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The Whole History of the Earth and Life 【Finished Edition】

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The Whole History of the Earth and Life 【Finished Edition】

Revised edition :
This is a documentary which portrays the birth of the solar system, the birth of the Earth, and the emergence and evolution of life on Earth depicted through latest research activities.
Executive producer: prof. Shigenori Maruyama. Supported by Hadean Bioscience Project.
1. The Origin of the Earth. 00:00
 4.567 billion years ago : The formation of the Solar System.
 4.56 billion years:ago : The formation of the Earth.
 4.55 billion years ago : Giant impact.
2. Initiation of Plate Tectonics. 02:53
 4.37-4.20 billion years ago : The formation of the atmosphere and ocean.
 4.37-4.20 billion years ago : The initiation plate tectonics.
3. Birth of Proto-life. 06:57
 4.10(4.20?) billion years ago : The birth of first proto-life.
4. The Initial Stage of Life. 10:53
 4.37-4.20 billion years ago : The loss of the primordial continent and the generation of a strong geomagnetic field.
 4.20 billion years ago : The emergence of sun-powered life.
 4.10 billion tears ago : Mass extinction.
5. Second Stage of Evolution of Life. 16:36
 2.90 billion years ago : The emergence of photosynthetic life.
 2.70 billion years ago : Mantle overturn.
6. Third Stage of the Evolution of Life. 20:35
 2.30 billion years ago : Mass extinction by snowball Earth.
 2.10 billion years ago : From prokaryotes to eukaryotes.
7: The Dawn of the Cambrian Explosion. 25:07
 1.90-0.80 billion tears ago : The Formation of a Supercontinent.
 700-600 million years ago : The Sturtian Glaciation
 700-600 million years ago : The Leaking Earth.
8: The Cambrian Explosion. 30:57
 640 million years ago : The Origin of Multicellular Life. The Marinoan Glaciation.
 580 million years ago : Appearance of Ediacaran Fauna. The Gaskiers Glaciation.
 550 million years ago : Evolution Responds to Environmental Changes
 540 million years ago : The First Cambrian Organisms
9: The Paleozoic Era. 37:06
 600 million years ago : Expanding Habitats.
 540 million years ago : The Co-evolution of Planets and Insects
 550-540 million years ago : The Evolution of Vertebrates
 260-250 million years ago : The Largest Mass extinction of the Phanerozoic Eon. Collision with a Dark nebula
10: From the Mesozoic to the birth of human beings. 43:23
 Dispersion and amalgamation of continents, and the evolution of life.
 The birth of primates.
11: The Humanozoic eon : the appearance of human beings and civilization. 50:26
 Evolution into primates.
 The birth of human beings, the fourth animal category : the Humanozoic eon.
 10000 years ago : The Agricultural Revolution.
 5000 years ago : The Urban Revolution.
 2400 years ago : The Religious Revolution.
 300 years ago : The Industrial Revolution.
 The Information Revolution.
12: Future of the Earth. 57:54
 Challenges for Human society.
 Future of Human society.
 Future of the Earth.
 200 million years later : Formation of the supercontinent.
 400 million years later : Extinction of the C4 plants.
 1 billion years later : Cessation of plate tectonics.
 1.5 billion years later : Disappearance of the ocean.
 4.5 billion years later : Collision between the Milky Way Galaxy and the Andromeda Galaxy.
 8 billion years later : Annihilation of the Earth.
@Kaoru GreenEmerald
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The Whole History of the Earth and Life 【Enlarged Edition】

