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Tiny Bombs in your Blood - The Complement System

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Tiny Bombs in your Blood - The Complement System

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One of the key players of our immune system is the complement system. An army of millions and trillions of tiny bombs, which work together in a complex and elegant dance to stop intruders in your body.


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Complement System (Classical, Alternative, MBL pathways and CRP function) + Quiz

This video is part 3 of Innate immunity - Complement System (Humoral factors)

Classical Pathway: 1:50
Alternative Pathway: 05:42
Mannose Binding Lectin Pathway: 07:23

All information in my immunology videos are from:
- Book: Immunology, Eighth Edition by David Male, Jonathan Brostoff, David Roth and Ivan Roitt
- Additional research in PubMed
- University lecture materials

Mechanisms of complement system:
- Membrane Attack Complex
- Chemotaxis
- Opsonization
- Anaphylatoxins

Classical Pathway:
Antibody required (adaptive immune system)

Step 1: C1q binds
Step 2: C1r activates C1s
Step 3: C1s cleaves C4, C2
Step 4: C4b and C2b works as C3 convertase
Step 5: C3 convertase cleaves C3. Binds to surface as opsonin or binds to c3 convertase and works as C5 convertase
Step 6: Membrane attack complex forms on gram negative bacteria.

Alternative Pathway:
Step 1: C3 undergoes spontanous cleavage in bloodstream. C3b bineds to surface of bacteria
Step 2: Factor B binds
Step 3: Protease (Factor D) cleaves Factor B into Bb
Step 4: Properdin (Factor P) stabilizes the binding and form C3 convertase
Step 5: Same steps as before from here

Mannose Binding Lectin Pathway:
Step 1: Active Macrophage release Interleukin 1, interleukin 6 and tumor necrotic factor alpha and work as Endogenic Pyrogens
Step 2: Cytokines go to Hypothalamus and release Prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) which causes fever
Step 3: IL-6 goes to liver and release acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein (CRP) and Mannose Binding Lectin (MBL))

C Reactive Protein (CRP) functions:
Works as Opsonins and activate the classical pathway of the complement system

Mannose Binding Lectin (MBL) pathway:
Starts 1-2 days after infection:

Step 1: MBL will bind to Mannose (monosacharide) on capsules and surface of fungi
Step 2: Mannan binding lectin serine protease 1 (MASP-1) binds MBL and act as and enzyme.
Step 3: same pathways as before
!!!!Note!!! No MAC is formed on Capsules

C4a, C5a and C3a works as:
Anaphylatoxins: Increase permeability of capillaries and activate mast cells
Chemotaxis: directs phagocytes to the area.

Complement system can remove complex from the blood stream
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The Ebola Virus Explained — How Your Body Fights For Survival

What does the Ebola virus actually do in your body? Why is it so dangerous and why does it kill so many people? We take a look at the apocalyptic war that rages in the body after an infection by the Ebola virus and the soldiers fighting.


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The Ebola Virus Explained — How Your Body Fights For Survival

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Immune System

Explore the basics about the immune system with The Amoeba Sisters! This video talks about the three lines of defense and also compares cell-mediated response with the humoral response.

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Factual References:

Clark, M. A., Douglas, M., & Choi, J. (2018). Biology 2e. Houston, TX: Biology Stax.

Reece, J. B., & Campbell, N. A. (2011). Campbell biology. Boston: Benjamin Cummings / Pearson.

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Further Reading Suggestions:

Discover many other types of white blood cells here!

More about antibody classes?

More detail about the cell-mediated and humoral response?
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The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching biology at the high school level. Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. Learn more about our videos here:

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The Complement System

The complement system is an important part of the immune system. It is a set of proteins that acts (sometimes in concert with antibodies and white blood cells) to kill germs, destroy unnecessary cells that need to be removed, and to clean up the debris afterward. Through these normal processes, the complement system promotes inflammation.1 The complement system consists of more than 40 proteins, which are normally present in an inactive state. However, they can be activated by a process called cleavage, which means that a portion is split off, usually through the action of an enzyme. When one of these complement proteins becomes activated, it can act as an enzyme to activate another kind of complement protein. This chain reaction, in which one kind of complement protein sequentially activates another, is called a cascade. Activation of the complement system can start from any of 3 pathways, all of which trigger the cascade reaction that leads to cell destruction and removal.1

