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What is EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE? What does EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE mean? EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE meaning

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What is EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE? What does EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE mean? EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE meaning

What is EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE? What does EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE mean? EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE meaning - EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE definition - EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE explanation.

Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under license.

Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences. In particular, it considers interactions between the Earth's spheres—atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, pedosphere, biosphere, and, even, the magnetosphere—as well as the impact of human societies on these components. At its broadest scale, Earth system science brings together researchers across both the natural and social sciences, from fields including ecology, economics, geology, glaciology, meteorology, oceanography, paleontology, sociology, and space science. Like the broader subject of systems science, Earth system science assumes a holistic view of the dynamic interaction between the Earth's spheres and their many constituent subsystems, the resulting organization and time evolution of these systems, and their stability or instability. Subsets of Earth system science include systems geology and systems ecology, and many aspects of Earth system science are fundamental to the subjects of physical geography and climate science.

The Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, offers the following description: Earth system science embraces chemistry, physics, biology, mathematics and applied sciences in transcending disciplinary boundaries to treat the Earth as an integrated system. It seeks a deeper understanding of the physical, chemical, biological and human interactions that determine the past, current and future states of the Earth. Earth system science provides a physical basis for understanding the world in which we live and upon which humankind seeks to achieve sustainability.

For millennia, humans have speculated how the physical and living elements on the surface of the Earth combine, with gods and goddesses frequently posited to embody specific elements. The notion that the Earth, itself, is alive was a regular theme of Greek philosophy and religion. Early scientific interpretations of the Earth system began in the field of geology, initially in the Middle East and China, and largely focused on aspects such as the age of the Earth and the large-scale processes involved in mountain and ocean formation. As geology developed as a science, understanding of the interplay of different facets of the Earth system increased, leading to the inclusion of factors such as the Earth's interior, planetary geology and living systems.

In many respects, the foundational concepts of Earth system science can be seen in the holistic interpretations of nature promoted by the 19th century geographer Alexander von Humboldt. In the 20th century, Vladimir Vernadsky (1863-1945) saw the functioning of the biosphere as a geological force generating a dynamic disequilibrium, which in turn promoted the diversity of life. In the mid-1960s, James Lovelock first postulated a regulatory role for the biosphere in feedback mechanisms within the Earth system. Initially named the Earth Feedback hypothesis, Lovelock later renamed it the Gaia hypothesis, and subsequently further developed the theory with American evolutionary theorist Lynn Margulis during the 1970s. In parallel, the field of systems science was developing across numerous other scientific fields, driven in part by the increasing availability and power of computers, and leading to the development of climate models that began to allow the detailed and interacting simulations of the Earth's weather and climate. Subsequent extension of these models has led to the development of Earth system models (ESMs) that include facets such as the cryosphere and the biosphere.

As an integrative field, Earth system science assumes the histories of a vast range of scientific disciplines, but as a discrete study it evolved in the 1980s, particularly at NASA, where a committee called the Earth System Science Committee was formed in 1983. The earliest reports of NASA's ESSC, Earth System Science: Overview (1986), and the book-length Earth System Science: A Closer View (1988), constitute a major landmark in the formal development of Earth system science. Early works discussing Earth system science, like these NASA reports, generally emphasized the increasing human impacts on the Earth system as a primary driver for the need of greater integration among the life and geo-sciences, making the origins of Earth system science parallel to the beginnings of global change studies and programs.

The Earth System

This video describes the four main components of the Earth system (atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere), how matter is exchanged between the components, and how a change in some aspect of one part of the system will result in changes in other system components. We describe the Earth system in terms of reservoirs and flux between them and discuss how the movement of carbon occurs between system components.

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Earth Systems Science

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A brief overview to the area of Earth Systems Science where we will be looking at the different spheres that make up Earth as a complex adaptive system.



Transcription:
Earth systems science is the interdisciplinary study of earth as a complex system, composed of multiple physical and biological process that interact within cycles or spheres to give rise to the overall state of the earth as an entire systems.

