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Venus: Crash Course Astronomy #14

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Venus: Crash Course Astronomy #14

Venus is a gorgeous naked-eye planet, hanging like a diamond in the twilight -- but it’s beauty is best looked at from afar. Even though Mercury is closer to the sun, Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system, due to a runaway greenhouse effect, and has the most volcanic activity in the solar system. Its north and south poles were flipped, causing it to rotate backwards and making for very strange days on this beautiful but inhospitable world.

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Table of Contents
Venus’s Size and Atmosphere 3:09
Hottest Planet in the Solar System 4:04
Slow Clockwise Rotation 6:02
Tremendous Volcanic Activity 8:31

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Naked-eye Venus photo taken by Phil Plait
Phases of Venus [credit: Wikimedia Commons]
2012 Venus Transit [credit: NASA]
Black drop effect in 2004 [credit: Vesta]
Venus Transit [credit: JAXA/NASA/Lockheed Martin]
Venus in real colors [credit: NASA]
Earth [credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Image by Reto Stöckli]
Venus [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Magellan Project]
Atmospheric Drag on Venus [credit: NASA]
Lakshmi Planum and Maxwell Montes [credit: NASA/JPL]
Artist's impression of the surface of Venus [credit: ESA]
Venera Images [credit: Ted Stryk]
Venus Globe [credit: NASA]
Impact craters on the surface of Venus [credit: Wikimedia Commons]
Idunn Mons [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ESA]
Pancake Volcanoes [credit: NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory]
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Mars: Crash Course Astronomy #15

The fourth planet from the sun and the outermost of the terrestrial planets, Mars has long been a popular spot for missions and imagination. Phil walks you through the planet's topography, core, and features. We'll take a look back to Mars's past and makes predictions for its future, including the possibilities for human life.

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Table of Contents
Mars is Colder and Smaller Than Earth 0:56
Polar Ice Caps 3:29
Rusty & Dusty 1:16
Huge Volcanoes 2:32
Mars’s Past Geography 6:33

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PHOTO/VIDEO SOURCES
Planets [credit: Wikimedia Commons]
Terrestrial Planets [credit: Wikimedia Commons]
Curiosity’s view of martian soil [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS]
Mars Topography [credit: NASA/JPL]
Tharsis [credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / Arizona State University]
Olympus Mons [credit: NASA]
Valles Marineris [credit: NASA/USGS]
Cappuccino swirls at Mars south pole [credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin / Bill Dunford]
The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter image 1 [credit: NASA]
The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter image 2 [credit: NASA/JPL]
Dunes, image 1 [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona]
Dunes, image 2 [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona]
Serpent Dust Devil [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona]
Tattooed Mars [credit: NASA, HiRISE, MRO, LPL (U. Arizona)]
Avalanche [credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona]
Deimos [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona]
Phobos [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona]
Mars' Moon Phobos Eclipses the Sun, as Seen by Curiosity [credit: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory]
Material Excavated by a Fresh Impact and Identified as Water Ice [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona]
Crater walls [credit: NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science Systems]
Sedimentary deposit [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS]
Curiosity rover [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS]
Astronaut on Mars [credit: NASA]
Skylight [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona]
Life on mars [credit: NASA/Pat Rawlings, SAIC]
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Mercury: Crash Course Astronomy #13

Mercury is the closest planet to the sun. It has no atmosphere and is, as such, covered in craters. It's also incredibly hot but, surprisingly, has water ice hiding beneath its surface.