The 3 complement pathways include the classical pathway, the lectin pathway, and the alternative pathway. The classical complement pathway is activated when an antibody binds to an antigen, which is usually a foreign protein, such as a protein on a bacterium or virus. In contrast, the lectin pathway activates complement when a protein called mannose-binding lectin binds to a foreign carbohydrate, such as those found on the outside of many bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or fungi. The alternative complement pathway can be initiated by spontaneously activated complement attaching to pathogens or cells.1

All 3 pathways (classical, lectin, and alternative) eventually lead to the cleavage of complement factor C3 into C3a and C3b. The cleavage of C3 must occur for the complement system to have its intended effects on cells. C3a promotes inflammation, while C3b opsonizes (labels) cells so that they will be cleared from the system by white blood cells. C3b also activates C5 by splitting it into C5a and C5b. C5a promotes inflammation by attracting inflammatory cells. C5b makes up part of the membrane attack complex (MAC), which kills cells by forming a hole in their cell membrane, resulting in their lysis (rupture).1

In a healthy person, the complement system is under tight control, to keep an immune response from damaging the body itself.

1. Murphy K, Weaver C. Innate immunity: the first lines of defense. In: Janeway's Immunobiology. 9th ed. London, UK: Garland Science; 2016.

Immunology | Inflammation: Complement Proteins | Part 3

Ninja Nerds,

Join us in this four part video series where we talk about the physiology of inflammation. We continue our discussion in part 3 of this video where we discuss complement proteins, and classical, alternative, and lectin pathways.

Inflammatory Response Video Series:
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Part 2:
Part 3:
Part 4:

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Alternative Pathway of Complement System

The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promote inflammation, and attack the pathogen's cell membrane. It is part of the innate immune system, which is not adaptable and does not change during an individual's lifetime. The complement system can, however, be recruited and brought into action by antibodies generated by the adaptive immune system.
The complement system consists of a number of small proteins that are synthesized by the liver, and circulate in the blood as inactive precursors. When stimulated by one of several triggers, proteases in the system cleave specific proteins to release cytokines and initiate an amplifying cascade of further cleavages.
Most of the proteins and glycoproteins that constitute the complement system are synthesized by hepatocytes. But significant amounts are also produced by tissue macrophages, blood monocytes, and epithelial cells of the genitourinary system and gastrointestinal tract. The three pathways of activation all generate homologous variants of the protease C3-convertase. The classical complement pathway typically requires antigen-antibody complexes for activation (specific immune response), whereas the alternative pathway can be activated by spontaneous complement component 3 (C3) hydrolysis, foreign material, pathogens, or damaged cells. The mannose-binding lectin pathway can be activated by C3 hydrolysis or antigens without the presence of antibodies (non-specific immune response). In all three pathways, C3-convertase cleaves and activates component C3, creating C3a and C3b, and causes a cascade of further cleavage and activation events. C3b binds to the surface of pathogens, leading to greater internalization by phagocytic cells by opsonization.

The classical pathway is triggered by activation of the C1-complex. The C1-complex is composed of 1 molecule of C1q, 2 molecules of C1r and 2 molecules of C1s, or C1qr2s2. This occurs when C1q binds to IgM or IgG complexed with antigens. A single pentameric IgM can initiate the pathway, while several, ideally six, IgGs are needed. This also occurs when C1q binds directly to the surface of the pathogen. Such binding leads to conformational changes in the C1q molecule, which leads to the activation of two C1r molecules. C1r is a serine protease. They then cleave C1s (another serine protease). The C1r2s2 component now splits C4 and then C2, producing C4a, C4b, C2a, and C2b (historically, the larger fragment of C2 was called C2a but is now referred to as C2b). C4b and C2b bind to form the classical pathway C3-convertase (C4b2b complex), which promotes cleavage of C3 into C3a and C3b. C3b later joins with C4b2b to make C5 convertase (C4b2b3b complex).
This change in shape allows the binding of plasma protein Factor B, which allows Factor D to cleave Factor B into Ba and Bb.

Bb remains bound to C3(H2O) to form C3(H2O)Bb. This complex is also known as a fluid-phase C3-convertase. This convertase, the alternative pathway C3-convertase, although only produced in small amounts, can cleave multiple C3 proteins into C3a and C3b. The complex is believed to be unstable until it binds properdin, a serum protein. The addition of properdin forms the complex C3bBbP, a stable compound which can bind an additional C3b to form alternative pathway C5-convertase.

