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What is a Black Hole? What Happens Inside a Black Hole?


What's Inside A Black Hole? | Unveiled

What's Inside A Black Hole?

Black holes are mysterious and bizarre objects in the universe that really have no explanation. In fact, we hardly know anything about what lies inside of a black hole. We know and understand what we see on the outside of a black hole, but we have no way of going inside one to take a look at what is really happening. Even if we sent a probe inside a black hole, it would not survive the journey, and there would be no way that the probe could transmit a signal outside once it had been sucked inside. This is because a black hole is the product of mass being squeezed together so densely, and so tightly, that it creates a gravitational pull that is so strong, that not even light can escape its grasp.

Supermassive black holes with masses millions to billions of times that of the sun are thought to lurk at the hearts of all galaxies in the universe. You may notice that when you see a photo of a spiral galaxy, such as the Milky Way, in the center of the galaxy is a giant mass of light, which many people would think looks like a massive sun.

But this is not light coming from the black hole itself. Remember, that light cannot escape the heavy gravitational pull. Instead, the light we see comes from the magnetic fields near a spinning black hole that propel electrons outward in a jet along the rotation axis. The electrons produce bright radio waves. Quasars are believed to produce their energy from massive black holes in the center of the galaxies in which the quasars are located. Because quasars are so bright, they drown out the light from all the other stars in the same galaxy.

You’re probably asking, ‘well, what’s a quasar?’ A Quasar is the short name for ‘quasi-stellar object’ and is a very highly energetic object surrounding an actively feeding Supermassive Black Hole. In more basic terms, the Supermassive Black Hole in the middle of a galaxy feeds intermittently. As it feeds, gas swirls around it at incredible speeds and forms an insanely bright hot orbiting disk. And if the black hole is swallowing a large amount of material, this feeding is accompanied by gigantic jets of gas. These are called Quasar. They are essentially fueled by the Black Holes they orbit.

Black Holes Explained – From Birth to Death

Black holes. Lets talk about them.

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Travel INSIDE a Black Hole

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What is Inside a Black Hole? Beyond the Event Horizon: Another Universe?

What is inside a Black Hole? A black hole is really not a celestial body like a planet or a star. There is really no substance there other than a severely curved space-time. It’a a region in space where matter is condensed to a theoretical infinitely small point – so small in fact that this point effectively disappears from our universe. This is called the gravitational singularity.

So if there is nothing there, what does it mean when we talk about different size black holes? When we talk about the size of a black hole, we are really talking about the size of its event horizon.

The radius of this event horizon is called the Schwarzschild radius. What happens beyond the event horizon can be ascertained by general relativity, but what happens at the singularity is anyone’s guess. The more massive a black hole is, the less its “density” and the less dangerous it is. Very large black holes like the one at the center of the milky way called Sagittarius A* has about the same density as that of water. You could likely go deep inside Sagittarius A*’s event horizon before tidal forces eventually tore you apart near the singularity.

As Adam gets closer to the event horizon, we notice that he speeds up, then he slows down and his space suit appears to get redder and fainter until he disappears from our view. He is still there, but the light reflecting off of him is so red shifted that it is invisible even to our infrared cameras.

He would appear to be completely stationary. This is because at the event horizon, from the perspective of the ship, time stops completely.
From Adam’s perspective his time is running just fine. Spacetime curves more and more severely as he gets close to the black hole. Looking back, all the light reaching him is being blue shifted. Light that was infra red, not visible to him before, is now in the visible spectrum. And light that was visible before has blue shifted to x-rays, and even gamma rays.

Would he be able to see the entire future history of the universe just before he enters the event horizon? He could view this. But it would only be viewable as a small dot of light directly overhead. How is it possible that the people on the ship see Adam as not moving, but Adam is moving and doing just fine? Both perspectives are correct.

This is because the laws of quantum mechanics requires that Adam remains on the outside of the event horizon because otherwise it would violate the conservation laws – that information can never be lost. Einstein’s theory however requires that relative to Adam, nothing is different. Time for him ticks normally.

Adam is now inside the event horizon. But not much changes for him. But he cannot see the light that fell before him, and he can never actually sees the singularity because all light is headed towards it, no light is headed away from it. He still has a sense of upness and downness inside the black hole, but every direction feels downwards.

