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We Are All Related


We Are All Related


Vsauce Tshirts:
music by:

Bill Bryson's A Short History of Nearly Everything:

We're all related (Wikipedia):

Most Recent Common Ancestor PAPER:

Most Recent Common Ancestor data excludes uncontacted peoples:

H Twins SCALE OF THE UNIVERSE (interactive):

Our atoms get replaced:

TIME article on atom replacement (pay-gate):

The paradox of atom replacement and identity:

1 billion sodium atoms:

How many atoms are in our body?:

Are We All Related?

Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here:

This is part 3 of our special series on Human Ancestry!
Watch the entire series here ►►
↓↓↓More info and sources below ↓↓↓

In part 3 of our special series on human ancestry, we investigate how closely related we all really are. Basic math tells us that all humans share ancestors. But you’ll be amazed at how recently those shared ancestors lived. Thanks to genetic data in the 21st century, we’re even discovering that we really are all descended from one mother.


Chang, Joseph T. Recent common ancestors of all present-day individuals. Advances in Applied Probability 31.04 (1999): 1002-1026.

Jorde, Lynn B. Genetic variation and human evolution. (2003).

Rohde, Douglas LT. On the common ancestors of all living humans. (2003)

Rohde, Douglas LT, Steve Olson, and Joseph T. Chang. Modelling the recent common ancestry of all living humans. Nature 431.7008 (2004): 562-566.

Stringer, Chris. “Lone survivors: How we came to be the only humans on earth.” Macmillan, 2012. (Library:

Tattersall, Ian. “Masters of the planet: the search for our human origins.” Macmillan, 2012. (Library:


Twitter: @okaytobesmart @DrJoeHanson
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Snapchat: YoDrJoe

It’s Okay To Be Smart is hosted by Joe Hanson, Ph.D.
Director: Joe Nicolosi
Writer: Joe Hanson
Producer/editor/animator: Andrew Matthews
Producer: Stephanie Noone and Amanda Fox

Produced by PBS Digital Studios
Music via APM
Stock images from Shutterstock

The Two People We're All Related To

Check out Two Cents:

Due to an odd quirk of genetics and some unique evolutionary circumstances, two humans who lived at different times in the distant past managed to pass on a very small fraction of their genomes to you. And to me. To all of us.

Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios:

Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible:

Katie Fichtner, Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Anthony Callaghan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Anel Salas, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Sapjes, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao. Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan

If you'd like to support the channel, head over to and pledge for some cool rewards!

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Why You're Related to Everybody Else

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Animations courtesy of Josh Sherrington of Heliosphere and Jorrit van Ginkel:


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Special thanks to my Patrons: Danny Clemens, Adam Kelly, Sarah Hughes, Greg Parham, Owen, Donna

Videos explaining things. Mostly over topics like history, geography, economics and science.

We believe that the world is a wonderfully fascinating place, and you can find wonder anywhere you look. That is what our videos attempt to convey.

Currently, I try my best to release one video every week. Bear with me :)

Nessi Gomes - All Related (Official Lyric Video)

All Related - Lyric Video - Directed by Orion Eshel

Acoustic Guitar, Lead Vocal : Nessi Gomes.
Choir, Back Up Vocals : Jonas Winter, Danit Treubig.
Double Bass: Misha Mullov-Abbado.
Acoustic Guitar: Jonas Winter.
Cello: Matthew Barley.
Waira: Nick Barbachano.
Accordion, Mellotron, Drums: Duncan Bridgeman.

Lyrics & music: Nessi Gomes.
Produced, Engineered, Arranged : Duncan Bridgeman.
Post production and sound processing : Nigel Butler.
Mixed: Joe Dworniak, Nigel Butler, Duncan Bridgeman.
Mastered: Joe Dworniak.

Nessi Gomes - All Related


Wakan Tanka
Gran Espirito


Wakan tanka

En el cielo
Con los pájaros que vuelan
Las oraciones

Y amor, misterio de la luna
Amor, mi vida preciosa
Amor, dame dame fuerza
Amor, confía medicina

I crossed over
Anxious spirit
Lost my knowing
Confused senses

Ancient voices
Spill their secrets
Taking footsteps
With our Mother

All related
Broken hearted
No more darkness

With this love, we are all related
In love, give me strength
In this love, we are all related
In love, give me strength in this

Na-na-na-na-na, na-na-na-na Yage
Na-na-na-na-na, na-na-na-na Yage
Na-na-na-na-na, na-na-na-na Yage
Na-na-na-na-na-na, we are all related