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Table of Contents
Closest Planet to the Sun 0:03
Rotation Locked to its 2 to 3 Orbit Ratio 3:10
Deep Crater Water Ice 8:39

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Mercury relief in Olomouc: [credit: Michal Maňas]
Mercury: Phil Plait
Mercury in color: [credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington]
Earth Based View of Mercury: [credit: Catalina Observatory]
Caloris Basin: [credit: NASA, Johns Hopkins Univ. APL, Arizona State U., CIW]
MESSENGER photos:



[credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington]
Mercury’s core: [credit: Nicolle Rager Fuller, National Science Foundation]
Mercury’s Ice Lockers: [credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington]
Mercury’s Tail: [credit: NASA]
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The Earth: Crash Course Astronomy #11

Phil starts the planet-by-planet tour of the solar system right here at home, Earth.
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Table of Contents
Earth is a Planet 0:03
Layers of Earth 1:25
The Magnetic Field 5:10
Atmosphere and the Human Influence 6:14

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Planets:
Mercury:
Venus:
Earth:
Mars:
Jupiter:
Saturn: [credit: Photo by NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute/Gordan Ugarkovic]
Uranus:
Neptune:

Ulaan Tsutgalan waterfall:
Perspective on a cloudy day: [credit: Oleg Artemyev]
Rain droplets:
Yellowston Mud Pot:
Sea otters holding hands:
Continental Drift: [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio]
Mission to Bennu: [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Conceptual Image Lab]
[credit: San Diego Supercomputer Center / Nature]
Excerpt from Dynamic Earth [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center]
Clouds:
Aurora Borealis: [credit: Fotograf Göran Strand]
Waves On Rocky Shore 1080 (2011):
A Year In The Life Of Earth’s CO2: [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center]
NASA | 2014 Continues Long-Term Global Warming:
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Uranus & Neptune: Crash Course Astronomy #19

Today we’re rounding out our planetary tour with ice giants Uranus and Neptune. Both have small rocky cores, thick mantles of ammonia, water, and methane, and atmospheres that make them look greenish and blue. Uranus has a truly weird rotation and relatively dull weather, while Neptune has clouds and storms whipped by tremendous winds. Both have rings and moons, with Neptune’s Triton probably being a captured iceball that has active geology.

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Table of Contents
Ice Giants With Small Rocky Cores 2:18
Thick Mantles of Ammonia, Water, and Methane 1:53
Atmospheres Makes Them Look Green And Blue 2:53
Uranus Has Dull Weather 3:35
Neptune Has Active Weather 7:19
Both Have Rings And Moons 5:12

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Uranus [credit: NASA/JPL/Voyager mission]
Neptune [credit: NASA]
King George III
Uranus from Earth picture by Phil Plait
Uranus, Earth size comparison [credit: NASA]
Uranus core, reconstructed from [credit: Wikimedia Commons]
Uranus [credit: NASA, ESA, L. Sromovsky and P. Fry (University of Wisconsin), H. Hammel (Space Science Institute), and K. Rages (SETI Institute)]
Uranus storms [credit: Imke de Pater (UC–Berkeley)/Keck Observatory]
Uranus and rings (tilt demonstration) [credit: Hubble Space Telescope - NASA Marshall Space Flight Center]
Uranus with rings and moons [credit: ESO]
Miranda [credit: NASA]
Verona Rupes [credit: NASA]
Neptune’s Interior [credit: Lunar and Planetary Institute]
Neptune clouds [credit: NASA]
Neptune’s Great Dark Spot [credit: NASA / Jet Propulsion Lab]
Neptune’s Rings [credit: Rolf Wahl Olsen / NASA/JPL (Voyager 2, NASA Planetary Data System)]
Triton [credit: NASA / Jet Propulsion Lab / U.S. Geological Survey]
Triton flipped [credit: NASA/JPL]
Triton Nitrogen Geysers NASA]

Distances: Crash Course Astronomy #25

How do astronomers make sense out of the vastness of space? How do they study things so far away? Today Phil talks about distances, going back to early astronomy. Ancient Greeks were able to find the size of the Earth, and from that the distance to and the sizes of the Moon and Sun. Once the Earth/Sun distance was found, parallax was used to find the distance to nearby stars, and that was bootstrapped using brightness to determine the distances to much farther stars.