Time becomes space inside the black hole. Once Adam reaches the singularity, will be ripped to shreds. Is there any way that Adam can escape this grim fate? There are two theoretical scenarios in which he may actually survive. First, if this black hole is charged, called a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole, the singularity singularity creates such a high centrifugal force, that space near it becomes gravitationally repulsive instead of attractive. And this spinning singularity creates an inner horizon that is a worm hole or an Einstein-Rosen bridge. Then he would be catapulted out through a white hole.

And in the second case, if the theory of Loop Quantum Gravity is correct, then there would be no singularity in a black hole at all. This case would be very similar to the rotating black hole, except there would be no infinitely bright light.

And how long would yours or Adam’s trip inside the black hole last? Well in all scenarios it will take only about 16 seconds. So not much time for sight-seeing. The black hole is where quantum mechanics and Relativity collide. Gravity becomes a dominant force at the quantum scale at the singularity.

The great secret that black holes may reveal to us is that there is no objective reality. Reality depends on whom you ask. It seems to be observer dependent. Ultimately Einstein’s equations may lead us to an understanding that not only is time relative, but reality itself may be relative.

#blackhole #arvinash

Many thanks to Dr. Andrew Hamilton, Professor of Astorphysics, University of Colorado

What Happens Inside A Black Hole?

We were recently wondering what would happen to you if you fall into a black hole. Julian decided to tackle this tough question based on what we know.

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What Would Happen If You Fell into a Black Hole?

“Black holes are without question some of the strangest places in the universe.”

What if you fell into a black hole?

“Here's where it starts to get bad. Tidal forces -- so named because similar gravitational forces between the moon and the Earth cause ocean tides -- increase dramatically as the distance between you and the black hole shrinks.”

What would happen to me if I fell into a black hole?

“Let's suppose that you get into your spaceship and point it straight towards the million-solar-mass black hole in the center of our galaxy.”

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INSIDE a black hole

Spoiler Alert: You will die.

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Are We Living Inside a Black Hole?

Are we inside a black hole that exists in a universe, that has other black holes containing other universes? DCODE the nature of black holes to understand how they may have created the universe as we know it.

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Do Events Inside Black Holes Happen? | Space Time | PBS Digital Studios

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Black holes! From Stephen Hawking to Interstellar, black holes are mammoths in the world of science AND sci-fi. But what exactly IS a black hole? Do events happen inside black holes? Are black holes really a hole? Are black holes really black?! Join Gabe on this week’s episode of PBS Space Time as he debunks popular black hole misconceptions, and rethinks what the term, ‘black hole’, even means. Thought you knew what a black hole was? Think again!


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Black Holes 101 | National Geographic

At the center of our galaxy, a supermassive black hole churns. Learn about the types of black holes, how they form, and how scientists discovered these invisible, yet extraordinary objects in our universe.
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What's Inside a Black Hole?

What's inside a black hole? Here are three awesome theories.

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How The Super Black Hole Was Created - What's Inside A Black Hole?

Supermassive black holes—objects containing hundreds of millions to billions of times the mass of a star—are one of the deepest mysteries of modern astrophysics. They lurk at the hearts of most large galaxies, including our own Milky Way. Given their ubiquity, these black holes may play a vital part in the formation and evolution of the universe. But how they grew so massive has long puzzled theorists worldwide.

The most sensible suggestion—that these monstrosities could only have grown so great by swallowing enormous quantities of gas over billions of years—is now known to be wrong. Recent observations have revealed the existence of black holes billions of times more massive than the sun just 800 million years after the big bang. And so, the riddle goes: How did they get there so quickly? Most astrophysicists agree supermassive black holes must stem from smaller “seed” black holes. They just don’t agree on how humble such a seed must be. One school of thought holds that the seed black holes should be big—thousands to several tens of thousands of times the sun’s mass; the other posits the seeds could be small—no heavier than a hundred solar masses.

What Would Happen If You Traveled Through A Black Hole

Science fiction films have long depicted black holes as portals through space and time or gateways to other dimensions. And now, physicists have found that black holes might be suitable for hyperspace travel after all.