Latest Edition :
This is a documentary which portrays the birth of the solar system, the birth of the Earth, and the emergence and evolution of life on Earth depicted through latest research activities.
Executive producer: prof. Shigenori Maruyama. Supported by Hadean Bioscience Project.
1. The Origin of the Earth. 00:00
 4.567 billion years ago : The formation of the Solar System.
 4.56 billion years:ago : The formation of the Earth.
 4.55 billion years ago : Giant impact.
2. Initiation of Plate Tectonics. 02:53
 4.37-4.20 billion years ago : The formation of the atmosphere and ocean.
 4.37-4.20 billion years ago : The initiation plate tectonics.
3. Birth of Proto-life. 06:56
 4.10(4.20?) billion years ago : The birth of first proto-life.
4. The Initial Stage of Life. 10:53
 4.37-4.20 billion years ago : The loss of the primordial continent and the generation of a strong geomagnetic field.
 4.20 billion years ago : The emergence of sun-powered life.
 4.10 billion tears ago : Mass extinction.
5. Second Stage of Evolution of Life. 16:36
 2.90 billion years ago : The emergence of photosynthetic life.
 2.70 billion years ago : Mantle overturn.
6. Third Stage of the Evolution of Life. 20:34
 2.30 billion years ago : Mass extinction by snowball Earth.
 2.10 billion years ago : From prokaryotes to eukaryotes.
7: The Dawn of the Cambrian Explosion. 25:07
 1.90-0.80 billion tears ago : The Formation of a Supercontinent.
 700-600 million years ago : The Sturtian Glaciation
 700-600 million years ago : The Leaking Earth.
8: The Cambrian Explosion. 30:57
 640 million years ago : The Origin of Multicellular Life. The Marinoan Glaciation.
 580 million years ago : Appearance of Ediacaran Fauna. The Gaskiers Glaciation.
 550 million years ago : Evolution Responds to Environmental Changes
 540 million years ago : The First Cambrian Organisms
9: The Paleozoic Era. 37:06
 600 million years ago : Expanding Habitats.
 540 million years ago : The Co-evolution of Planets and Insects
 550-540 million years ago : The Evolution of Vertebrates
 260-250 million years ago : The Largest Mass extinction of the Phanerozoic Eon. Collision with a Dark nebula
@Kaoru GreenEmerald
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Origin of Life - How Life Started on Earth

Four and a half billion years ago, the young Earth was a hellish place—a seething chaos of meteorite impacts, volcanoes belching noxious gases, and lightning flashing through a thin, torrid atmosphere. Then, in a process that has puzzled scientists for decades, life emerged. But how? Mineralogist Robert Hazen as he journeys around the globe. From an ancient Moroccan market to the Australian Outback, he advances a startling and counterintuitive idea—that the rocks beneath our feet were not only essential to jump-starting life, but that microbial life helped give birth to hundreds of minerals we know and depend on today. It's a theory of the co-evolution of Earth and life that is reshaping the grand-narrative of our planet’s story.

New evidence emerges on the origins of life


7 Theories on the Origin of Life


The Origin of Life on Earth: Theories and Explanations


Michio Kaku and Sadhguru on the Future Technologies by the year 2100
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The History of Earth - How Our Planet Formed - Full Documentary HD

In the very beginning of earth's history, this planet was a giant, red hot, roiling, boiling sea of molten rock - a magma ocean. The heat had been generated by the repeated high speed collisions of much smaller bodies of space rocks that continually clumped together as they collided to form this planet. As the collisions tapered off the earth began to cool, forming a thin crust on its surface. As the cooling continued, water vapor began to escape and condense in the earth's early atmosphere. Clouds formed and storms raged, raining more and more water down on the primitive earth, cooling the surface further until it was flooded with water, forming the seas.

It is theorized that the true age of the earth is about 4.6 billion years old, formed at about the same time as the rest of our solar system. The oldest rocks geologists have been able to find are 3.9 billion years old. Using radiometric dating methods to determine the age of rocks means scientists have to rely on when the rock was initially formed (as in - when its internal minerals first cooled). In the infancy of our home planet the entire earth was molten rock - a magma ocean.

Since we can only measure as far back in time as we had solid rock on this planet, we are limited in how we can measure the real age of the earth. Due to the forces of plate tectonics, our planet is also a very dynamic one; new mountains forming, old ones wearing down, volcanoes melting and reshaping new crust. The continual changing and reshaping of the earth's surface that involves the melting down and reconstructing of old rock has pretty much eliminated most of the original rocks that came with earth when it was newly formed. So the age is a theoretical age.

When Did Life on Earth Begin?

