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The TRUTH of How Coronavirus Spreads and Coronavirus Prevention | Airborne Transmission


The TRUTH of How COVID Spreads and Prevention of COVID || Airborne Transmission

The TRUTH of How COVID Spreads and Prevention of COVID || Airborne Transmission

COVID Update: COVID Transmission Through Air (Airborne Transmission)
It’s becoming clearer and clearer now that COVID spreads not just through contact and respiratory droplets that fly through the air like ballistics. Still, it's being transmitted through the airborne route, meaning through aerosol, meaning the virus lingers in the air, and then someone inhales the virus. This is known as airborne transmission.

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COVID Update Today by Doctor Mike Hansen (YouTube Video Playlist)

Let’s face it, there is a reason why hospitals with designated COVID areas require everyone to wear an N95 respirator mask, as well as eye goggles. That’s because we know that this virus has the potential for airborne transmission. During normal breathing and speech, tiny particles are emitted mainly from the mouth. These particles can range in size, with the smallest being less than a micron (1 um) and the biggest being over 500 um in diameter.

To put some perspective on that, the average diameter of human hair is about 80 microns). Typically less than 5 um are considered small, and these small droplets can be suspended in the air. Droplets that are over 100 um are considered large, and between 5 and 100 microns is intermediate. But the reality is, it’s a range of sizes, it’s a continuum, from less than 1 um to over 500 um. And more and more particles are emitted when someone is breathing heavier, such as with exercise, or if someone is coughing or sneezing, or if someone is shouting or singing.

Due to gravitational forces, particles that are bigger than 5 microns tend to settle, meaning they fall down on surfaces such as the floor, and they fall fairly close to the source, typically within 6 feet. This is why the CDC recommends 6 feet for social distancing. But here’s the thing, sometimes these larger particles travel further than that, especially if someone is breathing heavy, shouting, singing, coughing, or sneezing. Typically they fly no further than 12 feet in these situations. But we’re also spraying particles smaller than 5 microns and tiny particles that don’t act like ballistics; they act more like a gas cloud, where they float in the air and travel up to 27 feet. The ones that are less than 1 um evaporate within milliseconds of hitting the air, while the particles that are more than 100 um can take up to a minute to evaporate.

What happens when the droplets less than 5 microns? What if they are spewed from someone who is infected with the virus, and all of a sudden, in midair, they evaporate? They dry out, and you’re left with a virus that is floating in the air. These are called droplet nuclei, aka aerosols. There are lots of factors that determine how long aerosols remain in the air. It depends on the person who emitted the particles, how they emitted them, and the environment's temperature and humidity. Lack of airflow means this cloud will persist longer. And when this moist cloud finally does dissipate, you’re still going to have droplet nuclei that stay airborne….for about 3 hours, based on that NIH study.

At this point, we might not have 100% conclusive evidence that proves airborne transmission, but there are now several studies that strongly suggest that to be the case. Now just because we know that this virus spreads through the airborne route, that’s not to say that it doesn’t spread through contact and respiratory droplets, meaning the bigger droplets that act like ballistics. It spreads by all 3 of these mechanisms.

So handwashing for covid is still important. As is not touching your face or mask with dirty hands. And maintaining 6 feet apart is a good thing, but it's not good enough for certain situations. Remember earlier how I said when someone sneezes, that moist cloud containing aerosols can travel up to 27 feet? And the virus can linger in the air for 3 hours. Some rooms have adequate ventilation that supplies clean outdoor air and minimizes recirculated air: the better the ventilation, the less likely aerosols spread. And even cracking open a window can make a huge difference, and having a fan blowing is good too. Other measures can help, like air purifiers with high-efficiency air filtration and germicidal UV lights.

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Scientists warn of airborne coronavirus spread

Scientists have been debating how the coronavirus spreads since the pandemic began. Those conversations have deepened recently as some experts argue that aerosols may play a bigger role in the virus' transmission than previously thought. CBS News chief medical correspondent Dr. Jon LaPook spoke with aerosol scientists Linsey Marr and Kim Prather about how the virus travels through the air and how to best protect yourself against it.

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COVID 10: Is COVID-19 an airborne disease? Will we all need to wear face-masks against SARS-CoV-2?

There seems to be a lot of confusion in the droplet versus aerosol discussion and how these relate to the spread of COVID-19. Is it airborne and inhaled or droplet based via fomites and hands? The uncomfortable truth is that we have evidence for both modes.

In this video we first define what a droplet and an aerosol is based on their behaviour in the environment. We then examine both through the findings from two published studies. We will also discuss how long viral particles survive and stay viable and able to infect after they fall on a surface or get suspended in the air.