Following is a transcript of the video:

Black holes skirt the line between science fiction and science fact. On the one hand, scientists have seen real black holes in action, consuming unsuspecting stars that pass too close. But where reality ends and fiction takes over is at the edge of a black hole – a place called the event horizon, where no spacecraft has ever gone.

So, whatever happens beyond that boundary, inside of a black hole, is anyone’s guess. Scientists agree that if you travel far enough into a black hole, gravity will eventually become so strong that it kills anything in its path. But sci-fi films are more optimistic, depicting black holes as portals through space and time or gateways to other dimensions. And it turns out, some scientists now think the sci-fi buffs may be onto something. Black holes might be suitable for hyperspace travel, after all; it just takes the right kind of black hole.

At the center of every black hole is a point of infinite density, called a singularity. It’s what gives black holes their strong gravitational pull. And for decades, scientists thought singularities were all the same, so anything that passed the event horizon would be destroyed the same way: by being stretched and pulled like an infinitely long piece of spaghetti.

But that all changed in the early 1990s when different research teams in Canada and the US discovered a second singularity called a “mass inflation singularity.” It still has a strong gravitational pull, but it would only stretch you by a finite amount, and potentially NOT kill you in the process, meaning, you might survive the trip through a black hole. More specifically, through a large, rotating black hole, which is where these types of singularities exist.

Now, astronomers obviously can’t travel through a black hole yet to test this theory. In fact, the best place to test this is at the supermassive black hole in the center of our home galaxy, the Milky Way, which is 27,000 light years away. Not conveniently close to the least.

Therefore, scientists instead run computer simulations to see what would happen if we did manage to reach an isolated, rotating black hole, and now, for the first time, a team of scientists at UMass Dartmouth and Georgia Gwinnett College has done exactly that.

Lior Burko: “You would feel a slight increase in temperature, but it would not be a dramatic increase. It’s just that you don’t have enough time to respond to the very strong forces. It would just go through you too quickly.”

He added that passing through a weak singularity is like quickly running your finger through a candle flame that’s 1,000 degrees Celsius. If you hold your finger in the flame long enough, you’ll get burned, but pass your finger through quickly, and you’ll barely feel a thing. Similarly, if you pass through a weak singularity with the right speed and momentum, and at the right time, you may not feel much at all.

As for what happens once you get through to the other side, no one really knows, but Burko has his own ideas. He says one possibility is that we’d arrive at some other remote part of our galaxy, potentially light years away from any planets or stars, but a second, and perhaps more intriguing, a possibility is that we’d arrive in a different galaxy altogether. That's if you even make it that far.

Scientists say more research is needed before we’re anywhere close to successfully traveling through a black hole. But when we are ready, one of the safest passageways might be the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy called Sagittarius A*, and it might just be our ticket out of the Milky Way.


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What Would Happen If You Traveled Through A Black Hole

What’s Inside a Black Hole? - Past the Event Horizon


We basically understand what happens outside the black hole as you approach its event horizon, that infamous point of no return. The event horizon is where the escape speed exceeds the speed of light: you’d have to be going faster than light (which is impossible for any bit of matter) to escape the black hole’s gravity.

Inside the event horizon is where physics goes crazy. Calculations suggest that what the fabric of spacetime looks like inside a black hole depends on that particular black hole’s history. It might be turbulent, twisted, or any other number of things. One thing’s for sure, though: the tidal forces would kill you. In this video, we tried to explain , what's past the event horizon.


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What If You Fell Into a Black Hole?

What would the outcome be if you took a leap of faith straight into a black hole? We looked to Einstein and Hawking to ponder the scenario.

Say one day you were exploring space looking for a new planet for humans to inhabit, but came across a black hole and decided – why not check it out? Would you have any chance of survival? How would you get out if at all? Would you find a shortcut to another universe? Watch the video to learn about what would happen if you fell into a black hole.

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What Survives Inside A Black Hole?

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We’ve established by now that black holes are weird. The result of absolute gravitational collapse of a massive body: a point of hypothetical infinite density surrounded by an event horizon. At that horizon time is frozen and the fabric of space itself cascades inwards at the speed of light. Nothing can travel faster than light, and so nothing can escape from below the event horizon- not matter, not light, not even information.