Scientists are still trying to unravel one of the greatest mysteries of earth: When did life first appear and how did it happen? It is estimated that the first life forms on earth were primitive, one-celled creatures that appeared about 3 billion years ago. That's pretty much all there was for about the next two billion years. Then suddenly those single celled organisms began to evolve into multicellular organisms. Then an unprecedented profusion of life in incredibly complex forms began to fill the oceans. Some crawled from the seas and took residence on land, perhaps to escape predators in the ocean. A cascading chain of new and increasingly differentiated forms of life appeared all over the planet, only to be virtually annihilated by an unexplained mass extinction. It would be the first of several mass extinctions in Earth's history.

Scientists have been looking increasingly to space to explain these mass extinctions that have been happening almost like clockwork since the beginning of living time. Perhaps we've been getting periodically belted by more space rocks (ie. asteroids), or the collision of neutron stars happening too close for comfort? Each time a mass extinction occurred, life found a way to come back from the brink. Life has tenaciously clung to this small blue planet for the last three billion years. Scientists are finding new cues as to how life first began on earth in some really interesting places - the deep ocean.
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History Of Earth In 9 Minutes

The history of Earth covers approximately 4.54 billion years, from Earth's formation out of the solar nebula to the present. And we have compressed billions of years of our history into 9 minutes.

If you like this video, put Thumb Up button please and
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The Whole History of the Earth and Life  Part1:The Origin of the Earth

“The Whole History of the Earth and Life” is a documentary which portrays the birth of the solar system, the birth of the Earth, and the emergence and evolution of life on Earth depicted through our latest research activities.
--------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 1: The Origin of the Earth
4.567 billion years ago, the Solar System was born. By 4.560 billion years ago, primitive Earth was formed, with subsequent creation of the Moon nearing 4.550 billion years ago. At the time of its formation, the Hadean primitive Earth was a dry naked planet, lacking both an atmosphere and ocean, and it was covered by an anorthositic primordial continent.

Supported by
Hadean Bioscience Project
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas
by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
ELSI


Exective producer: Shigenori Maruyama

Production: LiVE


Supervising director: Shigenori Maruyama
Producer: Ken Kurokawa
Director: Hiromitsu Kohsaka

Script Editor and Narrator: Jeff Gedert

The Whole History of the Earth and Life  Part4:The Initial Stage of Life

“The Whole History of the Earth and Life” is a documentary which portrays the birth of the solar system, the birth of the Earth, and the emergence and evolution of life on Earth depicted through our latest research activities.
--------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 4: The Initial Stage of Life
The first proto-life, born in a natural nuclear geyser, was periodically splashed onto the Hadean surface environment, where they evolved into the second stage of proto-life which utilized solar energy to survive. However, they perished once exposed to the toxic ocean. Finally, after repeated mass extinctions, the third stage of proto-life emerged: the first prokaryote and ancestor of animals and plants which could survive the external environment such as toxic ocean.

Supported by
Hadean Bioscience Project
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas
by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
ELSI


Exective producer: Shigenori Maruyama

Production: LiVE


Supervising director: Shigenori Maruyama
Producer: Ken Kurokawa
Director: Hiromitsu Kohsaka

Script Editor and Narrator: Jeff Gedert

The Whole History of the Earth and Life  Part7: The Dawn of the Cambrian Explosion

“The Whole History of the Earth and Life” is a documentary which portrays the birth of the solar system, the birth of the Earth, and the emergence and evolution of life on Earth depicted through our latest research activities.
--------------------------------------------------------------
Chapter 7: The Dawn of the Cambrian Explosion
Free oxygen produced by cyanobacteria gradually accumulated in the atmosphere. When the soil covered the dead cyanobacteria, more oxygen accumulated and atmospheric oxygen dramatically increased. “The Leaking Earth phenomenon that started about 700 million years ago further expanded both the land, and free oxygen in the atmosphere, resulting in the expansion of the habitat of life that led to explosive biological evolution.


Supported by
Hadean Bioscience Project
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas
by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
ELSI


Exective producer: Shigenori Maruyama

Production: LiVE


Supervising director: Shigenori Maruyama
Producer: Ken Kurokawa
Director: Hiromitsu Kohsaka

Script Editor and Narrator: Jeff Gedert

The Whole History of the Earth and Life  Part 12: Future of the Earth

“The Whole History of the Earth and Life” is a documentary which portrays the birth of the solar system, the birth of the Earth, and the emergence and evolution of life on Earth depicted through our latest research activities.
--------------------------------------------------------------
Chapter 12: Future of the Earth
Humans will eventually create self-replicating robots and go out into space.
As a result of the fact that the Earth has been cooling since its birth, the depletion of surface ocean water will stop plate tectonics and turn it into a Venus-like planet.
Then, about 8 billion years later, the Earth will be swallowed by the expanding Sun.
However, by that time, Earth’s life has already changed and will have reached other galaxies as self-replicating artificial life.