Of cause people have been studying earth for a long time, geologies study the formation of rocks, metrologies are interested in the atmosphere and so on,
With all of these different domains supported by the deep understanding of our physical environment that physics has built up over the past few centuries.

But it is only more recently that satellites have started to allow us to see earth as an entirety and human activity has begun to have a significant enough effect to alter earth systems making it increasingly important for us to be able to model and manage them.

From space we can view the net results of earths complex interactions and with high-tech sensors on land and in the ocean, we are getting an clear idea of its overall make up, from this researchers in different domains are discovering how their pieces of the puzzle are related to each other.

Earth systems science then tries to develop models that gives an integrated picture of how all these parts fit together, the first of these models is of earth as a systems in space with inputs and outputs of energy or radiation from the sun, with this energy being the primary factor in driving the dynamics process within the system.


As opposed to focusing on the static properties of earths individual components
Earth systems science instead takes a more dynamic view of the world, studying the ways energy and materials cycle through the different subsystems or what are called -spheres

Earths different sphere are largely defined by the different phases of mater they are composed of thus the atmosphere is composed of gasses, the hydrosphere of liquid water and the lithosphere solid minerals added to this is the biosphere
The sum of all biological material and processes.

Within each sphere a process called a cycles take place, for example in the lithosphere we have the rock cycle driven by the thermal energy within earth's interior that releases minerals through ocean ridges and volcanoes that are weathered as they cycle through earths crust and are eventual subducted returning to their origin



The hydro cycle driven by the thermal energy of the sun, cycles water between the earths surface and atmosphere through the process of evaporation, condensation and precipitation, this process helps to distribute moisture to support ecosystems at a variety of locations

The atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet that is held in place by gravity, it is the primary vehicle of temperature and climate regulation through the Cycle of carbon in and out of the atmosphere where it functions, through the green house effect to trap the suns heart.

The biosphere is the relatively thin layer of Earth's surface that supports all biological activity on earth. The biosphere is a system also characterized by the continuous cycling of matter and energy in the form of the flow of solar energy and nutrient mineral cycles.

Solar energy flows through the biosphere along a unidirectional path, as the suns energy is inputted through plant photosynthesis and process up through what are called trophic levels form primary producers to herbivores and on to predators and apex predators.

Along side the flow of energy through food webs it the cycling of mineral nutrients the core substances required for the construction of biological materials and processes, carbon, water, oxygen, nitrogen have been continuously cycled through the biosphere from one generation to the next for billions of years

These different spheres interact to create a unique state or ecosystem, an ecosystems is the combination of a community of biological organism and a particular physical environment with which they interact...
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Earth System Science 1: Intro to ESS. Lecture 8. Volcanoes

UCI ESS 1: Introduction to Earth System Science (Fall 2013)
Lec 08. Introduction to Earth System Science -- Volcanoes --
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Instructor: Julie Ferguson, Ph.D.

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Description: Earth System Science covers the following topics: the origin and evolution of the Earth, atmosphere, oceans, perspective of biogeochemical cycles, energy use, and human impacts on the Earth system.

Recorded October 14, 2013.

Required attribution: Ferguson, Julie. Introduction to Earth System Science 1 (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 United States License. (
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Four Spheres Part 1 (Geo and Bio): Crash Course Kids #6.1

In this episode of Crash Course Kids, Sabrina talks about two of the four spheres that make up our planet; The Geosphere and the Biosphere. What's in these spheres? How do they affect us? How do they fit into the puzzle that is Earth? All is contained within!

This first series is based on 5th grade science. We're super excited and hope you enjoy Crash Course Kids!

///Standards Used in This Video///
5-ESS2-1. Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact. [Clarification Statement: Examples could include the influence of the ocean on ecosystems, landform shape, and climate; the influence of the atmosphere on landforms and ecosystems through weather and climate; and the influence of mountain ranges on winds and clouds in the atmosphere. The geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere are each a system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to the interactions of two systems at a time.]

