
Ice [credit: NASA/JPL/University of Colorado]
Saturn’s rings to scale [credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute]
Saturn’s Ring Plane [credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute - Cassini-Huygens/NASA]
Saturn [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute/G. Ugarkovic]
Shaping the Drapes (video) [credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute]
Peaks [credit: NASA / Jet Propulsion Lab / Space Science Institute]
Mimas Cassini [credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / Space Science Institute]
Cassini NAC RGB [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute/G. Ugarkovic]
Titan [credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute]
Titan’s Nile River [credit: NASA/JPL–Caltech/ASI]
Lakes [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/USGS]
Enceladus [credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute]
Iapetus Ridge [credit: NASA (Cassini probe), Matt McIrvin (image mosaic)]
Hyperion [credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute]
Saturn eclipse mosaic [credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / Space Science Institute]

Constellation Location: Crash Course Kids #31.2

Let's say you're looking for a specific constellation in the sky, but can't find it? That could be because you're on the wrong part of the planet to see it. In this episode of Crash Course Kids, Sabrina talks about how the Earth's rotation and axis can affect what we see in the night sky.

///Standards Used in This Video///
5-ESS1-2. Represent data in graphical displays to reveal patterns of daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky. [Clarification Statement: Examples of patterns could include the position and motion of Earth with respect to the sun and selected stars that are visible only in particular months.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include causes of seasons.]

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Credits...
Producer & Editor: Nicholas Jenkins
Cinematographer & Director: Michael Aranda
Host: Sabrina Cruz
Script Supervisor: Mickie Halpern
Writer: Kay Boatner

Executive Producers: John & Hank Green
Consultant: Shelby Alinsky
Script Editor: Blake de Pastino

Thought Cafe Team:
Stephanie Bailis
Cody Brown
Suzanna Brusikiewicz
Jonathan Corbiere
Nick Counter
Kelsey Heinrichs
Jack Kenedy
Corey MacDonald
Tyler Sammy
Nikkie Stinchcombe
James Tuer
Adam Winnik

Star Clusters: Crash Course Astronomy #35

Last week we covered multiple star systems, but what if we added thousands or even millions of stars to the mix? A star cluster. There are different kinds of clusters, though. Open clusters contain hundreds or thousands of stars held together by gravity. They’re young, and evaporate over time, their stars let loose to roam space freely. Globular clusters, on the other hand, are larger, have hundreds of thousands of stars, and are more spherical. They’re very old, a significant fraction of the age of the Universe itself, and that means their stars have less heavy elements in them, are redder, and probably don’t have planets (though we’re not really sure).

Crash Course Astronomy Poster:

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Table of Contents
Open clusters contain hundreds or thousands of young stars 00:29
Over time, open clusters evaporate 3:23
Globular clusters contain hundreds of thousands of old stars in spherical formation 5:50
Globular clusters have less heavy elements, thus probably do not have planets 6:43

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Magellanic gemstone in the southern sky [NGC 290] [credit: European Space Agency & NASA]
Extreme star cluster bursts into life in new Hubble image [credit: NASA, ESA and the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration]
View of a Sun-like star within an open cluster (artist’s impression) [credit: NASA, ESA, and M. Kornmesser]
Motion of stars in Omega Centauri [credit: NASA, ESA, J. Anderson and R. van der Marel (STScI)]
47 Tucanae: Probing Extreme Matter Through Observations of Neutron Stars [credit: NASA/CXC/Michigan State/A.Steiner et al]
Hubble Refines Distance to Pleiades Star Cluster [credit: NASA, ESA and AURA/Caltech]
M45 Pleiades [credit: T.A. Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage), Richard Cool (University of Arizona) and WIYN]
From the Pleiades to the Hyades [credit: Rogelio Bernal Andreo]
Messier 035 Atlas Image [credit: Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation]
Globular cluster 47 Tucanae [credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration]
The oldest cluster in its cloud [credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA]
An unexpected population of young-looking stars [credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA]
View of a globular cluster (artist’s impression) [credit: NASA, ESA, and M. Kornmesser]
All that glitters [credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA]

Outtakes #5: Crash Course Astronomy

One last round of laughs with Phil as he struggles through some Bad Astronomy.

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Crash Course Astronomy Poster:

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Quirky Dog
Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0


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Comets: Crash Course Astronomy #21

Today on Crash Course Astronomy, Phil explains comets. Comets are chunks of ice and rock that orbit the Sun. When they get near the Sun the ice turns into gas, forming the long tail, and also releases dust that forms a different tail. We’ve visited comets up close and found them to be lumpy, with vents in the surface that release the gas as ice sublimates. Eons ago, comets (and asteroids) may have brought a lot of water to Earth -- as well as the ingredients for life.