Supported by
Hadean Bioscience Project
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas
by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
ELSI


Exective producer: Shigenori Maruyama

Production: LiVE


Supervising director: Shigenori Maruyama
Producer: Ken Kurokawa
Director: Hiromitsu Kohsaka

Narrator: Jeff Gedert

The Whole History of the Earth and Life  Part 10: From the Mesozoic to the birth of human beings

“The Whole History of the Earth and Life” is a documentary which portrays the birth of the solar system, the birth of the Earth, and the emergence and evolution of life on Earth depicted through our latest research activities.
--------------------------------------------------------------
Chapter 10: From the Mesozoic to the birth of human beings
The Mesozoic is the period when dinosaurs reigned at the top of the ecosystem.
Stem evolution caused the emergence of new species where the continent split apart, while Crown evolution has led to species diversification through the amalgamation of continents.
While dinosaurs spread throughout the world via this process, mammals were also born 250 million years ago, and flourished after dinosaurs went extinct.
And primates, leading to the appearance of human beings, were born about 100 million years ago.


Supported by
Hadean Bioscience Project
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas
by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
ELSI


Exective producer: Shigenori Maruyama

Production: LiVE


Supervising director: Shigenori Maruyama
Producer: Ken Kurokawa
Director: Hiromitsu Kohsaka

Narrator: Jeff Gedert
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The Whole History of the Earth and Life 【First Edition】

Latest Edition :
This is a documentary which portrays the birth of the solar system, the birth of the Earth, and the emergence and evolution of life on Earth depicted through latest research activities. Executive producer: prof. Shigenori Maruyama. Supported by Hadean Bioscience Project.
1. The Origin of the Earth.
 4.567 billion years ago : The formation of the Solar System.
 4.56 billion years:ago : The formation of the Earth.
 4.55 billion years ago : Giant impact.
2. Initiation of Plate Tectonics.
 4.37-4.20 billion years ago : The formation of the atmosphere and ocean.
 4.37-4.20 billion years ago : The initiation plate tectonics.
3. Birth of Proto-life.
 4.10(4.20?) billion years ago : The birth of first proto-life.
4. The Initial Stage of Life.
 4.37-4.20 billion years ago : The loss of the primordial continent and the generation of a strong geomagnetic field.
 4.20 billion years ago : The emergence of sun-powered life.
 4.10 billion tears ago : Mass extinction.
5. Second Stage of Evolution of Life.
 2.90 billion years ago : The emergence of photosynthetic life.
 2.70 billion years ago : Mantle overturn.
6. Third Stage of the Evolution of Life.
 2.30 billion years ago : Mass extinction by snowball Earth.
 2.10 billion years ago : From prokaryotes to eukaryotes.
@Kaoru GreenEmerald

Naked Science - Birth of the Earth

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Every other Wednesday we present a new video, so join us to see the truth laid bare...

How did the Earth evolve to support life.

Our planet now supports a huge diversity of living creatures requiring very special conditions, but what was the series of events that brought this unique set of conditions together? What did it take to make a world that would support human life? Naked Science takes an imaginary ‘human’ time traveller on a journey back to the moment of formation of our solar system. We meet the scientists who are carrying out their own detective work, uncovering the clues around the world today into what our planet was like 4 and a half billion years ago.

Our journey begins with the astonishing story of how a giant cloud of interstellar dust and gas collapsed to form the sun and planets. We discover that the intense heat of the early Earth created a molten iron core. This generated a magnetic shield around our planet that protects us, to this day, from the sun’s deadliest particles.

Many of the features we take for granted on our living planet were forged in the most violent event in our planet’s history. Early in its life, the Earth collided with another planet. Planetary Scientist Robin Canup has modelled the impact using supercomputers. She reveals that the resulting fireball was so energetic it melted the Earth and created the moon. This dramatic impact gave us our tides and seasons.