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Credits...

Executive Producers: John & Hank Green
Producer & Editor: Nicholas Jenkins
Cinematographer & Director: Michael Aranda
Host: Sabrina Cruz
Script Supervisor: Mickie Halpern
Writer: Ben Kessler
Consultant: Shelby Alinsky
Script Editor: Blake de Pastino

Thought Cafe Team:
Stephanie Bailis
Cody Brown
Suzanna Brusikiewicz
Jonathan Corbiere
Nick Counter
Kelsey Heinrichs
Jack Kenedy
Corey MacDonald
Tyler Sammy
Nikkie Stinchcombe
James Tuer
Adam Winnik

Earth System Science 1: Intro to ESS. Lecture 5. Plate Tectonics

UCI ESS 1: Introduction to Earth System Science (Fall 2013)
Lec 05. Introduction to Earth System Science -- Plate Tectonics --
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Instructor: Julie Ferguson, Ph.D.

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Description: Earth System Science covers the following topics: the origin and evolution of the Earth, atmosphere, oceans, perspective of biogeochemical cycles, energy use, and human impacts on the Earth system.

Recorded October 7, 2013.

Required attribution: Ferguson, Julie. Introduction to Earth System Science 1 (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 United States License. (
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Earth System Science 1: Intro to ESS. Lecture 19. The Biosphere, Part I.

UCI ESS 1: Introduction to Earth System Science (Fall 2013)
Lec 19. Introduction to Earth System Science -- The Biosphere -- Part 1
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Instructor: Julie Ferguson, Ph.D.

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Description: Earth System Science covers the following topics: the origin and evolution of the Earth, atmosphere, oceans, perspective of biogeochemical cycles, energy use, and human impacts on the Earth system.

Recorded November 15, 2013.

Required attribution: Ferguson, Julie. Introduction to Earth System Science 1 (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 United States License. (

What is EARTH SYSTEM GOVERNANCE? What does EARTH SYSTEM GOVERNANCE mean?

What is EARTH SYSTEM GOVERNANCE? What does EARTH SYSTEM GOVERNANCE mean? EARTH SYSTEM GOVERNANCE meaning - EARTH SYSTEM GOVERNANCE definition - EARTH SYSTEM GOVERNANCE explanation.

Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under license.

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Earth system governance is a recently developed paradigm that builds on earlier notions of environmental policy and nature conservation, but puts these into the broader context of human-induced transformations of the entire earth system. It conceptualizes the system of formal and informal rules, rule-making mechanisms and actor-networks at all levels of human society (from local to global) that are set up to steer societies towards preventing, mitigating, and adapting to global and local environmental change and earth system transformation, within the normative context of sustainable development.

The notion of governance refers to forms of steering that are less hierarchical than traditional governmental policy-making (even though most modern governance arrangements will also include some degree of hierarchy), rather decentralized, open to self-organization, and inclusive of non-state actors that range from industry and non-governmental organizations to scientists, indigenous communities, city governments and international organizations.

The integrative new paradigm of earth system governance has evolved into an active research area that brings together a variety of social science disciplines including political science, sociology, economics, ecology, policy studies, geography, sustainability science, and law.

Major international conferences on ‘Earth System Governance’ have been held, or are being prepared in Amsterdam (2007, 2009), Berlin (2008, 2010), Colorado (2011), Lund (2012), Tokyo (2013) and Norwich (2014). In 2015, the 6th Annual Earth System Governance Conference will take place in Canberra. This conference is co-hosted by the Australian National University and the University of Canberra.

Workshops, summer schools, and training programmes have been organised in many places in Europe, Asia, and North America.

On 16–19 May 2011, more than twenty Nobel Laureates, several leading policy-makers and some of the world’s most renowned thinkers and experts on global sustainability met for the Third Nobel Laureate Symposium on Global Sustainability at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. The Nobel Laureate Symposium concluded with the Stockholm Memorandum, calling for strengthening of Earth System Governance as a priority for coherent global action. This memorandum has been submitted to the High-level Panel on Global Sustainability appointed by the UN Secretary General and fed into the preparations for the 2012 UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20).

