Wildlife Protection Act , 1972
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The Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972
Paper: Environmental law and policies
Wildlife Protection Act 1972 in Hindi
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Wildlife Protection Act 1972 In Hindi | English | UPSC/IAS, MPPSC, SSC, States Psc Exams
Wildlife Protection Act 1972 In Hindi | English | UPSC/IAS, MPPSC, SSC, States Psc Exams
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ABOUT VIDEO - The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, provides for protection to listed species of flora and fauna and establishes a network of ecologically-important protected areas. The Act consists of 60 Sections and VI Schedules- divided into Eight Chapters. The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 empowers the central and state governments to declare any area a wildlife sanctuary, national park or closed area. There is a blanket ban on carrying out any industrial activity inside these protected areas. It provides for authorities to administer and implement the Act; regulate the hunting of wild animals; protect specified plants, sanctuaries, national parks and closed areas; restrict trade or commerce in wild animals or animal articles; and miscellaneous matters. The Act prohibits hunting of animals except with permission of authorized officer when an animal has become dangerous to human life or property or as disabled or diseased as to be beyond recovery.
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Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
The Government enacted Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 with the objective of effectively protecting the wildlife of this country and to control poaching, smuggling and illegal trade in wildlife and its derivative. The Act provides for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants; and for matters connected therewith. It extends to the whole of India, except the State of Jammu and Kashmir which has its own wildlife act. This was the first umbrella act which established schedules of protected plant and animal species. Under this act,
• an animal means amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles and their young, and also includes, in the cases of birds and reptiles, their eggs.
• “habitat” includes land, water or vegetation which is the natural home of any wild animal;
• hunting” means
1. Killing or poisoning of any wild animal or captive animal.
2. Capturing, coursing, snaring, trapping, driving or baiting any wild.
3. Injuring or destroying or taking any part of the body of any such animal.
This law defines certain terminologies as standard:
1. “Protected area” means a National Park, a sanctuary, a conservation reserve.
2. “reserve forest” means the forest declared to be reserved by the State Government
3. “Wild animal” means any animal specified in Schedules I to IV and found wild in nature.
There are six schedules which give varying degrees of protection. Out of the six schedules, Schedule I and part II of Schedule II provide absolute protection and offences under these are prescribed the highest penalties.
Hunting of wild animals can be permitted in certain cases if the Chief Wild Life Warden is satisfied that any wild animal specified in Schedule I has become dangerous to human life.
Any person who commits a breach of any of the conditions of any licence or permit granted under this Act, shall be guilty of an offence against this Act, punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years.
So, the objective is to provide protection to the listed endangered flora and fauna and ecologically important protected areas.
The Wildlife(Protection) Act, 1972-Part 1(Introduction, definitions,authorities)
The video covers Introduction to wildlife protection act, some important definition like hunting, appointment of Chief Wildlife warden, Director and Constitution of Central Advisory board, their duties and function
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Paper: Environmental Law
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Wildlife Protection Act, 1972
The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted for protection of plants and animal species. Before 1972, India only had five designated national parks. Among other reforms, the Act established schedules of protected plant and animal species; hunting or harvesting these species was largely outlawed.
The Act provides for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants; and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto. It extends to the whole of India, except the State of Jammu and Kashmir which has its own wildlife act. It has six schedules which give varying degrees of protection. Schedule I and part II of Schedule II provide absolute protection - offences under these are prescribed the highest penalties. Species listed in Schedule III and Schedule IV are also protected, but the penalties are much lower. Schedule V includes the animals which may be hunted. The plants in Schedule VI are prohibited from cultivation and planting. The hunting to the Enforcement authorities have the power to compound offences under this Schedule (i.e. they impose fines on the offenders). Up to April 2010 there have been 16 convictions under this act relating to the death of tigers.
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Wildlife conservation in india National Parks , Wildlife Sanctuary
Link for National Park is
Link for Wildlife Sanctuary is:
Link for Biosphere Reserve:
Based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), it can be classified as follows :
Forest & Wildlife Protection Programmes by Government
In 1972, a comprehensive Wildlife Act was enacted by Central Government of India lead by Ms Indira Gandhi, which provides the main legal framework for conservation and protection of wildlife in India.
The two main objectives of the Act are :
• to provide protection to the endangered species listed in the schedule of the Act and
• to provide legal support to the conservation areas of the country classified as National parks, sanctuaries and closed areas.
For the purpose of effective conservation of flora and fauna, special steps have been initiated by the Government of India in collaboration with UNESCO’s ‘Man and Biosphere Programme’.
There are 92 National parks and 492 wildlife sanctuaries covering an area of 15.67 million hectares in the country.
• it is a Relatively large area consisting of one or more ecosystems, and it operates at National Level.