Cura, cura, cura, cura, cura, cura, cura, cura mi
Cura, cura, cura, cura, cura, cura, cura, cura mi
Cura, cura, cura, cura, cura, cura, cura, cura mi
Cura, cura, cura, cura, cura, cura, cura, cura mi


Y amor, misterio de la luna
Amor, mi vida preciosa
Amor, dame dame fuerza
Amor, confía medici

We are all related in love
Give me strength in this love
We are related in love
Give me strength in this love

Na-na-na-na-na, na-na-na-na Yage
Na-na-na-na-na, na-na-na-na Yage
Na-na-na-na-na, na-na-na-na Yage
Na-na-na-na-na-na, we are all related

Mitakuye Oyasin, "We Are All Related"

We are all one. Everyone helped in their own way and everyone came from different places throughout the United States, coming together in Pine Ridge to learn from the Lakota people. This is the visual story of the adventure in Pine Ridge, South Dakota.

Are You Related To Royalty?

What are the chances you are related to royalty? Were your ancestors royals? What does your DNA say about your ancestry?


WEBSITE (You can suggest a topic):




Sources for this episode:

Some Images used under license from

The Truth of Life (How Everything is ALL connected and ONE)

The Secret of ALL Secrets (An excerpt from THRIVE Movie)

Full Movie in the following Link:
(also available in 29 languages)

We are all related

The project uses the saying Mitakuye Oyasin, meaning all my relations in Lakota, as a starting point to look at diversity across many cultures.

Created by 2015 Exposures Participants, Damien Pizarro, Texli Gallegos, and Taylahni Jackson.

Are we all related? Are we all connected?

Are we all related? Yes, in fact, all life is related. You Are Related to a Tomato! A lot of you know that apes and humans share a common ancestor – so you know you’re related to Bonzo the ape at your local zoo. But did you know that you ALSO share a common ancestor with a Tomato……. yeah…You are related to this tomato!

You may have nieces, nephews and first and second cousins – you are all related because you have the same ancestor – in this case a grandmother or grandfather or great grandparent. Similarly, if you go back enough generations – the ape that you see at your local zoo and you share a common ancestor. But it turns out that our relationship to other living things goes much much deeper than you imagined.

You see…All living things share the blueprint of life – that “blueprint” is a molecule called DNA. This orangutan and I share 97% of our DNA, and this chimp shares 99% of his DNA with me. But you probably already knew that…didn’t you? That we all come from apes – well, to be accurate We share a common ancestor with apes that lived probably about 3-6 million years ago. Just like you and your drunk -- 2nd cousin Bobby have the same ancestor – a great grandfather who lived maybe 100 years ago.

But did you know that we also share a common ancestor with this Tomato!!!!! Truth is…There is only one type of DNA made up of only 4 different types of molecules called nucleotides. And all living things – plants and animals, are based on this SAME DNA. The only difference is the order…or sequence of these bases, that determines the differences in living things.

By sequencing the genes of various organisms, researchers have found that ALL living things – plants, animals share common DNA sequences. This confirms the mind blowing truth that all living things shared a common ancestor. This common ancestor that lived probably 3 to 4 billion years ago, when earth was in its infancy. This was probably a one celled organism. And all the diversity of life on earth today has evolved from this living thing. And do you know that he…or she…or it…even has a name. It’s name is LUCA!!

Yes – LUCA (Last Universal Common Ancestor).

Just close your eyes for a minute and imagine what that means…when you chop down that tree, when you kill a chicken, when you order mushroom on a pizza…you are destroying a distant cousin.

99.9% - Other Humans
98% - Chimpanzees
90% - Cats
70% - Worm
60% - Mushrooms
50% - Tomatoes and onions

So Yeah, we are more closely related to and we share a crazy 60% of our DNA with this mushroom. This mushroom and I share a common ancestor that lived about 1 Billion years ago. It was later that mushrooms and animals like us went on a separate evolutionary path.

Ever notice how eating a mushrooms feels like eating chicken, more than like eating a salad? This is not a coincidence. The next time you order a pizza, just remember, that mushroom you ordered is close to cannibalism, compared to the onions you put on it.

Are we all related? Finding the Most Recent Common Ancestor

The most recent common ancestor or MRCA is the common ancestor from where a set of individuals are directly descended. You grandfather is the MRCA of you and your cousin; your great grandfather is the most recent common ancestor of you and your second cousin and so on. In this video I explore the ground breaking work done by L. T. Rohde, Steve Olson & Joseph T. Chang. They created complex models that took historical human migration routes into account to identify the human we are all descended from. The results of their calculations are quite surprising as I explain in the video.

To read the original paper check the following links:


Mitakuye Oyasin (We Are All Related) 2015

Human Beings We are all related Mitakuye Oyasin

Mitakuye Oyasin We are all related We are (humanbeings) One.
Credit : Wisdom Keepers.