For COVID-19, we agree that the various transmission routes may predominate in different settings. The airborne route is relevant for hospitals and hospital staff as well as crowded and badly ventilated public spaces. Everyone else is more likely to get the virus through touching surfaces, bad hand hygiene and then touching their face.

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Links for reference:

More updates by Dr. Wiesbauer:
COVID-19 Update 1: How to tell if a pandemic is likely to occur or not–R0 and the serial interval:
COVID-19 Update 2: How to stop an epidemic - Herd immunity:
COVID-19 Update 3: Symptoms of COVID-19:
COVID-19 Update 4: Clinical characteristics of COVID-19:
COVID-19 Update 5: Estimating case fatality rates for COVID-19:
COVID-19 Update 6: Seasonality: will COVID-19 go away in the summer?:
COVID-19 Update 7: This is probably the most important picture of the whole Coronavirus-epidemic:
COVID-19 Update 8: Zinc and chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19?:
COVID-19 Update 9: Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19–Review of study by Didier Raoult:
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New findings warn of higher risk in airborne coronavirus transmissions | COVID-19 Special

What does the latest research tell us about the spread of coronavirus? Do masks help prevent new infections?
A study by Berlin's Charite Hospital has found the risk of catching the coronavirus from contaminated surfaces is lower than thought. The bad news is the risk from droplets and aerosols is greater than previously thought. Aerosols are tiny particles, like fine dust. Virus particles can attach themselves to the aeorsols and spread infection. While larger droplets can't travel far because they fall to the ground, smaller aerosols are lighter and float in the air for several hours indoors, spreading all over. Scientists are now certain that these are the main infection route indoors. That means talking, singing, coughing or sneezing can spread the virus when inside.

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WHO officials are reviewing new evidence of airborne Covid-19 transmission

The World Health Organization said Tuesday it is reviewing new evidence on whether the coronavirus can spread through particles in the air. The WHO's remarks come after 239 scientists from 32 different countries published an open letter to the organization calling for them to update their information on the coronavirus. For more coronavirus live updates: For access to live and exclusive video from CNBC subscribe to CNBC PRO:

The World Health Organization said Tuesday that it is reviewing new evidence on whether the coronavirus can spread through particles in the air.

The WHO has long said the virus is generally transmitted through large respiratory droplets, often when someone sneezes or coughs. The United Nations health agency warned in March that such droplets could be kicked up into the air where they might become airborne and linger in certain environments.

“We have been talking about the possibility of airborne transmission, aerosol transmission, as one of the modes of transmission of Covid-19 as well as droplets,” said Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove, head of the WHO’s emerging diseases and zoonosis unit. “We will be issuing our brief in the coming weeks and that will outline everything that we have in this area.”

The WHO’s remarks come after 239 scientists from 32 different countries published an open letter to the organization calling for it to update its information on the coronavirus.

In an article entitled “It is Time to Address Airborne Transmission of COVID-19,” the group of scientists contend that the WHO needs to give more weight to the role of the airborne spread of Covid-19. The New York Times first reported the news Saturday.

“The body of evidence continues to grow and we adapt,” Dr. Soumya Swaminathan, the WHO’s chief scientist, said Tuesday. “We take this very seriously. We are of course focused on public health guidance.”

Some scientists have criticized the WHO for being slow to issue guidance on the latest research into the coronavirus, which emerged in Wuhan, China, a little over seven months ago. The WHO has defended its guidance, saying that it’s transparent about its review process and applies healthy skepticism to research that has not been peer-reviewed.

On some days, the WHO reviews up to 1,000 publications, officials said. A typical day might mean WHO researchers are combing through about 500 new studies on topics ranging from how the virus spreads to drugs to treat Covid-19.

The WHO’s previous warning about airborne transmission was meant specifically for health-care workers who might be exposed to the virus in “an aerosol-generating procedure” that sends the virus-carrying particles into the air. The agency in March stopped short of saying this should be a concern for the general public.

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End Screen
I don't think reopening the state is wise at all: Dr. Ted Ross

Is COVID Spread by Droplets or Is it Airborne?

Epidemiologists like Dr. Monica Gandhi maintain that the virus is spread through coughs and sneezes, while scientists maintain coronavirus is airborne and spreads through aerosols that travel like plumes of smoke. Environmental scientist Dr. Shelly Miller and Dr. Gandhi discuss the difference between the two and what we know about how COVID is actually spread.

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The Doctors is an Emmy award-winning daytime talk show hosted by Dr. Ian Smith. The Doctors helps you understand the latest health headlines, delivers exclusive interviews with celebrities dealing with health issues, debates and investigates health and safety claims, explains the latest viral videos and how you can avoid emergency situations, and serves up celebrity chefs to share the hottest and healthiest recipes and foods.