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Table of Contents
Ancient Greeks Finding the Size of the Earth 1:07
Earth/Sun Distance Began Our Use of Parallax 5:39
Brightness Relation to Distance 9:07

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Lunar Ecplise [credit: Phil Plait]
Venus & Mercury [credit: Phil Plait]
Venus Transit [credit: NASA]
Black Drop Venus Transit [credit: Wikimedia Commons, H. Raab, Johannes-Kepler-Observatory]
New Horizons Approaching Pluto and Charon [credit: NASA/JHU APL/SwRI/Steve Gribben]
Radio Telescopes Diagram [credit: Alexandra Angelich, NRAO/AUI/NSF]
61 Cygni [credit: Caltech / National Geographic Society / STScI]
Proxima Centauri [credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA]
Dying Star [credit: NASA, ESA, HEIC, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)]
Exploding Star [credit: NASA, ESA, J. Hester, A. Loll (ASU)]
Animation of a Variable Star [credit: NASA, ESA, M. Kornmesser]
Hubble's High-Definition Panoramic View of the Andromeda Galaxy [credit: NASA, ESA, J. Dalcanton, B.F. Williams, and L.C. Johnson (University of Washington), the PHAT team, and R. Gendler]

Galaxies, part 2: Crash Course Astronomy #39

Active galaxies pour out lots of energy, due to their central supermassive black holes gobbling down matter. Galaxies tend not to be loners, but instead exist in smaller groups and larger clusters. Our Milky Way is part of the Local Group, and will one day collide with the Andromeda galaxy. Clusters of galaxies also clump together to form superclusters, the largest structures in the Universe. In total, there are hundreds of billions of galaxies in the Universe.

Crash Course Astronomy Poster:

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Table of Contents
Black Holes at the Center of Galaxies 2:26
Galaxies Are a Part of Small/Large Clusters 9:47
The Milky Way is Part of the Local Group 6:45
Galaxy Clusters Clump Together to Create Superclusters 11:03
Hundreds of Billions of Galaxies 12:39

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Galactic Wreckage in Stephan's Quintet [credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble SM4 ERO Team]
Best image of bright quasar 3C 273 [credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA]
Nearby Quasar 3C 273 [credit: NASA, M. Clampin (STScI), H. Ford (JHU), G. Illingworth (UCO/Lick Observatory), J. Krist (STScI), D. Ardila (JHU), D. Golimowski (JHU), the ACS Science Team, J. Bahcall (IAS) and ESA]
Gamma Rays [credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO, Optical: NASA/STScI, Radio: NSF/NRAO/VLA]
Black hole (artist's impression) [credit: ESA/Hubble (M. Kornmesser & L. L. Christensen)]
Matter accreting around a supermassive black hole (artist's impression) [credit: ESA/Hubble (M. Kornmesser)]
Artist’s animation of galaxy with jets from a supermassive black hole [credit: ESA/Hubble, L. Calçada (ESO)]
NASA's Swift Finds 'Missing' Active Galaxies [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center]
Sagittarius A*: NASA's Chandra Detects Record-Breaking Outburst from Milky Way's Black Hole [credit: NASA/CXC/Amherst College/D.Haggard et al]
NASA Hubble Sees Sparring Antennae Galaxies [credit: Hubble/European Space Agency]
A New Dawn [credit: NASA, ESA, G. Besla (Columbia University) and R. van der Marel (STScI)]
Galaxy Sky [credit: NASA, ESA, Z. Levay and R. van der Marel (STScI) T. Hallas, and A. Mellinger]
Virgo Cluster [credit: Rogelio Bernal Andreo]
Cosmic Clumps [credit: NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio]
Laniakea: Our Home Supercluster of Galaxies [credit: R. Brent Tully (U. Hawaii) et al., SDvision, DP, CEA/Saclay]
Webb Science Simulations [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and the Advanced Visualization Laboratoy at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications]
Hubble Deep Field [credit: R. Williams (STScI), the Hubble Deep Field Team and NASA]
Hubble Ultra Deep Field 2014 [credit: NASA, ESA, H. Teplitz and M. Rafelski (IPAC/Caltech), A. Koekemoer (STScI), R. Windhorst (Arizona State University), and Z. Levay (STScI)]

Jupiter: Crash Course Astronomy #16

Jupiter is the biggest planet in our solar system. The gas giant is NOT a failed star, but a really successful planet! It has a dynamic atmosphere with belts and zones, as well as an enormous red spot that’s actually a persistent hurricane. Jupiter is still warm from its formation, and has an interior that’s mostly metallic hydrogen, and it may not even have a core.