We Are All Related - Aneel Chima, Brandon Peele, Samantha Sweetwater, Julian Norris, & Andrea Dennis

Filmed on 11/11/17 at The Purpose Summit in San Francisco.

Following Aneel Chima’s talk that explores human flourishing and the role of purpose, we continue the discussion with a panel of multidisciplinary leaders. Since we know from both indigenous wisdom and modern science that everything in the universe is intimately interconnected, we also know that human flourishing is deeply interwoven with the harmonious thriving of all life on earth. In this panel, we will continue to explore the cultivation of human flourishing through purpose-making and investigate our potential to flower more fully than we can currently imagine as part of the living, breathing fabric of the Earth and Universe we call home.

Learn more about The Purpose Summit at

Learn more about The Global Purpose Movement at

Waasa-Inaabidaa Episode One - We Are All Related

Episode One: Gakina-awiiya - We Are All Related explores the Ojibwe relationship with the natural environment before European contact, and how the land and lives of Ojibwe people were dramatically altered when this delicate balance clashed with the Euro-American philosophies of resource exploitation, treaties, land ownership, and reservations.

Finally, witness Ojibwe self-determination in the late 20th century, which firmly reconnects the traditional Ojibwe relationship with all living things. Contemporary times have seen the re-affirmation of off-reservation treaty rights for hunting, fishing, and gathering. The thrust of contemporary Ojibwe tribal governments has been positive natural resource management and a return to the understanding that we are all related on this earth.

We Are All Related - Kenneth Little Hawk Shares the Wisdom of His Ancestors

- Kenneth Little Hawk shares his ancestors wisdom that we are all related. The time is now to treat all with love and respect. See his new book, The Common Thread That Binds Us, at You can visit his official website at


In a western Alaskan village, an Indigenous community is at imminent risk of being displaced by climate change.

Directed, Produced, Edited by Brian McDermott

Music in Trailer by Rudy Adrian from the album Moonwater

Honorable Mention—2015 Anchorage International Film Festival
Official Selection—2016 Colorado Environmental Film Festival
Official Selection—2016 Bellingham Human Rights Film Festival

For more information about the film, Like/Follow our Facebook page:

We are all Related...

DNA Proves we are all Related by Adam: Race Doesn't Exist!

Race doesnt exist, why does Racism?

Race: a group of persons related by Common Descent or Heredity.

Scientific Rasism
Large parts of the academic community take the position that, while racial categories may be marked by sets of common phenotypic or genotypic traits, the popular idea of race is a social construct without base in scientific fact.

The physical features commonly seen as indicating race are salient visual traits such as skin color, cranial or facial features and hair texture. As the science of anthropology took shape in the 19th century, European and American scientists increasingly sought explanations for the behavioral and cultural differences they attributed to groups. In Charles Darwin's most controversial book, The Descent of Man, he made strong suggestions of racial differences and European superiority.

3 great race, The Negroid, Mongoloid, Caucasian

Martin Luther King rightfully objected to the term black on the grounds that it reduced an entire people, to a single colour. More recent research in population genetics refers to populations within sub-Saharan Africa as Khoisanid and Black African. West Africans speaking the Niger-Kordofanian language were found to share many genetic traits with African-Americans, indicating they were the ancestors of most of the slaves sent to the New World.

Mongoloids suffer from too great a dispersal to be convincingly considered as a single-race; too many Cherokees boast D-ancestry.

Indians, Cambodians, Levantines, Brazilians, Mexicans, and a slew of other groups cannot be pinned down racially

whites and negroes are the only two clearly genetically discernible races

Complications such as these have some scientists suggesting that race is entirely a social construct. Eye color, skin tone, and physiognomy, is highly valued in the USA where it is the official way of categorizing citizens since the nations birth! The same facts have no validity in Russia and Argentina, which would consider their institutionalization irrelevant, and would be considered outright dangerous and preposterous, in continental Europe.

Racial identity is part-and-parcel of an Americans concept of the self but for a Russian and Argentianian, it is still secondary to that of ethnicity, language, culture, and location.

Please watch Part 2 of this Series called:

Were all the Nations Created Equally?

anDeoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses. The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of information.

The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic information. Within cells, DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. Males have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes.

The Y-Chromosome in a male holds important information about that individual's ancestry.

By testing your Y-Chromosome, a DNA laboratory can provide you with your DNA markers which is specific for your family line. Unlike all of the other chromosomes, the Y-Chromosome is unique because it is passed down relatively unchanged along the male lineage and thus holds valuable information about a male's ancestry.



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