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Time Dilation - Einstein's Theory Of Relativity Explained!

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Time Dilation - Einstein's Theory Of Relativity Explained!

Time dilation and Einstein’s theory of relativity go hand in hand. Albert Einstein is the most popular physicist, as he formulated the theory of relativity, which gave the Energy mass equivalence formula and is directly related to time dilation. But what is time dilation? Time dilation and space time are interrelated. Einstein made one of the most important contributions to physics and had the concept of space time explained. A simple explanation of space time is that it is a mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum. But it is very important to understand that the general theory of relativity and the special theory of relativity are different. In this short animated video, we give a simple explanation of time dilation and Einstein’s theory of relativity and also explain how time slows down in a moving vehicle!

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Einstein's Theory Of Relativity Made Easy

... Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity (Chapter 1): Introduction.

The theory of relativity, or simply relativity, encompasses two theories of Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity. However, the word relativity is sometimes used in reference to Galilean invariance.

The term theory of relativity was coined by Max Planck in 1908 to emphasize how special relativity (and later, general relativity) uses the principle of relativity.

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SPECIAL RELATIVITY

Special relativity is a theory of the structure of spacetime. It was introduced in Albert Einstein's 1905 paper On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies (for the contributions of many other physicists see History of special relativity). Special relativity is based on two postulates which are contradictory in classical mechanics:

1. The laws of physics are the same for all observers in uniform motion relative to one another (principle of relativity),
2. The speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observers, regardless of their relative motion or of the motion of the source of the light.

The resultant theory agrees with experiment better than classical mechanics, e.g. in the Michelson-Morley experiment that supports postulate 2, but also has many surprising consequences. Some of these are:

• Relativity of simultaneity: Two events, simultaneous for one observer, may not be simultaneous for another observer if the observers are in relative motion.
• Time dilation: Moving clocks are measured to tick more slowly than an observer's stationary clock.
• Length contraction: Objects are measured to be shortened in the direction that they are moving with respect to the observer.
• Mass-energy equivalence: E = mc2, energy and mass are equivalent and transmutable.
• Maximum speed is finite: No physical object or message or field line can travel faster than light.

The defining feature of special relativity is the replacement of the Galilean transformations of classical mechanics by the Lorentz transformations. (See Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism and introduction to special relativity).

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GENERAL RELATIVITY

General relativity is a theory of gravitation developed by Einstein in the years 1907--1915. The development of general relativity began with the equivalence principle, under which the states of accelerated motion and being at rest in a gravitational field (for example when standing on the surface of the Earth) are physically identical. The upshot of this is that free fall is inertial motion; an object in free fall is falling because that is how objects move when there is no force being exerted on them, instead of this being due to the force of gravity as is the case in classical mechanics.

This is incompatible with classical mechanics and special relativity because in those theories inertially moving objects cannot accelerate with respect to each other, but objects in free fall do so. To resolve this difficulty Einstein first proposed that spacetime is curved. In 1915, he devised the Einstein field equations which relate the curvature of spacetime with the mass, energy, and momentum within it.

Some of the consequences of general relativity are:

• Time goes slower in higher gravitational fields. This is called gravitational time dilation.
• Orbits precess in a way unexpected in Newton's theory of gravity. (This has been observed in the orbit of Mercury and in binary pulsars).
• Rays of light bend in the presence of a gravitational field.
• Frame-dragging, in which a rotating mass drags along the space time around it.
• The Universe is expanding, and the far parts of it are moving away from us faster than the speed of light.

Technically, general relativity is a metric theory of gravitation whose defining feature is its use of the Einstein field equations. The solutions of the field equations are metric tensors which define the topology of the spacetime and how objects move inertially.



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Time Dilation | Einstein's Relativity

... Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity (Chapter 2): The Phenomenon of Time Dilation.

Time dilation is a phenomenon (or two phenomena, as mentioned below) described by the theory of relativity. It can be illustrated by supposing that two observers are in motion relative to each other, and/or differently situated with regard to nearby gravitational masses. They each carry a clock of identical construction and function. Then, the point of view of each observer will generally be that the other observer's clock is in error (has changed its rate). Both causes (distance to gravitational mass and relative speed) can operate together.

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Time dilation can arise from (1) relative velocity of motion between the observers, and (2) difference in their distance from gravitational mass.