We wouldn’t have life today without water. But where our water came from is a mystery that has long puzzled scientists. At a NASA research laboratory, Michael Zolensky studies a recently discovered meteorite that supports the view that water came from space.

For the first half of its history the Earth had an atmosphere of methane and carbon dioxide we would find impossible to breathe. One clue as to how the earth acquired its oxygen can be found in Australia. Shark Bay in Western Australia is home to strange bacterial mounds called stromatolites. The bacteria in these objects are pumping out oxygen. A few hundred miles away geologist Martin Van Kranendonk shows us a fossil stromatolite, the world’s oldest fossil. The evidence suggests that these strange objects are responsible for creating the air we breathe.

The Whole History of the Earth and Life  Part2:Initiation of Plate Tectonics(2nd edition)

“The Whole History of the Earth and Life” is a documentary which portrays the birth of the solar system, the birth of the Earth, and the emergence and evolution of life on Earth depicted through our latest research activities.
--------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 2: Initiation of Plate Tectonics (2nd edition)
During 4.37-4.20 billion years ago, abundant icy planetesimals bombarded the primitive dry Earth, which caused it to be enveloped by an atmosphere and an ocean. After the appearance of ocean, plate tectonics started, but the ocean was too saline, acidic, and enriched in heavy metals. Life could not emerge in such a toxic ocean.

(March 26th 2020, Partially revised based on the latest research)

Supported by
Hadean Bioscience Project
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas
by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
ELSI


Exective producer: Shigenori Maruyama

Production: LiVE


Supervising director: Shigenori Maruyama
Producer: Ken Kurokawa
Director: Hiromitsu Kohsaka

Narrator: Ryan Drees

The Whole History of the Earth and Life  Part 9: The Paleozoic Era

“The Whole History of the Earth and Life” is a documentary which portrays the birth of the solar system, the birth of the Earth, and the emergence and evolution of life on Earth depicted through our latest research activities.
--------------------------------------------------------------
Chapter 9: The Paleozoic Era
In the early Paleozoic era, the salt concentration in the ocean had decreased to about twice the current level, and the habitat of organisms spread into the ocean. After vertebrates were born, they evolved over time from fish into amphibians, reptiles, and then dinosaurs and mammals. And, the co-evolution of plants and insects also progressed on land. At the end of the Paleozoic era, Paleozoic animals became extinct because of the collision between the dark nebula and the solar system.


Supported by
Hadean Bioscience Project
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas
by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
ELSI


Exective producer: Shigenori Maruyama

Production: LiVE


Supervising director: Shigenori Maruyama
Producer: Ken Kurokawa
Director: Hiromitsu Kohsaka

Script Editor and Narrator: Jeff Gedert

History of the Earth

The history of the Earth from its formation to present day, covering major events throughout its 4-billion-year history. Estimates of average temperature, atmospheric composition, and day length are given. The reconstruction is based off of the companion video ( with changes to the coastline.

Forgot to add this event, but the little boom is in the video.:
(Impacts 2023Ma) Vredefort impact - This impact is the largest confirmed crater on Earth at 300 km wide. It is found in South Africa.

Music from
“Division”, “Ever Mindful”, “Soaring”, “Revival”, “Ossuary 6”, Impact Intermezzo by Kevin MacLeod (
License: CC BY (
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The Whole History of the Earth and Life  Part6:Third Stage of the Evolution of Life

“The Whole History of the Earth and Life” is a documentary which portrays the birth of the solar system, the birth of the Earth, and the emergence and evolution of life on Earth depicted through our latest research activities.
--------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 6: Third Stage of the Evolution of Life
2.3 billion years ago, the Milky Way Galaxy collided with a dwarf galaxy resulting in a supernova explosion that produced abundant cosmic rays. Due to the degeneration of the heliosphere, cosmic rays struck the Earth, promoting the formation of clouds which eventually enveloped the Earth Due to the thick cloud envelope, the Earth experienced global glaciation, called the Snowball Earth, which caused global mass extinction. However, some Prokaryotes survived the Snowball Earth to evolve into larger life as an endosymbiotic system. At last, eukaryotes appeared.