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Table of Contents
Jupiter is the Biggest Planet in Our Solar System 0:28
Belts and Zones 1:33
Persistent Hurricane 2:32
Metallic Hydrogen Interior 4:03
Fast Spin 0:49
Not a Failure 6:17

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PHOTO/VIDEO SOURCES
Jupiter [credit: NASA, ESA, and A. Simon (Goddard Space Flight Center)]
Earth [credit: NASA]
Telescope view [credit: Chris Isherwood / Flickr]
Jupiter Belt System [credit: Wikimedia Commons & NASA/JPL]
Jupiter’s Jet Streams [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center]
2010 belt sinking [credit: NASA, ESA and Z. Levay (STScI)]
Storms [credit: NASA/JPL]
Jupiter Approach [credit: NASA]
Red spot shrinking [credit: NASA, ESA, and A. Simon (Goddard Space Flight Center)]
Jupiter’s Hot Spots [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center]
Gas interior [credit: NASA]
Jupiter interior [credit: NASA]
Creating Gas Giants [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center]
Jupiter’s oblate disc [credit: WikiMedia Commons/NASA]
Jupiter heat [credit: NASA/IRTF/JPL-Caltech/University of Oxford]
Jupiter and its shrunken red spot [credit: NASA, ESA, and A. Simon (Goddard Space Flight Center)]
Jupiter’s magnetosphere [credit: WikiMedia Commons / Volcanopele]
Jupiter aurora [credit: John Clarke (University of Michigan) and NASA]
Jupiter’s ring [credit: NASA]
Cosmic Fireball Falling Over ALMA [credit: ESO/C. Malin]
Shoemaker [credit: ANU / Peter McGregor]
Shoemaker scars [credit: R. Evans, J. Trauger, H. Hammel and the HST Comet Science Team and NASA]
Smaller impacts [credit: NASA, ESA, and H. Hammel (Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo.), and the Jupiter Impact Team]

Introduction to the Solar System: Crash Course Astronomy #9

In today's Crash Course Astronomy, Phil takes a look at the explosive history of our cosmic backyard. We explore how we went from a giant ball of gas to the system of planets and other celestial objects we have today.

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Makeup of a Solar System 2:38
From Gas to a Disc 5:36
Planet Formation Depends on Distance to Sun 7:14
Motion of a System 8:21

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PHOTO/VIDEO CREDITS
Sun: [credit: NASA/ESA]
Jupiter: [credit: NASA/ESA]
Geocentric celestial spheres; Peter Apian's Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539):
Ganymede:
Mercury: [credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington]
Understanding Solar System Dynamics: Orbits and Kepler's Laws (2008):
Mercury:
Venus:
Earth:
Mars:
Jupiter:
Saturn: [credit: Photo by NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute/Gordan Ugarkovic]
Uranus:
Neptune:
[credit: JHUAPL/SwRI/Dan Durda]
Bennu’s Journey:

Artist's impression of a protoplanetary disk:
Rocky Ring of Debris Around Vega: [image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech]
Proplyds in the Orion Nebula:

The Sun: Crash Course Astronomy #10

Phil takes us for a closer (eye safe!) look at the two-octillion ton star that rules our solar system. We look at the sun's core, plasma, magnetic fields, sunspots, solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and what all of that means for our planet.