(1) that the observers are in relative uniform motion, and far away from any gravitational mass, the point of view of each will be that the other's (moving) clock is ticking at a slower rate than the local clock. The faster the relative velocity, the greater the magnitude of time dilation. This case is sometimes called special relativistic time dilation. It is often interpreted as time slowing down for the other (moving) clock.

But that is only true from the physical point of view of the local observer, and of others at relative rest (i.e. in the local observer's frame of reference). The point of view of the other observer will be that again the local clock (this time the other clock) is correct, and it is the distant moving one that is slow. From a local perspective, time registered by clocks that are at rest with respect to the local frame of reference (and far from any gravitational mass) always appears to pass at the same rate.

(2) There is another case of time dilation, where both observers are differently situated in their distance from a significant gravitational mass, such as (for terrestrial observers) the Earth or the Sun. One may suppose for simplicity that the observers are at relative rest (which is not the case of two observers both rotating with the Earth -- an extra factor described below). In the simplified case, the general theory of relativity describes how, for both observers, the clock that is closer to the gravitational mass, i.e. deeper in its gravity well, appears to go slower than the clock that is more distant from the mass (or higher in altitude away from the center of the gravitational mass).

That does not mean that the two observers fully agree: each still makes the local clock to be correct; the observer more distant from the mass (higher in altitude) measures the other clock (closer to the mass, lower in altitude) to be slower than the local correct rate, and the observer situated closer to the mass (lower in altitude) measures the other clock (farther from the mass, higher in altitude) to be faster than the local correct rate. They agree at least that the clock nearer the mass is slower in rate, and on the ratio of the difference. This is gravitational time dilation.

In Albert Einstein's theories of relativity, time dilation in these two circumstances can be summarized:

* In special relativity (or, hypothetically far from all gravitational mass), clocks that are moving with respect to an inertial system of observation are measured to be running slower. This effect is described precisely by the Lorentz transformation.

* In general relativity, clocks at lower potentials in a gravitational field—such as in closer proximity to a planet—are found to be running slower. The articles gravitational time dilation and gravitational red shift give a more detailed discussion. Special and general relativistic effects can combine, for example in some time-scale applications mentioned below.

Thus, in special relativity, the time dilation effect is reciprocal: as observed from the point of view of either of two clocks which are in motion with respect to each other, it will be the other clock that is time dilated. (This presumes that the relative motion of both parties is uniform; that is, they do not accelerate with respect to one another during the course of the observations.)


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Relativity and Time Dilation

A basic tour of relativity, which completely demolishes our usual understanding of space and time, and instead shows that strange things can happen when we travel close to the speed of light.
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Relativity: how people get time dilation wrong

Einstein’s special theory of relativity is notorious for being easy to misuse, with the result that sometimes result in claims of paradoxes. When one digs more carefully into the theory, you find that no such paradoxes actually exist. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln describes a commonly claimed time dilation paradox and shows how to resolve it.

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Theory of relativity explained in 7 mins

Hi everyone, today we explain Einstein's famous theory of relativity! Enjoy ;)
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TIME STAMPS
Part 1: Classical relativity - 0:11
Part 2: Special theory of relativity - time dilation - 1:26
Part 3: Special theory of relativity - length contraction - 3:37
Part 4: Time travel - 4:50
Part 5: General theory of relativity - 5:33
Part 6: How do we know it's true? - 6:18
_______________________
Theory of relativity for dummies
Theory of relativity made simple
Theory of relativity simplified
Time dilation explained
Length contraction explained
Is time travel possible?
Can we travel faster than the speed of light?
How does GPS work?
Classical relativity explained
Classical relativity for dummies
Classical relativity made simple
Special theory of relativity for dummies
Special theory of relativity for explained
Special theory of relativity made simple
General theory of relativity for dummies
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General theory of relativity made simple
Albert Einstein's theory of relativity explained
Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity explained

Einstein's twin paradox explained - Amber Stuver

Follow two astronauts into outer space to explore time dilation and Einstein’s theory of relativity through the Twin Paradox thought experiment.

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On their 20th birthday, identical twin astronauts volunteer for an experiment. Terra will remain on Earth, while Stella will board a spaceship. Stella’s ship will travel to visit a star that is 10 light-years away, then return to Earth. As they prepare to part ways, the twins wonder what will happen when they’re reunited. Who will be older? Amber Stuver investigates the “Twin Paradox.”

Lesson by Amber Stuver, directed by Aim Creative Studios.

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Special Relativity: Crash Course Physics #42

This episode of Crash Course Physics is supported by Prudential. Go to to learn how, if you start saving today, you can continue to enjoy the things you love tomorrow.