Scientists say coronavirus can be spread farther than 6 feet in tiny airborne particles

More than 200 scientists are asking the World Health Organization to update its guidance on how the coronavirus spreads in the air. They say fine particles may travel farther than six feet and fear current advice may not promote multiple layers of protection. Dr. Jon LaPook reports.

How Contagious is COVID-19? (Transmission, Spread, and R0)

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurs via droplet transmission, contact transmission, and aerosol transmission. Droplet transmission occurs when respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes are inhaled by a person nearby. Contact transmission occurs when a person touches a contaminated surface and then their mouth, nose, or eyes. Aerosol transmission occurs when respiratory droplets containing the virus mix into the air and then are inhaled. COVID-19 is stable for up to 24 hours on cardboard, 2-3 days on plastic and stainless steel and up to three hours in aerosols, which include fog, mist, dust, air pollutants, and smoke. Therefore, it is possible to get infected by touching contaminated objects or through the air.
The incubation period is the time between infection and symptom onset for an illness. Estimates for COVID-19’s incubation period vary from 2-14 days, but it is generally assumed to be around 5 days. There is more debate about the latent period, which is the time between infection and infectiousness. It is now thought that people can be infectious before showing symptoms, and so the latent period is shorter than the incubation period.
An imported case occurs when a traveler is infected in one area and is reported as sick in another area. Local transmission occurs if that traveler infects others, or if there is a cluster of cases locally and the spread is easily traced. Community transmission occurs when there is no clear source of infection.
Infectivity can be measured using R0. R0 is important epidemiology jargon, short for reproduction number. It is the number of cases, on average, that an infected person will cause during their infectious period. So if R0 =2, then an infected person will infect an average of 2 other people while they are infectious. There are two important variants of the R0. The basic reproduction number represents the maximum potential of a pathogen to infect people – basically what would happen if an infectious person entered a community with no prior immunity. The effective reproductive number describes the current vulnerability of a population based on whether people have immunity thanks to vaccination or prior exposure. The effective R0 decreases over the course of the outbreak. Note that both basic and effective reproduction number depend on factors such as environment and demographics in addition to the pathogen’s infectiousness. The goal of public health interventions is to bring R0 down to less than 1, as this would cause the disease to die out over time.
The seasonal flu has an R0 ranging from 0.9 – 2.1. There is a lot of debate about the R0 of COVID-19, with estimates from more recent data ranging from 2.7-4.2. The variance in these estimates is largely due to differing model assumptions and a lack of data. For example, models which assume the possibility of being infectious before symptom onset have estimates that are around 0.5 higher.
These high R0 estimates mean there is much greater potential for spread of COVID-19 than for the flu. How much greater? For the purpose of this example, let’s say that the flu has an R0 of 1.5 and COVID-19 has an R0 of 3. After three cycles of infection, 11 people have had the flu, and 40 people have been infected with COVID-19. After ten cycles of infection, this becomes 171 people with the flu, and over 88,000 people with COVID-19.

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Is Coronavirus COVID-19 Airborne?

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Scientists suggest coronavirus is airborne, ask WHO to change recommendations

The World Health Organization has said the coronavirus spreads primarily from person to person through small droplets expelled when a person with COVID-19 coughs, sneezes or speaks. Now, hundreds of scientists are saying there is evidence that the virus is airborne and are calling for the WHO to revise its recommendations.
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Infrared video shows the risks of airborne coronavirus spread

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As winter approaches, the United States is grappling with a jaw-dropping surge in the number of novel coronavirus infections. More than 288,000 Americans have been killed by a virus that public health officials now say can be spread through airborne transmission. The virus spreads most commonly through close contact, scientists say. But under certain conditions, people farther than six feet apart can become infected by exposure to tiny droplets and particles exhaled by an infected person, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said in October. Those droplets and particles can linger in the air for minutes to hours.

To visually illustrate the risk of airborne transmission in real time, The Washington Post used a military-grade infrared camera capable of detecting exhaled breath. Numerous experts — epidemiologists, virologists and engineers — supported the notion of using exhalation as a conservative proxy to show potential transmission risk in various settings. The highly sensitive camera system detects variations in infrared radiation that are not visible to the naked eye. The technology is more typically used in military and industrial settings, such as detecting methane gas leaks in pipelines. In 2013, it was deployed by law enforcement during the 20-hour manhunt for the Boston Marathon bombers. But fitted with a filter that specifically targets the infrared signature of carbon dioxide, the camera can be used to map in real time the partial path of the nearly invisible particles we exhale. Watch the video to learn more.

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Facts Over Fear: CDC Walks Back Guidance On Airborne Covid-19 Spread | NBC News NOW

The CDC walked back information posted on its website stating the coronavirus can spread through aerosolized droplets, causing confusion among medical experts and the public. NBC News’ Dr. John Torres reports on the information and what the public should know about the coronavirus spread.
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Facts Over Fear: CDC Walks Back Guidance On Airborne Covid-19 Spread | NBC News NOW

COVID-19 can spread by airborne transmission, CDC says

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said COVID-19 can spread through virus lingering in the air, sometimes for hours, acknowledging concerns widely voiced by experts about airborne transmission of the virus.