The C5-convertase of the alternative pathway consists of (C3b)2BbP (sometimes referred to as C3b2Bb). After the creation of C5 convertase (either as (C3b)2BbP or C4b2a3b from the classical pathway), the complement system follows the same path regardless of the means of activation (alternative, classical, or lectin). C5-convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and C5b. C5b binds sequentially to C6, C7, C8 and then to multiple molecules of C9 to form membrane attack complex.

How Bacteria Rule Over Your Body – The Microbiome

What happens when microbes talk to your brain?


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How Bacteria Rule Over Your Body – The Microbiome

This Is So Cool Reacting To Tiny Bombs In Your Blood

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THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM |Tiny Bombs in your Blood | complement System Made Easy- Immunology

THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM |Tiny Bombs in your Blood | complement System Made Easy- Immunology

Hello,my name is AAGAM SINGH SISODIYA and in this video we are going to learn about complement system which is a part of Humoral Immunity ,which helps the Antibody and phagocytosis cells to enhance there ability to clear the microbes and the damaged cells for the body of an organism , also act in inflammation ,cell membrane attacks of the pathogens
so all the information related to complement is available in the video with some examples I hope you will be helpful after watching the video ,I you are helpful from this video then please hit the Subscribe ???? button to subscribe #BiologywithAAGAMSINGH channel to get more videos on some important topics like that

Queries solved in this video

What are the four major functions of the complement system?

Is complement system innate or adaptive?

Why is the complement system important?

What are the three functions of complement?

What activates complement system?

How does complement cause inflammation?

Does the complement system kill viruses?

How does complement work?

How does the complement system kill bacteria?

Which complement protein is responsible for inflammation?

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The Complement System

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Complement Cascade

This video looks at some components of the complement cascade.

The Complement System [HD Animation ]

Protective Proteins of Complement System Lecture in Urdu Hindi FSc Part I

In this video, I explained Antimicrobial Proteins also called Protective proteins of the complement system. This lecture also includes Interferon that is antiviral proteins. This lecture is in Urdu and can also be understood in Hindi, These lectures can be used for Intermediate, FSC, HSSC, MCAT, ETEA, O Level, A-level BSc bachelor and MSc or master level classes. KPK Text BOOk board, Punjab boards, AJK Bords students can use these lecture.
The Complement system consists over thirty types of small proteins found in the blood, in general, synthesized by the liver, and circulating in the inactive state.
They are activated by entry of foreign particles.
Once a complement protein is activated,The result of this complement activation is stimulation of Phagocytes to clear foreign and damaged material, development of inflammation to attract additional phagocyte at the site of infection and activation of cell killing membrane attack complexes. it activates another protein which further activates another of the system and so on.
An example of protective proteins of complement system is perforins, a membrane attack complex that produces holes in the bacterial cell wall and plasma membrane of bacteria.
The holes allow fluid and salts to enter the bacterial cell, thus bacterial swells and eventually bursts.
Interferons belong to a large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells during infection.
They are made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens especially viruses.
Interferon are named for their ability to interfere with viral replication as interferon activates molecules which prevent the virus from producing and replicating its RNA or DNA.
In this way, interferon limits cell to cell spread of viruses in the body.
Interferon also activates immune cells, such as natural killer cells and macrophages that in turn destroy virally infected cells.
Interferon also activates immune cells, such as natural killer cells and macrophages that in turn destroy virally infected cells.
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Complement System /part-2

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Complement System - How your Immune System Works (Cells at Work Parody)

Alternative Pathway of Complement Activation - PERSONIFIED!

yea, hope you learn something.
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#CellsAtWork #CheapVersion #AlternativePathway #immunology #immunesystem #complementsystem #fordummies

Immunity, 5 Complement

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What is Complement System + Classical Pathway of Complement Activation? Urdu/hindi

Here i explained the Complement System and its important
Classical pathway of complement system is explained here till the formation of C5 convertase
Next step will be common in all three steps of complement system

Alternative Pathway Of Complement System | Urdu Language

#Alternative Pathway #studywithme #studyhard
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