In 2009, the UN-sponsored global change research networks have set up a long-term research programme in earth system governance, the Earth System Governance Project. The Earth System Governance Project currently consists of a network of ca. 300 active and about 2,300 indirectly involved scholars from all continents, and is the largest social science research network in the area of governance and global environmental change. The Earth System Governance Project is essentially a scientific effort, but also aims to assist policy responses to the pressing problems of global environmental change. The International Project Office of the Earth System Governance Project is based at Lund University, Sweden.

Research centres on ‘Earth System Governance’ have been set up or designated at VU University Amsterdam; the Australian National University; Chiang Mai University; Colorado State University; Lund University; University of East Anglia; University of Oldenburg; the Stockholm Resilience Centre; the University of Toronto; the Tokyo Institute of Technology and Yale University. In addition, strong networks on earth system governance research exist in China, Latin America, Central and Eastern Europe, and Russia.

E3SM: DOE’s New, State-of-the-Science Earth System Model

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today unveiled a powerful, new earth system model that uses the world’s fastest computers so that scientists can better understand how earth system processes interact today and how they may evolve in the future. The Energy Exascale Earth System model, or E3SM, is the product of four years of development by top geophysical and computational scientists across DOE’s laboratory complex. This video highlights the capabilities and goals of the E3SM project. For more information, visit

This video was made possible by the following individuals:

E3SM Model Simulations
Peter Bosler, Sandia National Laboratories
Peter Caldwell, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Chris Golaz, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Robert Jacob, Argonne National Laboratory
Noel Keen, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Jayesh Krishna, Argonne National Laboratory
Wuyin Lin, Brookhaven National Laboratory
Mathew Maltrud, Los Alamos National Laboratory
Azamat Mametjanov, Argonne National Laboratory
Qi Tang, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Luke Van Roekel, Los Alamos National Laboratory
Jon Wolfe, Los Alamos National Laboratory
And the rest of the E3SM Team

E3SM Project Team Leadership
Dorothy Koch, DOE Program Manager, Earth System Modeling
David Bader, Principal Investigator and Council Chair, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Ruby Leung, Chief Scientist, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Mark Taylor, Chief Computational Scientist, Sandia National Laboratories
Renata B McCoy, Project Engineer, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Philip Rasch, Council Member and Atmosphere Group Lead, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Shaocheng Xie, Atmosphere Group Lead, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Todd Ringler, Council Member and Ocean/Ice Group lead, Los Alamos National Laboratory
Stephen Price, Ocean/Ice Group Lead, Los Alamos National Laboratory
Peter E Thornton, Council Member and Land Group Lead, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
William J Riley, Council Member and Land Group Lead, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Kate Calvin, Land Group Lead, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Philip Jones, Council Member and Performance Group Lead, Los Alamos National Laboratory
Pat Worley, Performance Group Lead, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Robert Jacob, Council Member and Software Engineer/Coupler Group Lead, Argonne National Laboratory
Andrew G Salinger, Software Engineer/Coupler Group Lead, Sandia National Laboratories
Dean Williams, Council Member and Workflow Group Lead, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Valentine Anantharaj, Workflow Group Lead, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
James J Hack, Ex-officio Council Member, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
William Large, Ex-officio Council Member, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)
Esmond G Ng, Ex-officio Council Member, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Understanding Earth System Science

Interview with Sarah Cornell, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Read more here:
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Earth System Science 1: Intro to ESS. Lecture 25. The Climate System and Past Climates

UCI ESS 1: Introduction to Earth System Science (Fall 2013)
Lec 25. Introduction to Earth System Science -- The Climate System and Past Climates --
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Instructor: Julie Ferguson, Ph.D.

License: Creative Commons CC-BY-SA
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Description: Earth System Science covers the following topics: the origin and evolution of the Earth, atmosphere, oceans, perspective of biogeochemical cycles, energy use, and human impacts on the Earth system.