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The Sun is a Star 1:28
Plasma's Magnetic Fields 6:11
Sunspots, Solar Flares, and Coronal Mass Ejections 7:09
How the Earth Reacts 9:18

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PHOTO/VIDEO CREDITS
Hubble extrasolar planet search field in Sagittarius: [credit: NASA, ESA, K. Sahu (STScI) and the SWEEPS science team]
The Sun: [credit: SDO/HMI]
The Sun: [credit: NASA/SDO/AIA]
Earth: [credit: NASA's Earth Observatory]
Fusion in the Sun: [credit: Borb]
Empire State Building:
Sun Structure:
Photospheric granulation:
Corona: [credit: Phil Hart]
Magnet0873 by Newton Henry Black - Newton Henry Black, Harvey N. Davis (1913) Practical Physics, The MacMillan Co., USA, p. 242, fig. 200. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons -
Strange Days On The Sun: [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Images courtesy of NASA/SDO]
Under the Sunspots: [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Conceptual Image Lab]
Raining Loops: [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/SDO]
Coronal Mass Ejection: [credit: NASA]
Aurora:
Soloar Close-ups: [credit: NASA]
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Saturn: Crash Course Astronomy #18

Saturn is the crown jewel of the solar system, beautiful and fascinating. It is a gas giant, and has a broad set of rings made of ice particles. Moons create gaps in the rings via their gravity. Saturn has dozens of moons, including Titan, which is as big as Mercury and has a thick atmosphere and lakes of methane; and Enceladus which has an undersurface ocean and eruptions of water geysers. While we are still uncertain, it is entirely possible that either or both moons may support life.

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Table of Contents
Saturn is a Gas Giant 0:33
Moons Create Gaps in the Ice Rings 5:17
Dozens of Moons 6:18
Titan’s Methane Lakes 7:56
Enceladus’s Water Geysers 8:33
Life Potential 9:30

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Saturn [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute/G. Ugarkovic]
Interiors [credit: Lunar and Planetary Institute]
Saturn Ring Plane Crossing [credit: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona Lunar & Planetary Lab) and NASA/ESA]
Translucent Rings [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute]
Catching its Tail [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute]
Enter the Vortex [credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute]
The Rose [credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute]
Ice [credit: NASA/JPL/University of Colorado]
Saturn’s rings to scale [credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute]
Saturn’s Ring Plane [credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute - Cassini-Huygens/NASA]
Saturn [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute/G. Ugarkovic]
Shaping the Drapes (video) [credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute]
Peaks [credit: NASA / Jet Propulsion Lab / Space Science Institute]
Mimas Cassini [credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / Space Science Institute]
Cassini NAC RGB [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute/G. Ugarkovic]
Titan [credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute]
Titan’s Nile River [credit: NASA/JPL–Caltech/ASI]
Lakes [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/USGS]
Enceladus [credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute]
Iapetus Ridge [credit: NASA (Cassini probe), Matt McIrvin (image mosaic)]
Hyperion [credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute]
Saturn eclipse mosaic [credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / Space Science Institute]

What Did Mariner 10 See During Its Historic Journey To Venus and Mercury? (4K UHD)

Mariner 10 was the first spacecraft sent to the planet Mercury; the first mission to explore two planets during a single mission; the first to use a gravity assist to change its flight path; the first to return to its target after an initial encounter; and the first to use the solar wind as a major means of spacecraft orientation during flight. But what did it capture with its two onboard cameras?

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Jupiter's Moons: Crash Course Astronomy #17

Before moving on from Jupiter to Saturn, we’re going to linger for a moment on Jupiter’s moons. There are 67 known moons, and 4 huge ones that we want to explore in greater detail. Ganymede is the largest - larger, in fact, than any other moon in the solar system and the planet Mercury! Callisto, orbiting the farthest out, is smaller but quite similar to Ganymede in many ways. Io, meanwhile, is most noteworthy for its tremendous volcanic activity. There’s also water on Ganymede and Europa!