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Table of Contents
Comets Are Chunks of Rock and Ice That Orbit the Sun 1:26
When They Get Near the Sun They Turn Into Gas 2:08
Comets Release Gas Via Vents As Ice Sublimates 2:15
Comets May Have Brought Water and Ingredients for Life to Earth 9:30

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Halley's Comet, 1910 [credit: New York Times, Wikimedia Commons]
Bayeux Tapestry [credit: Wikimedia Commons]
Comet McNaught [credit: Phil Plait]
Comet McNaught + tail [credit: Chris North, Wikimedia Commons]
Comet surface [credit: ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM]
Fine structure in the comet’s jets [credit: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA]
Comet Halley [credit: Halley Multicolor Camera Team, Giotto Project, ESA]
Comet McNaught [credit: ESO]
Hubble's Last Look at Comet ISON Before Perihelion
[credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)]
Hale-Bopp: The Great Comet of 1997 [credit: Jerry Lodriguss, used with permission]
Sungrazer video [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center]
“Large Web” graphic [credit: JHUAPL/SwRI/Dan Durda]
Comet Daniel [credit: Max Wolf, Wikimedia Commons]
Vega 1 Low Res [credit: Russian Academy of Sciences]
The Nucleus of Comet Halley [credit: ESA/MPS]
Comet Hartley 2 [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UMD]
Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko [credit: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA]
OSIRIS Catches Activity in the Act [credit: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA]
Active Pit [credit: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA]
Depiction of Philae‍‍ '​‍s planned touchdown on the comet [credit: DLR, CC-BY 3.0, Wikimedia Commons]
Colour Image of a Comet [credit: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA]
Comet Lovejoy [credit: NASA/Dan Burbank]
NASA’s Stardust [credit: NASA/JPL]
Comet dust [credit: NASA]
Comet Lovejoy [credit: ESO/G. Brammer]

Outtakes #1: Crash Course Astronomy

After 10 information-heavy episodes, it's time for a little Bad Astronomy.

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Cathedrals and Universities: Crash Course History of Science #11

Until roughly 1100, there were relatively few places of knowledge-making. Monasteries and abbeys had special rooms called scriptoria where monks copied manuscripts by hand. But the biggest places where knowledge was made were the Gothic cathedrals. Then Universities came along, too. This is the story of those two institutions!


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Mark Brouwer, Glenn Elliott, Justin Zingsheim, Jessica Wode, Eric Prestemon, Kathrin Benoit, Tom Trval, Jason Saslow, Nathan Taylor, Divonne Holmes à Court, Brian Thomas Gossett, Khaled El Shalakany, Indika Siriwardena, Robert Kunz, SR Foxley, Sam Ferguson, Yasenia Cruz, Eric Koslow, Caleb Weeks, Tim Curwick, Evren Türkmenoğlu, Alexander Tamas, D.A. Noe, Shawn Arnold, mark austin, Ruth Perez, Malcolm Callis, Ken Penttinen, Advait Shinde, Cody Carpenter, Annamaria Herrera, William McGraw, Bader AlGhamdi, Vaso, Melissa Briski, Joey Quek, Andrei Krishkevich, Rachel Bright, Alex S, Mayumi Maeda, Kathy & Tim Philip, Montather, Jirat, Eric Kitchen, Moritz Schmidt, Ian Dundore, Chris Peters, Sandra Aft, Steve Marshall
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High Mass Stars: Crash Course Astronomy #31

Massive stars fuse heavier elements in their cores than lower mass stars. This leads to the creation of heavier elements up to iron. Iron robs critical energy from the core, causing it to collapse. The shock wave, together with a huge swarm of neutrinos, blast through the star’s outer layers, causing it to explode. The resulting supernova creates even more heavy elements, scattering them through space. Also, happily, we’re in no danger from a nearby supernova.

Crash Course Astronomy Poster:

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Table of Contents
Massive Stars Fuse Heavier Elements Up To Iron 1:15
Iron Uses High Amounts of Energy, Thus Making Stars Collapse 3:58
The Resulting Supernova Creates Even Heavier Elements 10:00
Relax, Something Else Will Kill You 9:04

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Blowing Bubbles [credit: NASA/CXC/April Jubett]
The Sizes of Stars [credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser]
Red giants [credit: Wikimedia Commons]
Alpha Orionis [credit: A. Dupree (CfA), NASA, ESA]
Sun and VY Canis Majoris [credit: Wikimedia Commons]
Witch Head Nebula and Rigel [credit: Rogelio Bernal Andreo]
Layers of a massive star [credit: Wikimedia Commons]
NASA's Swift Reveals New Phenomenon in a Neutron Star [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center]
What is a black hole? [credit: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss]
The Death of Stars [credit: ESA/Hubble]
Giant Mosaic of the Crab Nebula [credit: NASA, ESA, J. Hester (Arizona State University)]
Hubble and Chandra spot a celestial bauble [credit: NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), and NASA/CXC/SAO/J. Hughes]
Vela Supernova Remnant [credit: Marco Lorenzi]
Spica [credit: Phil Plait]
Cassiopeia A [credit: Oliver Krause (Steward Observatory) George H. Rieke (Steward Observatory) Stephan M. Birkmann (Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie) Emeric Le Floc'h (Steward Observatory) Karl D. Gordon (Steward Observatory) Eiichi Egami (Steward Observatory) John Bieging (Steward Observatory) John P. Hughes (Rutgers University) Erick Young (Steward Observatory) Joannah L. Hinz (Steward Observatory) Sascha P. Quanz (Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie) Dean C. Hines (Space Science Institute)]
Sloshing Supernova [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Video and images courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech]
Star Burst [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Video courtesy of ESA/Hubble/L. Calcada]

Crash Course Big History #3: The Solar System & the Earth

Emily Graslie joins John and Hank Green to discuss the formation of our Sun, Solar System, and Earth - and how it's all slightly more interesting than leftover crumbs and clam chowder.

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