Recorded December 2, 2013.

Required attribution: Ferguson, Julie. Introduction to Earth System Science 1 (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 United States License. (

Earth System Science 1: Intro to ESS. Lecture 20. The Biosphere, Part II.

UCI ESS 1: Introduction to Earth System Science (Fall 2013)
Lec 20. Introduction to Earth System Science -- The Biosphere -- Part 2
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Instructor: Julie Ferguson, Ph.D.

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Description: Earth System Science covers the following topics: the origin and evolution of the Earth, atmosphere, oceans, perspective of biogeochemical cycles, energy use, and human impacts on the Earth system.

Recorded November 18, 2013.

Required attribution: Ferguson, Julie. Introduction to Earth System Science 1 (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 United States License. (
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Earth System Science Part 2: Geosphere

I have another school project so i made a miniseries of vids. engoy fun.

The Earth System (Science Learning Hub)

In this video, 4 New Zealand scientists – Dave Campbell, Louis Schipper, David Hamilton and Keith Hunter – talk about how the water cycle is part of Earth’s system. They point out that Earth’s system consists of 4 subsystems – the geospherehydrosphereatmosphere and biosphere – which all interact with each other.

In the past, scientists used to think of Earth’s subsystems as working in isolation. In recent times, however, they have realise how important one system is to another.

When you watch this video, note when the scientists draw attention to where systems overlap. (Dave Campbell is talking about the biosphere extending into the atmosphere and geosphere.)

Jargon alert
Paradigm – a set of concepts or models.

Transcript
PROF KEITH HUNTER
I think the most important paradigm that we've… well, the most important new idea that we've come up with in the last 20 or 30 years, is that you can't look at things like the physics of the ocean, the chemistry of the ocean, the biology of the ocean, as separate things that happen. They are all really closely interlinked, so we think of the Earth as a system.

NARRATOR
Earth is a system that is broken into a number of subsystems – the geosphere, the biosphere, the hydrosphere and the atmosphere

DR DAVE CAMPBELL
The atmosphere and the geosphere are fairly distinct, but I guess people think that the biosphere is very much just what we see on the surface of the land. And in actual fact, the biosphere extends a lot higher up into the atmosphere, and a lot deeper under the ground than what we think. Geologists and groundwater scientists find bacteria living in groundwater systems hundreds of metres underneath the Earth's surface, and a strange fact is that bacteria play a very active role in the precipitation process. So some sorts of bacteria are important for causing cloud droplets – that are microscopic little droplets of water that are in clouds – to freeze. Without bacteria, it’s very difficult for droplets in clouds to freeze. So the biosphere can extend quite high up into the atmosphere.

NARRATOR
The Earth's subsystems are interconnected by processes and cycles. Over time, they store, transform and transfer matter and energy throughout the whole Earth system, and react with each other. An example is when rains hits land.

ASSOC PROF LOUIS SCHIPPER
Water from rain comes down onto the land and the soil and the plants growing on it, and it is important that water can infiltrate it, and then be held by soil so that the plants can then access it. If that water just flows through down into groundwater, the plants are not going to be able to grow on it, and it’s not going to be able to support forest, or plants and animals – that sort of thing. So the soil has to be able to hold onto that water, and when it rains, the water predominantly ends up in smallest holes first. That is where it’s stored, and that is because those small pores can hold onto water really quite tightly.

PROF DAVID HAMILTON
Well it could take up to 140 years for the water to actually seep through into the groundwater, through the soil and reach the lake, and it may enter directly into the lake or it may create a spring that then feeds into the lake.

NARRATOR
These interactions between the different subsystems, such as the hydrosphere and the geosphere, are a response of each system to maintain its stability. As a result, the Earth’s system is complex and dynamic.