• No human activity or settlement allowed i.e. human interference is totally prohibited
• Villagers cannot graze their animals and national parks have Extremely strict rules about jungle produce collection for ex. Honey
To know further about national parks in India, refer to our video on : Top 10 National Park in India
• In wildlife sanctuary Regulated human activities are allowed for example : Grazing of animals, Firewood collection and Tourism.
• It can be created for a particular species which is not the case with national parks;
• Wildlife Sanctuary operates at State Level.
• A sanctuary can be upgraded to a National park but not vice versa
To know further about Wildlife sanctuary in India, refer to our video on : Top 10 Wildlife Sanctuaries in India
India has also introduced many Special schemes like Project Tiger (1973) and Project Elephant (1992) to conserve some endangered species and their habitat in a sustainable manner. We will now look at a few of those now.
1) Project Tiger :
• There are 50 tiger reserves in India which are governed by Project Tiger which is administrated by the National Tiger Conservation Authority(NTCA).
• India is home to 70 percent of tigers in the world. In 2006, there were 1,411 tigers which increased to 1,706 in 2011 and 2,226 in 2014.The total number of wild tigers has risen to 3,891 in 2016 according to World Wildlife Fund and Global Tiger Forum.
2) Project Elephant
• Project Elephant (PE) is initiated for protection of elephants, their habitats and corridors.
• It also seeks to address the issues of human-elephant conflict and welfare of domesticated elephants. The Project is being implemented in 13 States / Union Territories.
• Monitoring of Illegal Killing of Elephants ( MIKE )
3) Project Snow Leopard
• Project Snow Leopard aims To safeguard and conserve India’s unique natural heritage of high altitude wildlife populations and their habitats.
• Snow Leopard is globally endangered species as well as the most important flagship species of the mountain region.
4) Sea Turtle Project
• With the objective of conservation of olive ridley turtles and other endangered marine turtles, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change initiated the Sea Turtle Conservation Project in collaboration of UNDP in 1999 with Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun as the Implementing Agency.
• The project is being implemented in 10 coastal States of the country with special emphasis in State of Orissa.
A Biosphere Reserve is a unique representation of ecosystem of terrestrial and coastal areas which are internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme. The Biosphere Reserve aims at achieving the three objective as depicted .
• Particularly the areas adjacent to National Parks and Sanctuaries and the areas which link one Protected Area with another can also be declared as conservation reserves.
• Can be declared by the State Government in any private or community land, not comprised within a National Park, Sanctuary or a Conservation Reserve
To know further about biosphere reserves in India, refer to our video on : Top 10 Biosphere Reserves in India UNESCO list | Biosphere Reserves in a nutshell
The Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 in hindi
In this video, I have covered the wild life protection act, 1972 in Hindi for Himachal Judicial Prelims exam in and easy way.
This is a post to study the act in an effective way. But I would suggest that it is always better to read the full bare act before referring to some short cut videos/tricks to learn the law.
Here are the links to the books for Judicial Exams.
1. The Code Of Criminal Procedure,1973:
2. Kelkar's Criminal Procedure:
3. The Law of Evidence by Batuk Lal:
4. Indian Penal Code by KD Gaur:
5. Hindu Laws (Bare act):
6. Hindu Laws (Family Law Lectures) by Poonam Pradhan:
7. Muslim Law (Bare Act):
8. Muslim Law by Aqil Ahmad:
9. Indian Registration Act by JPS Sirohi:
10. Registration Act (Bare Act)
11. Limitation Act (Bare Act):
12. Universal's Guide to Judicial Service Examination:
13. Civil Procedure (CPC) with Limitation Act, 1963:
14. The Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (Bare Act):
15. The Indian Contract Act, 1872 (Bare Act):
16. Indian Contract Act by RK Bangia:
17. Introduction to Law of Partnership (including Limited Liability partnership) by Avtar Singh:
18. Sale of Goods Act, 1930 (Bare Act):
19. Specific Relief Act, 1963 (Bare Act):
L8/P2: Green law panel- purpose, reforms in Wildlife protection Act, Schedule 1-6, WII
Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:
1. Green Law panel: chairman TSR Subramanian, purpose of high level Committee to review environmental laws.
2. Wildlife protection: 6 schedules, need for reforms, natural worship vs. animal cruelty, need for granting expert status to WII, eco sensitive zones
Powerpoint available at
Exam-Utility: UPSC IAS IPS, CSAT, Prelims, Mains, CDS, CAPF, Bank, RBI, IBPS, SSC and other competitive exams, IIM, XLRI, MBA interviews and GDPI
Faculty Name: Mrunal Patel
Venue: Sardar Patel Institute of Public Administration (SPIPA), Satellite, Ahmedabad, Gujarat,India
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