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CDC changes guidance on COVID-19, says airborne transmission is possible

The CDC has again updated its COVID-19 transmission guidance, saying the virus can travel farther than six feet though airborne transmission. At the FDA, career scientists are reportedly being overruled by the White House in their efforts to enact tougher standards on authorizing a COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use. David Begnaud reports.

The TRUTH Of How Coronavirus Spreads | Airborne COVID-19 Transmission

The TRUTH of How Coronavirus Spreads | Airborne COVID-19 Transmission

In this video we are going discuss about the airborne transmission of COVID-19 that is COVID-19 really in the air? What are the high risk places that we need to avoid if corona is really a airborne, what kind of mask, respirators do we need. What is the meaning of airborne transmission of COVID-19? What is the difference between a droplet and air borne transmission. The question about Why World health organization (WHO) officials are reviewing new evidence of airborne Covid-19 transmission and Can COVID-19 really last on surfaces formites and in the air? Is COVID-19 really a airborne disease? Will we all need to wear N-95 face-masks against SARS-CoV-2, these are the questions that we are going to discuss in this video.

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Transmission of COVID-19

Learn about the method of transmission of COVID-19 coronavirus and the difference between droplets and aerosols.
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Coronavirus, 239 Scientists agree on Aerosolization transmission

It is Time to Address Airborne Transmission of COVID-19 (Clinical Infectious Disease, 6 July)

239 scientists support this Commentary

Potential for airborne spread of COVID-19

Significant potential for inhalation exposure

Microscopic respiratory droplets (microdroplets)

Viruses are released during exhalation, talking, and coughing in microdroplets

Small enough to remain aloft in air

5 μm droplet will travel tens of meters

Transmission via airborne microdroplets is an important pathway

Hand washing and social distancing are appropriate, but insufficient

Viruses have been shown to survive equally well, if not better, in aerosols compared to droplets on a surface

Several superspreading events

We must address every potentially important pathway to slow the spread of COVID-19

Measures that should be taken

Provide sufficient and effective ventilation (supply clean outdoor air, minimize recirculating air) particularly in public buildings, workplace environments, schools, hospitals, and aged care homes.

Supplement general ventilation with airborne infection controls such as local exhaust, high efficiency air filtration, and germicidal ultraviolet lights.

Avoid overcrowding, particularly in public transport and public buildings.

WHO response

Transmission through smaller droplet nuclei (airborne transmission) that propagate through air at distances longer than 1 meter is limited to aerosol generating procedures during clinical care of COVID-19 patients.

In all other contexts, available evidence indicates that COVID-19 virus is transmitted during close contact through respiratory droplets (such as coughing) and by fomites.

WHO continues to recommend

Everyone performs hand hygiene frequently

Follows respiratory etiquette

Regularly clean and disinfect surfaces

Maintaining physical distances

Avoiding people with fever or respiratory symptoms

These preventive measures will limit viral transmission

WHO, However

We are also looking at the possible role of airborne transmission in other settings

We will be releasing our brief in the coming days

We acknowledge there is emerging evidence in this field

Therefore, we believe we have to be open to this evidence and its implications

Determining the dose of the virus required for airborne transmission

These fields of research are really growing but not definitive

The possibility of airborne transmission in public settings — especially closed, poorly ventilated settings — cannot be ruled out

Importance of removal of the virus-laden droplets from indoor air by ventilation

Aerosols: Key to control the coronavirus spread? | COVID-19 Special

Aerosols are tiny particles that can carry the coronavirus. They float on air currents and it can take them hours to settle.
The mouth of a coronavirus carrier, be it by coughing, exhaling, speaking or singing sends forth a shower of larger droplets and tiny aerosols.
To be able to imagine aerosols, experts say to think of cigarette smoke, spreading around a person like a cloud, the closer the smoker, the denser the cloud. So how can you protect yourself?

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Coronavirus: New Facts about Infection Mechanisms - NHK Documentary

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In the fight against the coronavirus pandemic, a new research reveals how tiny droplets carrying the virus can remain in the air for some time.

CDC abruptly removes new guidance on coronavirus airborne transmission

The Centers for Disease Control updated a document Friday without fanfare that states the agency's position on how the coronavirus spreads, then removed the new guidance Monday saying it was posted in error. The document said person-to-person and coughing/sneezing/breathing are the primary ways the virus is transmitted through droplets, but the agency then said there is growing evidence that airborne droplets after a sneeze or cough -- droplets that linger in the air -- are of concern.



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