Supported by
Hadean Bioscience Project
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas
by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
ELSI


Exective producer: Shigenori Maruyama

Production: LiVE


Supervising director: Shigenori Maruyama
Producer: Ken Kurokawa
Director: Hiromitsu Kohsaka

Script Editor and Narrator: Jeff Gedert

The Origin of the Universe, Earth and Life★ Formation of Planets in Solar System Documentary

In the late 1920s the American astronomer Edwin Hubble made a very interesting and important discovery. Hubble made observations that he interpreted as showing that distant stars and galaxies are receding from Earth in every direction. Moreover, the velocities of recession increase in proportion with distance, a discovery that has been confirmed by numerous and repeated measurements since Hubble's time. The implication of these findings is that the universe is expanding.

Hubble's hypothesis of an expanding universe leads to certain deductions. One is that the universe was more condensed at a previous time. From this deduction came the suggestion that all the currently observed matter and energy in the universe were initially condensed in a very small and infinitely hot mass. A huge explosion, known as the Big Bang, then sent matter and energy expanding in all directions.

The Whole History of the Earth and Life  Part8: The Cambrian Explosion

“The Whole History of the Earth and Life” is a documentary which portrays the birth of the solar system, the birth of the Earth, and the emergence and evolution of life on Earth depicted through our latest research activities.
--------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 8: The Cambrian Explosion
In order to survive the repetitive periods of extreme cold and extreme heat, life evolved into a symbiotic body of multiple lifeforms, and the Ediacaran and Cambrian fauna and flora emerged. In the evolution of these organisms, the Stem evolution occurred along the continental breakup area, which encouraged the creation of a new species. Meanwhile, in the continental collision zone, the Crown evolution progressed, resulting in the explosive diversification of species.


Supported by
Hadean Bioscience Project
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas
by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
ELSI


Exective producer: Shigenori Maruyama

Production: LiVE


Supervising director: Shigenori Maruyama
Producer: Ken Kurokawa
Director: Hiromitsu Kohsaka

Script Editor and Narrator: Jeff Gedert

Evolution of Earth Timeline : From the Birth of Earth and Beyond

This video is about the evolution of earth timeline.

Ever wondered what happened to Planet Earth between the Big Bang and the Modern Human (Homo sapiens)? What about what will happen after we are long gone? What timelines of events have occurred over the evolution of Planet Earth as we know it?

Humans are good at a lot of things, but putting time in perspective is not one of them. It’s not our fault - the periods in the evolution of Earth, and even more so in natural history, are so vast compared to the span of our life and recent history that it’s almost impossible to get a handle on it.

If the Earth formed at midnight and the present moment is the next midnight, 24 hours later, modern humans have been around since 11:59:59pm—1 second. And if human history itself spans 24 hours from one midnight to the next, 14 minutes represents the time since Christ. How's that for perspective?

Over thousands and thousands of years, the Earth has been through many eons of growth and evolution of species that lived through those times. Life on the Earth spans for millions and millions of years and continues today (obviously). From the Precambrian age to the Mesozoic to the present day. Can you believe we started from simple organisms to the complex creatures we are today?

Our planet has existed for 4.5 billion years, and it has been a busy few eons. Here are the 55 milestones in the evolution of Earth. From leaps forward in evolution to devastating asteroid impacts, these were the turning points that shaped our world.

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The Whole History of the Earth and Life  Part2:Initiation of Plate Tectonics

“The Whole History of the Earth and Life” is a documentary which portrays the birth of the solar system, the birth of the Earth, and the emergence and evolution of life on Earth depicted through our latest research activities.
--------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 2: Initiation of Plate Tectonics
During 4.37-4.20 billion years ago, abundant icy planetesimals bombarded the primitive dry Earth, which caused it to be enveloped by an atmosphere and an ocean. After the appearance of ocean, plate tectonics started, but the ocean was too saline, acidic, and enriched in heavy metals. Life could not emerge in such a toxic ocean.

Supported by
Hadean Bioscience Project
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas
by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
ELSI


Exective producer: Shigenori Maruyama

Production: LiVE


Supervising director: Shigenori Maruyama
Producer: Ken Kurokawa
Director: Hiromitsu Kohsaka

Script Editor and Narrator: Jeff Gedert

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