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Table of Contents
Jupiter Has 67 Moons (4 Big Ones) 0:12
Ganymede is the Largest 1:15
Io is Riddled With Volcanoes 3:16
Europa Has an Undersurface Ocean 4:48
Io, Europa, and Ganymede Interact Gravitationally 3:48
Known Unknowns 8:06

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PHOTO/VIDEO SOURCES
Galileo’s notebook [credit: Image(s) courtesy History of Science Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries; copyright the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma.]
Jupiter’s moons [credit: NASA/JPL/DLR]
Ganymede [credit: NASA/JPL/Ted Stryk]
Interior of Ganymede [credit: Wikimedia Commons / NASA]
Ganymede terrain [credit: Wikimedia Commons / NASA]
Artist Conception of Ganymede (Figure 5) [credit: NASA/ESA]
Callisto [credit: NASA/JPL/DLR]
Interior of Callisto [credit: Wikimedia Commons / NASA]
Valhalla crater on Callisto [credit: Wikimedia Commons / NASA / JPL]
Io [credit: NASA/JPL/USGS]
Io volcano image [credit: NASA/JPL]
Io eruption video [credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute]
Io surface [credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona]
Jupiter Magnetosphere Schema [credit: Wikimedia Commons / Volcanopele]
Jupiter aurora [credit: NASA, ESA & John T. Clarke (Univ. of Michigan)]
Europa [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SETI Institute]
Europa ocean [credit: NASA/JPL/Kevin Hand
Habitable zone diagram [credit: PETIGURA/UC BERKELEY, HOWARD/UH-MANOA, MARCY/UC BERKELEY]
Amalthea [c redit: NASA/JPL/Cornell University]

Venus - Our Twisted Alien Twin

Venus is like the Earth - just different. Learn about the differences between the planetary twins Venus and Earth and why Venus turned into our twisted alien twin.

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Nebulae: Crash Course Astronomy #36

Astronomers study a lot of gorgeous things, but nebulae might be the most breathtakingly beautiful of them all. Nebulae are clouds of gas and dust in space. They can glow on their own or reflect light from nearby stars. When they glow it’s usually predominantly red from hydrogen and green from oxygen, and when they reflect and scatter light it’s from massive hot stars, so they look blue. Stars are born in some nebulae, and create new ones as they die. Some nebulae are small and dense, others can be dozens or hundreds of light years across.

Crash Course Astronomy Poster:

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Table of Contents
Nebulae Are Clouds of Gas And/Or Dust 0:42
They Can Emit Light Or Reflect It 1:20
Elements Change Their Glow 3:31
Nebulae Can Create Stars 5:28