So we've all heard of relativity, right? But... what is relativity? And how does it relate to light? And motion? In this episode of Crash Course Physics, Shini talks to us about perspective, observation, and how relativity is REALLY weird!


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According to the theory of relativity, time dilation is a difference in the elapsed time measured by two observers, either due to a velocity difference relative to each other, or by being differently situated relative to a gravitational field. As a result of the nature of spacetime, a clock that is moving relative to an observer will be measured to tick slower than a clock that is at rest in the observer's own frame of reference. A clock that is under the influence of a stronger gravitational field than an observer's will also be measured to tick slower than the observer's own clock.

Such time dilation has been repeatedly demonstrated, for instance by small disparities in a pair of atomic clocks after one of them is sent on a space trip, or by clocks on the Space Shuttle running slightly slower than reference clocks on Earth, or clocks on GPS and Galileo satellites running slightly faster. Time dilation has also been the subject of science fiction works, as it technically provides the means for forward time travel.
Correction: Einstein published the his theory of Special Relativity in 1905, not 1919. Sorry about that!
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Simple Relativity - Understanding Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity

Simple Relativity is a 2D short educational animation film. The film is an attempt to explain Albert Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity with a simpler visual representation and exciting animation. In a time when our day-to-day life is surrounded by technology, most people find it daunting to understand the science and its application. Simple Relativity is an attempt to excite the viewer about this complex phenomenon of Relativity so that they can approach this, and science in general, with a lot more curiosity rather than inhibition.
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Time Is But a Stubborn Illusion - Sneak Peek | Genius

Watch an exclusive sneak peek from the first episode of Genius, starring Geoffrey Rush as the older Einstein and Johnny Flynn as the younger.
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About Genius:
From Executive Producers Brian Grazer and Ron Howard, National Geographic's first scripted anthology series, GENIUS, will focus on Nobel Prize-winning physicist Albert Einstein. The all-star cast includes Geoffrey Rush, Johnny Flynn, and Emily Watson.

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Time Is But a Stubborn Illusion - Sneak Peek | Genius


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Space-Time And The Speed Of Light | Einstein's Relativity

... Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity (Chapter 3): Space-Time And The Speed Of Light

The concept of spacetime combines space and time to a single abstract space, for which a unified coordinate system is chosen. Typically three spatial dimensions (length, width, height), and one temporal dimension (time) are required. Dimensions are independent components of a coordinate grid needed to locate a point in a certain defined space

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SPACETIME

In physics, spacetime (or space-time) is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single continuum. Spacetime is usually interpreted with space being three-dimensional and time playing the role of a fourth dimension that is of a different sort from the spatial dimensions. According to certain Euclidean space perceptions, the universe has three dimensions of space and one dimension of time. By combining space and time into a single manifold, physicists have significantly simplified a large number of physical theories, as well as described in a more uniform way the workings of the universe at both the supergalactic and subatomic levels.

In classical mechanics, the use of Euclidean space instead of spacetime is appropriate, as time is treated as universal and constant, being independent of the state of motion of an observer. In relativistic contexts, however, time cannot be separated from the three dimensions of space, because the observed rate at which time passes for an object depends on the object's velocity relative to the observer and also on the strength of intense gravitational fields, which can slow the passage of time.



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GENERAL RELATIVITY

Special relativity is a theory of the structure of spacetime. It was introduced in Albert Einstein's 1905 paper On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies (for the contributions of many other physicists see History of special relativity). Special relativity is based on two postulates which are contradictory in classical mechanics:

1. The laws of physics are the same for all observers in uniform motion relative to one another (principle of relativity),
2. The speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observers, regardless of their relative motion or of the motion of the source of the light.

The resultant theory agrees with experiment better than classical mechanics, e.g. in the Michelson-Morley experiment that supports postulate 2, but also has many surprising consequences. Some of these are:

* Relativity of simultaneity: Two events, simultaneous for one observer, may not be simultaneous for another observer if the observers are in relative motion.
* Time dilation: Moving clocks are measured to tick more slowly than an observer's stationary clock.
* Length contraction: Objects are measured to be shortened in the direction that they are moving with respect to the observer.
* Mass-energy equivalence: E = mc2, energy and mass are equivalent and transmutable.
* Maximum speed is finite: No physical object or message or field line can travel faster than light.