Acknowledgements:
Dr David Campbell, Waikato University
Prof. Keith Hunter, Otago University
Prof. Louis Schipper, Waikato University
Prof. David Hamilton, Waikato University
Flyover NZ/Rotorua Lakes model by Mathew Allan
Cirrus and cumulus cloud images, Edward Hyde
Streaky sky image, Brenda Anderson
Cumulonimbus image, Philip Norton
Edward Hyde
Mud puddle image, Dr Ravi Gooneratne, Lincoln University
Cow footage, Dexcel and the New Zealand Biotechnology Hub

Earth System Science Part 4: Atmosphere and Biosphere

I had a school project so i made a miniseries of vids for you. engoy fun
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Earth System Science 21. On Thin Ice. Lecture 01. Introduction

UCI ESS 21: On Thin Ice (Winter 2014)
Lec 01. On Thin Ice -- Introduction --
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Instructor: Julie Ferguson, Ph.D.

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Description: In recent decades we have observed a significant reduction of the cryosphere due to anthropogenic climate change. The observed and predicted changes in the extent and amount of snow and ice will have major impacts on climate, ecosystems and human populations both at a local and global scale. This course will introduce students to the science behind climate change as well as the physical and chemical processes that govern components of the cryosphere, including snow, permafrost, sea ice, glaciers and ice sheets. Particular emphasis will be placed on the important role that each component plays in the larger climate system and potential feedbacks. We will also examine some of the social, economic and political impacts that the melting cryosphere will have on countries around the Arctic and also worldwide, such as access to new petroleum reserves, infrastructure damage due to melting permafrost, sea level rise and decreases in freshwater availability.

Recorded on January 6, 2014.

Required attribution: Ferguson, Julie. On Thin Ice 21 (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 United States License. (

Earth System Science Part 1: Introduction to ESS

This is part one of a mini-series i did for a school project. it is enjoyable and educational. so you should watch it definitely all the way through and stuff

Earth System Science 1: Intro to ESS. Lecture 4. What Control's Our Planet's Temperature?

UCI ESS 1: Introduction to Earth System Science (Fall 2013)
Lec 04. Introduction to Earth System Science -- What Controls Our Planet's Temperature --
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Instructor: Julie Ferguson, Ph.D.

License: Creative Commons CC-BY-SA
Terms of Use:
More courses at

Description: Earth System Science covers the following topics: the origin and evolution of the Earth, atmosphere, oceans, perspective of biogeochemical cycles, energy use, and human impacts on the Earth system.

Recorded October 4, 2013.

Required attribution: Ferguson, Julie. Introduction to Earth System Science 1 (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 United States License. (

Four Spheres Part 2 (Hydro and Atmo): Crash Course Kids #6.2

The second part of our two part tale of the puzzle that is Earth. In this episode, Sabrina talks about the Hydrosphere and the Atmosphere and what is contained in each one. Let's dive in!!!

This first series is based on 5th grade science. We're super excited and hope you enjoy Crash Course Kids!

///Standards Used in This Video///
5-ESS2-1. Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact. [Clarification Statement: Examples could include the influence of the ocean on ecosystems, landform shape, and climate; the influence of the atmosphere on landforms and ecosystems through weather and climate; and the influence of mountain ranges on winds and clouds in the atmosphere. The geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere are each a system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to the interactions of two systems at a time.]

Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet?
Crash Course Main Channel:
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Credits...

Executive Producers: John & Hank Green
Producer & Editor: Nicholas Jenkins
Cinematographer & Director: Michael Aranda
Host: Sabrina Cruz
Script Supervisor: Mickie Halpern
Writer: Ben Kessler
Consultant: Shelby Alinsky
Script Editor: Blake de Pastino

Thought Cafe Team:
Stephanie Bailis
Cody Brown
Suzanna Brusikiewicz
Jonathan Corbiere
Nick Counter
Kelsey Heinrichs
Jack Kenedy
Corey MacDonald
Tyler Sammy
Nikkie Stinchcombe
James Tuer
Adam Winnik

Earth Systems & Resources Part I

Layers of the Earth, Convection Currents, Sea Floor Spreading, Plate Tectonics, Continental Drift

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