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Saturn [credit: Photo by NASA / JPL / Space Science Institute / Gordan Ugarkovic]
Carina Nebula [credit: NASA, ESA, N. Smith (University of California, Berkeley), and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)]
Crab Nebula [credit: ESA/Herschel/PACS/MESS Key Programme Supernova Remnant Team; NASA, ESA and Allison Loll/Jeff Hester (Arizona State University)]
Carina Jets [credit: NASA, ESA, M. Livio and the Hubble 20th Anniversary Team (STScI)]
The Twin Jet Nebula [credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA]
Tycho's Supernova Remnant [credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/Rutgers/K.Eriksen et al.; Optical: DSS]
Ring Nebula's True Shape [credit: NASA, ESA, C.R. O'Dell (Vanderbilt University), and D. Thompson (Large Binocular Telescope Observatory)]
3D animation of the Orion nebula [credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser]
Stardust [credit: NASA]
From the Pleiades to the Hyades [credit: Rogelio Bernal Andreo]
How to Become a Star [credit: ESO]
The Orion Nebula [credit: ESO/Igor Chekalin]
Trapezium Cluster in the Orion Nebula [credit: K.L. Luhman (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass.); and G. Schneider, E. Young, G. Rieke, A. Cotera, H. Chen, M. Rieke, R. Thompson (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz.) and NASA/ESA]
PIA08656 [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/IRAS/H. McCallon]
Edge-On Protoplanetary Disc in the Orion Nebula [credit: Mark McCaughrean (Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy), C. Robert O'Dell (Rice University), and NASA/ESA]
Hubble's sharpest image of the Orion Nebula with proplyd highlights [credit: NASA, ESA, M. Robberto (Space Telescope Science Institute/ESA), the Hubble Space Telescope Orion Treasury Project Team and L. Ricci (ESO)]
Young Stellar Disks in Infrared [credit: D. Padgett (IPAC/Caltech), W. Brandner (IPAC), K. Stapelfeldt (JPL) and NASA/ESA]
The Eagle Nebula, M16 [credit: T.A.Rector (NRAO/AUI/NSF and NOAO/AURA/NSF) and B.A.Wolpa (NOAO/AURA/NSF)]
Pillars of Creation [credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)]
Planetary Nebula HFG1 [credit: T.A. Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage) and H. Schweiker (WIYN and NOAO/AURA/NSF)]
Zooming in on the Horsehead Nebula [credit: NASA, ESA, and G. Bacon (STScI); ESO]
Orion, from Head to Toes [credit: Rogelio Andreo Bernal]
Sifting through Dust near Orion’s Belt (mouseover comparison) [credit: ESO/APEX (MPIfR/ESO/OSO)/T. Stanke et al./Igor Chekalin/Digitized Sky Survey 2]
x

Tides: Crash Course Astronomy #8

Today Phil explores the world of tides! What is the relationship between tides and gravity? How do planets and their moons become tidally locked? What would happen if you were 300km tall? Important questions.
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Gravity Over Distance 0:44
Tidal Force Parameters 1:35
Battle of the Bulges 2:55
Tidal Lock 6:17

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PHOTO/VIDEO CREDITS
Photo & video credit: NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio
Photo credit: NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio


The Hopewell Rocks -

The Oort Cloud: Crash Course Astronomy #22

Now that we’re done with the planets, asteroid belt, and comets, we’re heading to the outskirts of the solar system. Out past Neptune are vast reservoirs of icy bodies that can become comets if they get poked into the inner solar system. The Kuiper Belt is a donut shape aligned with the plane of the solar system; the scattered disk is more eccentric and is the source of short period comets; and the Oort Cloud which surrounds the solar system out to great distances is the source of long-period comets. These bodies all probably formed closer into the Sun, and got flung out to the solar system’s suburbs by gravitational interactions with the outer planets.

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Table of Contents
Icy Bodies That Can Become Comets 0:27
The Kuiper Belt is a Donut Shape Aligned With the Plane of the Solar System 2:57
The Scattered Disk is More Eccentric and the Source of Short Period Comets 4:26
Oort Cloud Surrounds Our Solar System and is the Source of Long-Period Comets 4:04
These Bodies Probably Formed Near the Sun and Dispersed Through Gravitational Interactions 5:41

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
HD Long Exposure Star Timelapse [credit: Jeffrey Beach, Beachfront B-Roll]
Fine Structure in the Comet’s Jets [credit: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA]
Artist's impression of a protoplanetary disk. [credit: ESO/L. Calçada - ESO]
Creating Gas Giants [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center]
What is a Sungrazing Comet? [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center]
Pluto/Neptune Orbit [credit: NASA]
1992 QB1 [credit: ESO]
Eris [credit: W. M. Keck Observatory]
Moons of Pluto [credit: NASA, ESA, and M. Showalter (SETI institute)]
New Horizons Approach [credit: JHUAPL]
Moon [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio]
Pluto [credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute]
Sedna’s Orbit [credit: NASA]
Artist’s Conception of Kuiper Belt [credit: NASA, Wikimedia Commons]
Kuiper Belt World (video) [credit: NASA Kepler Mission/Dana Berry]
Pluto Discovery Plates [credit: Clyde Tombaugh, Lowell Observatory]

Exoplanets: Crash Course Astronomy #27

Today Phil explains that YES, there are other planets out there and astonomers have a lot of methods for detecting them. Nearly 2000 have been found so far. The most successful method is using transits, where a planet physically passes in front of its parent star, producing a measurable dip in the star’s light. Another is to measuring the Doppler shift in a star’s light due to reflexive motion as the planet orbits. Exoplanets appear to orbit nearly every kind of star, and we’ve even found planets that are the same size as Earth. We think there may be many billions of Earth-like planets in our galaxy.