The defining feature of special relativity is the replacement of the Galilean transformations of classical mechanics by the Lorentz transformations. (See Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism and introduction to special relativity).


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How Gravity Affects Time | Gravity and Me | Spark

Physics professor Jim Al-Khalili investigates the amazing science of gravity. A fundamental force of nature, gravity shapes our entire universe, sculpting galaxies and warping space and time. But gravity's strange powers, discovered by Albert Einstein, also affect
our daily lives in the most unexpected ways.

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Why Do We Age Slower In Space?

Time is relative, which means that the rate time passes changes based on numerous factors.
What this means is that astronauts up in space are aging slower than everyone here on Earth. But why?

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Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity

Easy to understand animation explaining all of Einstein's Theory. Covers both Special Relativity and General Relativity.
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Time Dilation

Physics 111 Final Project, University of Kansas Spring 2015-- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free tool that allows you to develop cool animated clips and animated presentations for your website, office meeting, sales pitch, nonprofit fundraiser, product launch, video resume, or anything else you could use an animated explainer video. PowToon's animation templates help you create animated presentations and animated explainer videos from scratch. Anyone can produce awesome animations quickly with PowToon, without the cost or hassle other professional animation services require.

क्या है Time Dilation? | Time Dilation - Einstein's Theory Of Relativity Explained!

Time dilation is the theory of difference in the two different clocks in which one is still and other is in motion. There is a slight difference in the time of both the clock’s when the both the clocks are in rest position. Similar thing also happen with a astronaut and his cousin. When the astronaut is in the space other brother is on the earth but after 5 or 6 year when the astronaut come to earth his is slightly younger than his cousin which is on earth. This difference is know by the name of time dilation. Time dilation and Einstein’s theory of relativity go hand in hand. Albert Einstein is the most popular physicist, as he formulated the theory of relativity, which gave the Energy mass equivalence formula and is directly related to time dilation. But what is time dilation? Time dilation and space time are interrelated. Einstein made one of the most important contributions to physics and had the concept of space time explained. A simple explanation of space time is that it is a mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum. But it is very important to understand that the general theory of relativity and the special theory of relativity are different. In this short animated video, we give a simple explanation of time dilation and Einstein’s theory of relativity and also explain how time slows down in a moving vehicle!
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Credits:- Pixabay
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Music used:- Martian cowboy
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What’s covered in this video:-
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time travel
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* Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for fair use for purposes such as criticism, commenting, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.

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Special Relativity and the Twin Paradox

How can just two rules of Einstein's 1905 theory of special relativity lead to seemingly paradoxical changes in the perception of time?
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This video was inspired by a special relativity class in high school. Special relativity was one of the first subjects that made me go, “wow, that’s really how the world works?!” It stretched my imagination, as I hope the twin paradox will yours.

Airplane footage: Ben Bloomberg, Derek Muller
Rocket Footage: NASA

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Time Dilation - Albert Einstein and the Theory of Relativity

Two spaceships are traveling together through the galaxy at close to the speed of light. Mounted on one ship is a laser that can fire pulses of light, and on the other, a mirror. The pilot of the first ship fires a pulse at the mirror, and watches as it is reflected back. A clock on board measures how long the round trip takes.

But now suppose that he does this as the ships are passing an observer on a nearby asteroid. According to relativity theory, this observer sees the pulse moving through space at exactly the same speed that the pilot does -- namely, the speed of light. But he also sees the pulse traveling a longer distance, because from his perspective, he must add the forward motion of the ships to the motion of the pulse between them. So he measures a longer time interval for the round trip than the pilot does, because he is watching the pulse go farther without going any faster. This effect is called time dilation: if one observer is moving with respect to another, each perceives that the other's time is flowing more slowly.

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Complete Solution To The Twins Paradox

One of the most famous paradoxes of all of physics – who's older? Who's younger? and WHY? ***** Thanks to The Great Courses Plus (free trial here: for supporting MinutePhysics *****

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This video is about the famous “Twins paradox” of special relativity, how time can appear to be faster for two different observers at the same time, and which twin really is older (or younger) – the one who stays on earth or the one who flies in a rocket ship to the stars?

Music by Nathaniel Schroeder,

REFERENCES

Muon lifetime and time dilation/relativity:

MinutePhysics video about Time Rotations & Einstein:

Experimental test of time dilation using doppler shift of light:

Lorentz Transformations:

Relativity of Simultaneity:

Paper on twin paradox under constant acceleration:

Taking Cesium atomic clocks aboard airplanes:

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