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Why Quantum Information is Never Destroyed

These ideas are pretty mind-blowing, but as crazy as black holes are, they’re also kind of … simple. Don’t get me wrong; the math is complicated. But the objects themselves are simple. In fact every black hole in the universe, no matter how it formed or what happened to it afterwards, can be perfectly described with only three properties. Those properties are mass, angular momentum, and electric charge. Or at least this is the proposition behind the famous no-hair conjecture, or no-hair theorem.

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How to Understand the Black Hole Image

We have just seen the first image of a black hole, the supermassive black hole in the galaxy M87 with a mass 6.5 billion times that of our sun. But what is that image really showing us?

This is an awesome paper on the topic by J.P. Luminet:
Image of a spherical black hole with thin accretion disk
Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 75, no. 1-2, May 1979, p. 228-235

Using my every day intuition I wondered: will we see the shadow of the black hole even if we're looking edge on at the accretion disk? The answer is yes because the black hole warps space-time, so even if we wouldn't normally be able to see the back of the accretion disk, we can in this case because its light is bent up and over the black hole. Similarly we can see light from the bottom of the back of the accretion disk because it's bent under the bottom of the black hole. Plus there are additional images from light that does a half turn around the black hole leading to the inner rings.

What about the black hole shadow itself? Well initially I thought it can't be an image of the event horizon because it's so much bigger (2.6 times bigger). But if you trace back the rays, you find that for every point in the shadow, there is a corresponding ray that traces back to the event horizon. So in fact from our one observing location, we see all sides of the event horizon simultaneously! In fact infinitely many of these images, accounting for the virtually infinite number of times a photon can orbit the black hole before falling in. The edge of the shadow is due to the photon sphere - the radius at which light goes around in closed orbits. If a light ray coming in at an oblique angle just skims the photon sphere and then travels on to our telescopes, that is the closest 'impact parameter' possible, and it occurs at sqrt(27)/2*r_s

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Prof. Geraint Lewis
University of Sydney
Like him, I'm hoping (predicting?) we'll see some moving images of black holes tomorrow

Prof. Rana Adhikari

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The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration
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Filming by Raquel Nuno
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Falling into a black hole (Realistic Ultra HD 360 VR movie) [8K]

On smartphones this video is best viewed using the youtube app. Try google cardboard on your smartphone with a VR headset for the most immersive experience (smartphone with gyro sensor required). For desktop computers try viewing in Google Chrome browser or Firefox.

If you're in a hurry, jump forward to 2:00 where it gets really interesting.

Science note: this is a real physics calculation (not simulation or rendering) I did of what we would actually see if we were unfortunate enough to fall into a black hole, from far away all the way up to the event horizon! Each frame is rendered at a resolution of 8K and the video plays at 60fps. Calculations are performed using my own general relativistic ray tracing and radiative transfer computer code, 'BHOSS' (Younsi et al. 2017), i.e., solving the equations of motion of light/photons (null geodesics) for a given spacetime, in this case a spinning black hole (Kerr).

For now there are no Doppler or gravitational redshifting effects for the sake of clarity. I've omitted an accretion disk and proper radiative transport of light as it distracts from the gravitational lensing of the starlight and the black hole's shadow. Including an accretion disk or even a torus calculated from a proper general relativistic magnetohydrodynamical computer simulation of gas falling onto a black hole is also possible and I may do this in the future.

In this movie the black hole is spinning rapidly (almost at the maximum possible rate). The starfield is taken from real observational data. The movie starts one thousand gravitational radii away from the black hole and ends at the event horizon, where eventually all light focuses into a single point and vanishes. Try looking around as you approach, or you'll miss it!

I made this VR movie to promote the Einstein Inside exhibition touring Germany, where it was first shown in November and December at the Goethe University of Frankfurt. Copyright: Ziri Younsi.

How Time Becomes Space Inside a Black Hole | Space Time

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Referenced Videos:

What Happens at the Event Horizon

The Phantom Singularity

The Geometry of Causality

Previous Episode:
Superluminal Time Travel

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How a Black Hole Would Kill You

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What would happen if you crossed paths with a black hole? Nothing good, that's for sure. Here are two popular theories about how exactly a black hole would kill you.

Monster BLACK HOLE | Full Documentary

Monster Black Hole traces the life cycle of a black hole, from its violent beginnings in the early universe, to its growth to supermassive proportions at the center of a galaxy, and its death in deep time.


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