This is a reupload of last week's episode to correct an error in the way we covered reflexive motion.
For more information on the change and reflexive motion, you can check out Phil's blog:
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Table of Contents
Other Planets Orbit Other Stars 2:10
Nearly 2000 Have Been Found 9:29
Transits 5:44
Doppler Shift 3:30
Exoplanets Orbit Nearly Every Kind of Star 8:44
Billions of Earth-Like Planets 9:33

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Stars as viewed from ISS [credit: Alex Rivest & NASA]
Jupiter [credit: NASA]
Mars [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS]
Mercury [credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington]
Earth [credit: NASA]
Uranus [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech]
Lost in the Glare [credit: NASA Kepler Mission/Dana Berry]
Reflexive Motion gifs [credit: NASA]
Artist's conception of PSR B1257+12's system of planets [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt (SSC)]
Artist’s impression of the exoplanet 51 Pegasi b (image) [credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser/Nick Risinger (skysurvey.org)]
Artist’s impression of the exoplanet 51 Pegasi b (video) [credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser/Nick Risinger (skysurvey.org)]
Kepler Transit Graph [credit NASA Kepler Mission/Dana Berry]
Kepler “Beauty Shot” [credit: NASA/Kepler mission/Dana Berry]
The Brown Dwarf 2M1207 and its Planetary Companion [credit: ESO]
Beta Pictoris b [credit: ESO]
A size comparison of the planets in the Kepler-37 system and objects in the Solar System [credit: NASA/Ames/JPL-Caltech]
Water World [credit: NASA Kepler Mission/Dana Berry]
Earth-like World [credit: NASA Kepler Mission/Dana Berry]

Venus 101 | National Geographic

Named after the ancient Roman goddess of beauty, Venus is known for its exceptional brightness. Find out about the volcanoes that dot Venus's surface, the storms that rage in its atmosphere, and the surprising feature that makes Venus outshine every planet or star in the night sky.
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Venus 101 | National Geographic


National Geographic

The Moon: Crash Course Astronomy #12

Join Phil for a tour of our capital-M Moon, from surface features, inside to the core, and back in time to theories about its formation.

This episode is brought to you by Squarespace:
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Table of Contents
Many Millions of Moons 0:27
Big Impact on Little Earth 3:42
Craters and Maria 2:15
Water on the Moon? H2O Yeah! 8:06

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PHOTOS/VIDEOS
Moon Phase 47.7% [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio]
The Blue Marble [credit: Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Image by Reto Stöckli]
Dramatic Moonset [credit: G.Gillet/European Southern Observatory]
Structure of the Moon: [credit: Kelvin Song via WikiMedia Commons]
Crater Science Investigations: [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center]
Lunar crater Daealus [credit: NASA]
Mare Humorum [credit: NASA]
Luna 3: [credit: NASA]
Farside!: [credit: NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University]
Theia Earth Collision: [credit: Ron Miller, used with permission]
Earth Seen From Early Moon: [credit: Ron Miller, used with permission]
Moon Struck: [credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center]
Tycho: [credit: NASA/Goddard/Arizona State University]
Double crater on the moon: [credit: ESA/SPACE-X (Space Exploration Institute)]
Stream of Craters: [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center/Arizona State University]
Full Moon: [credit: Gregory H. Revera]
Rille on the valley floor, photographic mosaic from Apollo 15: [credit: NASA]
New Views of Lunar Pits: [credit: NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University]
Crater Erlanger: [credit: NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University]

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